Bairi language

Bairisch
spoken in: Germany, Austria, Italy, Tschechien, Hungary, Switzerland
speaker: about 12 million
linguistic
classification:
Bairisch
official status
office language in: -
Language code
ISO 639 -1: -
ISO 639 -2: in accordance with -
SIL: BAR
the upper-German language area 1937
the bairischen dialects: Nordbairisch Central or Donaubairisch Südbairisch

the Bairi, isolated also Bairisch Austrian or east upper German mentioned, is landläufig as a group of dialects in the south of the German linguistic area well-known. It forms together with Alemanni and eastFrankish group of the upper-German dialects. Despite the name lives more than half of all Bairischsprachigen outside of Bayerns; to the circulation area of its dialects nearly all German language areas belong in Austria east the Arlbergs as well as South Tyrol and zimbrische karnische language islands in waiter Italy.

Table of contents

the name of the Baiern

Etymologie

the name of the Baiern is derived from Germanic baio wariōz (therefore it also the expression Bajuwaren, which some years ago attained sad celebrity in Austria by a letter bomb series). It means about „people from Böhmen “. The regulation word decreases/goes back to the area Böhmens , which owes his name the celtic people of the Boier. The etymon was existed today only in the composition who wolf. It concerns thereby the original, still from indogermanischer time coming name for man (z compares. B. Latin four).

Bairisch vs. Bavarian

one considers the different ways of writing: In the linguistics distinctive between the posting with “i”, which is used for the designation of the language area, and which posting with “y”, with that the political territory (D. h. today the Free State of Bavaria of the German Federal Republic is designated). This distinction is necessarily, since on the one hand in Bavaria except Bairisch (in old Bavaria) also Frankish and Swabian (in Franconias and Bavarian swabia) are spoken, on the other hand however large parts of the bairischen language area outside from Bavaria lies. The letter y in the word Bavaria became only in 19. Century by the philhellenischen king Ludwig I. for the grown state thing imported.

origin of the Baiern

one assumes that the Baiern is a product of the people migration, and by the mixture with different trunks and peoples developed, while the Romans gave the areas south to the Danube up. The bairische people came out from the Markomannen, Thüringern, Alemannen, different Frankish trunks, from leftovers of the Ostgoten like also most diverse celtic and Roman peoples as well as the Rätoromanen and the Boiern specified above. It was called in writing for the first time around the year 500.

The people of the Baiern developed from it spread over the today's Baiern east Lech and in the course of the Middle Ages over completely Austria east the Arlberg, South Tyrol and unites areas in west Hungary (today's castle country), Italy, as well as parts today's Slovenia and Tschechien out. In this time the Baiern mixed itself particularly in south and east Austria, how also in South Tyrol east the Etsch with the there living Slawen and in South Tyrol west the Etsch exactly the same as in Nordtirol with the Rätoromanen, which can be testified above all still by place names and dialect expressions.

The three dialect areas resulted on the one hand from the separation of areas of the duchy Baiern as also by isolation, which was caused by the geographical conditions. Thus e.g. extends. the südbairische dialect in Tirol nearly only on the areas of the old county Tirol, to which animal oiler did not belong the Unterland and the Ausserfern. Kärnten was already separated for the first time under Karl the large one from Baiern, just as as a little later the Steiermark. With the nordbairischen dialects it behaves similarly, because also the balance of power changed particularly in the Upper Palatinate in the course of the time. The mixed development areas between means and Südbairi are on the one hand by the affiliation to the duchy Austria (animal oiler Unterland to Tirol and Steiermark to Austria) as also by moving movements like e.g. to lead back in the diocese at that time Salzburg. One can say thus that the dialect borders are to due themselves on the whole to fixing of the boundaries into the early and the high Middle Ages and in rare cases also in the early modern times.

propagation and demarcation

with more than 12 million speakers form the Bairi largest coherent dialect area of the German dialects. To Bairi the dialects of the following areas belong:

As junction region the Nürnberger area is considered, in which Bairi is at least partly spoken, and influence on there eastFrankish penetrated from the north has.

Bairi belongs together with Alemanni and eastFrankish to the upper-German dialects of the high German.

preface to writing and discussion

for the discussion of the bairischen words indicated as examples see here. Since there is no generally binding Orthographie for Bairi, and which can be regionally very large lautlichen differences, the reader of this article should note that that may emerge or other bairische word within the article in different ways of writing. This is not to be attributed last to the fact that in this article authors cooperate, whose homeland dialects in strong measure from each other deviate, and that a general consent was not reached by means of the Verschriftlichung of the bairischen language also within the Wikipedia municipality yet.

internal subdivision

Bairi can be divided on the basis linguistic characteristics into three regions - north, central and Südbairisch -. Between these are in each case transition areas, which are as northcenter LBA Irish and southcenter-LBA-Irish designated.

Nordbairisch

Nordbairisch is spoken in the largest part of the Upper Palatinate and in the eastern Upper Franconia, whereby in Regensburg (city and country) and in parts of the districts rain (Lower Bavaria), Cham and Kelheim (Lower Bavaria) combinations from Nord-und are center-LBA-Irish common.

Nordbairi is a very original variant Bairi, still the many Archaismen retained, which became extinct elsewhere long. It has many lautliche peculiarities and in other areas Bayerns and Austria is only badly understood.

Writing-German A is colluded as complete in Donaubairi and sounds like an open o (e.g. soon = bold). Central and Südbairisch OAU often appear in Nordbairi as oi (in such a way A sounds kloana to Stoa in the Upper Palatinate such as A kloina Stoi).

Nordbairische/Oberpfälzi is particularly characterised by „the fallen Diphthonge “; To the standard-German brother here for example Broúda corresponds to the Danube instead of Bruáda as southern in Bairi. The early one, thus „the early morning “, we to the Fräih (mittelbair. Fruah or Friah). In addition here the Personalpronomen steps dess/déés and/or. diá for the 2. Person Plural up.

Verbs with double vowels like outer or egg end in the Oberpfälzi consistently up - A (look = schaua / are pleased = freia).

L in the word inside is not vokalisiert differently than in the center-LBA-Irish (and exactly the same as in the neighbouring Frankish one), but remains than consonant (e.g. Forest corresponds oberpfälzisch to Wold, in contrast to this center-LBA-Irish Woid; play = spüln / spöln opposite center-LBA-Irish spuin / spüün).

Reduction and Koseformen read in the majority usually up - la („Moila “= () girls)

the dialect in the eastern middle Franconia (including Nuremberg) shows strong nordbairischen impact and marks thereby a bairisch Frankish junction region. (in such a way one says it also in the neighbouring Nürnberger country „dout mi raia “, which as much is called as „it reut me “)

Heanzi spoken in the southern castle country („Heinzisch “) decreases/goes back to Oberpfälzi, since the region was populated by settlers from the Fichtelgebirge and the northern Upper Palatinate. This is easy this very day at the vocabulary and lautlichen agreements to constitute. The south and Oststeirer speak the same dialect, designate their dialect however rather than „steirisch “. They moved Heanzen away in the course of the time from the name „“.

„Wäldleri “, how one calls the dialect of the Bavarian forest, combines north and donaubairische characteristics, whereby the nordbairische element outweighs.

center-LBA-Irish

center-LBA-Irish in Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria, in the south of the Upper Palatinate, is spoken in flat gau, in upper Austria , Lower Austria, and Vienna. Animal oilers the Unterland, Salzburg (without the flat gau), the Colonel egg Mark and the castle country form the southcenter-LBA-Irish junction region.

It has large influence on its sister dialects in the north and the south, since nearly all larger cities of the bairischen language area lie in the Danube area; this has also as a consequence the fact that center-LBA-Irish a higher prestige enjoys and also outside of its speaker area admits far away is. The regional differences along the Danube lowlandses from the Lech to the Leitha are generally smaller than the differences between the different alpine valleys Südbairi.

General characteristic of these dialects is that fortis - sounds such as p, t, k to be weakened to lenis - sounds b, D, G. Examples: Bèch, Dåg, Gnechd („pitch, day, farmhand “). Only k remains in the Anlaut before vowel as fortis (for example in Khuá „cow “). In addition out-reading becomes - n vokalisiert, as in kôô („can “) or Môô („man “).

As reduction forms - l or - aluminium is used (Frânzl/Katzal). In the border area between south and westcenter-LBA-Irish (salt citizen of alpine gaus, Berchtesgaden, steirisches Tauerngebiet, animal oiler Unterland, Bavarian upper country) one hears frequently - ai as Koseform (Dirnai = girl, Keschzai - Kerzlein etc.)

the center-LBA-Irish can be still subdivided into westcenter-LBA-Irish (also „Altbairisch “mentioned) and eastcenter LBA Irish. The border between these runs by upper Austria and shifts gradually westward to the state border between Germany and Austria.

In upper Austria, in the salt citizen flat gau and in the down-Austrian forest and Mostviertel is, as resident in neighbouring Bavaria, the altbairische master dialect (westcenter-LBA-Irish); the residents of dialects form a Niederbayeri language federation (Donaubairisch) with the adjacent. Differently than the eastcenter-LBA-Irish it developed on the soil of the old master duchy. A clear distinction criterion between west and eastcenter-LBA-Irish is the Dopellaut - outer; in the westcenter-LBA-Irish it is dissolved tendentious also - A, in the eastcenter-LBA-Irish also - o (kaf the i mA/kof the i mA = kauf' I me). Also the bent forms of „come “- „I kim/them kema (n) “(infinitive: „kema “) west central and Südbairi are limited to. The eastcenter-LBA-Irish knows only the education with „kum “.

In addition for the westcenter-LBA-Irish is typical the old form for „is “: hand („hand eam inna worn “= „we discovered me “; „You hand I/O zwee “= „it are two (men, boy etc.) “. The westcenter-LBA-Irish differentiates with the number „two “three sexes: „zwee “(männl.), „zwo “(weibl.) and „zwoa “(sächl.). „To us “appears often as „in “and „too “as „in “(„there Schwåger is in's Heig'n kema “= „the brother-in-law came to hay makes “. „If “with „boi “one dissolves (=sobald): „Boi there Hiabscht umi is “= „if the autumn around/past is “. The old Germanic tense LOD verb „åft “is used beside „well “in the sense of „thereafter “, „afterwards “. The latter forms are today limited to the rural area.

In upper Austria the dialect of the Innviertels with the adjacent forms a Niederbayeri historical unit - the Innviertel became only 1814 finally Austrian. While between Innviertel and house jerk quarters a quite clear dialect border is to be found, the transitions are eastward too flowing along the Danube over the trusting quarter to the Mostviertel (eastcenter-LBA-Irish). Besides eastward the influence Wieneri increases , which overlaid the native dialects in the last decades increasingly. Most strongly is to be noticed this Viennese impact in the larger cities and along the main traffic distances.

The eastAustrian branch of the center-LBA-Irish decreases/goes back to the dialect of the babenbergischen rule area Ostarrichi developed as a result of the German east settlement . The eastern eastcenter-LBA-Irish possesses a slawisches substrate and a Frankish super+stepped, which shows up in the special vocabulary and some lautlichen peculiarities. In addition the eastcenter-LBA-Irish was enriched during the habsburgischen Kaiser era with many slawischen and Hungarian foreign words, whereby it stands out against the westcenter-LBA-Irish noticeably.

Despite decrease of kind of dialect in the larger cities of the Danube area the city dialects of Munich and Vienna apply further to a certain extent than „parade dialects “to west and eastcenter LBA Irish. The following Lautisoglossen characterizes the relationship of the west to the eastcenter-LBA-Irish:

Isoglosse western variant eastern variant standard German
ui vs. üü (< ahd. IL):vui vüü schbüün
play, i play much Schbui, schbuin Schbüü
, wui, mia woin i wüü, mia wöön/woin I want, we want
acre vs. OAU (< ahd. A (h) r):i drive, mia famma i foa, mia foan I drive, we drive
hard, heata hoat, heata hard, hard
Gfar, gfâli Gfoa, gfealè danger, dangerously

in addition affects themselves the Viennese influence dahingegehend to replace that in the eastcenter-LBA-Irish dialect area in the latter few decades a tendency exists that old OAU by Viennese aa. For example oans , zwoa , gloa , gleana , Stoa , hoass , become hoazn through âns, zwâ, glâ, glâna, Stâ, hâss and hâzn replaces. This language change still maintained ground however still to no clear dialect border led, there in the extreme east of Austria (castle country) historical OAU opposite Wieneri aa, just like in large parts of Lower Austria and in upper Austria. There also the traditional (altbairische) word dung - A in place of - is n (måcha, låcha, schicka) common.

At the east edge of the center-LBA-Irish, in the wine quarter and in the castle country one finds „the UI-dialect “. Here corresponds ui (Bruida, guit) in the center-LBA-Irish and Südbairi generally spread ua (Bruada, guat). In particular in the down-Austrian wine quarter these variants are however on the retreat.

A certain self-sufficiency has and/or. „Landleri had “, the dialect, those in the house jerk quarter and in the western Traun and Mühlviertel is spoken and/or. became. Here the Diphthong EO steps in place of the eastcenter-LBA-Irish long o (root, grooss, Broot = red, largely, bread ), with which the stress is on the second part of the Zwielauts. That results in then reot, greoss, Breot. Both oo therefore also EO are very openly spoken and could just as well also åå and/or. to be written. In the western Mühlviertel also forms with fallen Diphthong exist as turn red, groess, to Broet. All these forms are to be heard however today only more rarely.

In the southeast Steiermark and in the southern castle country speaks one shark-hiss, a dialect, which settlers from the Upper Palatinate along-brought. Their name comes from emperor Heinrich IV., under whom the immigration took place. Although the colonization already in the 11. and 12. Century took place, the Hainzen many nordbairische characteristics retained. Gladly one calls shark-hisses („Heanzi “) also „steirischen dialect “.

Western upper Austria (Innviertel, moon sea-country), parts salt citizens of the country and the upper Ennstal belong to westcenter-LBA-Irish. Here one uses the Diphthong spread in old Bavaria ui (i wui, schbuin). In Lower Bavaria meets one repeatedly öi instead of u (vöi = much, schböin = play). In the western salt chamber property and in Salzburgi the form is used schbiin.

Lautlich are close themselves (core) the Upper Bavarian, Tiroleri and the transition dialect in the alpine region, mentioned above, much. - On appears as bright - o (who ko, ko) and r plus consonant are konsonantisch dissolved (schwårz / schwåschz instead of donaubairisch schwoaz). In similar way it is called Kechzn (candle) also in the native dialect of the house jerk area schwåchz or, which disappears to Keazn however in recent time in favor of of schwoaz or more and more.

In addition in the westcenter-LBA-Irish alpine and Alpine foreland A only easily one colludes (Kåstn).

The language border between the borderalpine Upper Bavarian one and „donaubairischen “Niederbayeri is not identical to the borders of the two governmental districts, since Lower Bavaria was much larger once than it today is. Therefore one speaks to both sides salt oh, in parts of the Inn valley and in the Hallertau still also down-Bavarian tongue.

The Lech forms the western border Bairi and separates it from the Swabian linguistic area. One speaks nevertheless in Lechnähe (Pfaff yards, Schrobenhausen) already with Swabian impact (I håb koa Luscht).

To the center-LBA-Irish also the dialects understood in becoming extinct belong in Südböhmen and Südmähren, which are similarly, usually however more conservative those in the adjacent in each case area. On the other hand also innovations are to be observed, e.g. long A instead of OAU for mhd. egg (as in Vienna and Südkärnten).

Südbairisch

Südbairisch is spoken in Tirol , South Tyrol , Kärnten, in parts of the Steiermark, particularly in the Weststeiermark, and in the German language islands in Karnien. Nearly the whole Steiermark, the salt citizens of alpine gaus and animal oilers the Unterland belongs to the junction region between south and center-LBA-Irish. Also Zarzeri and Gottscheeri were südbairisch.

The Affrikata developed in the high-German sound shift from k secondarily decreased/went back to the area western Südbairi and high and high valley one niches. In Alemanni in further consequence the k shrank, so that the Affrikata is now a typical characteristic above all Tiroleri. Affrikatae can lend a certain hardness to a dialect, why they fit well the plate of the urwüchsigen mountain human being.

Südbairi is a quite inhomogenous language landscape, it possesses however some characteristic characteristics. Numerous transition dialects into halfway closed language areas and, whose exact demarcation is almost impossible, are divided.

The probably most well-known südbairische dialect is Tiroleri. Beside the strong Affrikatisierung is scht its most standing out characteristic the discussion of „sp “in the word inside as „“(„Bisch (t) NO with Troscht? “). This is an ancient characteristic. In old-high-German time ererbte, not s resulted from the high-German sound shift were spoken about as sch. That testify German leaning words in westslawischen languages, e.g. Polish žold (pay). Until today with sp in the word inside still in Alemanni and Tiroleri kept. The FR is spoken also in the center-LBA-Irish in the word inside as šp, e.g. Kašpal (Kasperl). As in the center-LBA-Irish it is called easchtè ( first), Durscht ( thirst) there, since R-S in the Inlaut is expressed as rš in nearly all bairischen dialects.

Verbs end in the infinitive and in the Plural as fundamental in the writing German on „n “. „Egg “appears as „OAU “(„hoass isch's “= it is hot). „Tiroleri” becomes in Nordtirol (Austria) in the so-called. Animal oilers central and upper country, in completely South Tyrol (Italy) and in a transition variant in Osttirol (Austria) spoken. The east animal oilers dialect changes gradually into Kärntneri. The Werdenfelser dialect approximately over mix and center forest belonged likewise to Tiroleri.

In the animal oiler upper country over landhit a corner, in the Arlberggebiet and the side valleys behind it is inescapably audible the alemannische impact. All infinitives and Plurale end up - to A („verliera “, „stossa “etc.). The majority of the Ausserfern with the district city Reutte speaks already a alemannischen dialect, among the Swabian one to rank is („animal oiler Swabian “, corresponds to the Oberallgäuer dialect).

In the animal oiler Unterland (Kitzbühel, Kufstein, pc. Johann, emperor mountains) one speaks not south but center-LBA-Irish („L “- Vokalisierung, „sp “in the word inside… with exception of the tendentious Affrikatisierung divides it all characteristics with the westcenter-LBA-Irish). In the ears „foreign one “sounds it like a harder variant of the Upper Bavarian one, with which it agrees otherwise complete. The infinitives end to m after n, ng and up - A („singa “, „kema “= come), otherwise up - n.

Together with alpine transition dialects noted under the column „center-LBA-Irish the “„Unterländi “also some lautliche thing in common like those which can be everywhere found, usually December ducks Affrikata divides. The dialects of the salt citizens of mountain gaus are all together bridge dialects. The Pinzgauer dialect behaves to a large extent like those animal oilers of the Unterlandes, the Pongauer shows donaubairische and the Lungauer dialect Kärntner of influences.

The other large südbairische core dialect is Kärntneri. Like the eastcenter-LBA-Irish it has a compact slawisches substrate. Kärnten was inhabited beyond that in the early Middle Ages and by slawischen trunks; after the bairischen colonization the Slawen (the hoists or „Windi “) was assimilated gradually, yet they left Kärntens to traces in the German dialect. Thus the soft language melody Kärntneri reminds many names of Südslawi, ends up - to industrial union (slow. - IC) and also some dialect words correspond with Slawi. Typical characteristics of the Kärntner dialect are the other distribution of the vowel quantity and the gentle Affrikatisierung (like be correctful „gg “).

In addition Kärnteri strong sound black-out („A “becomes often too „o “instead of too å ) marks and in the south Monophtongierung of mhd. „egg “too „A “(Dås wās i rivet = I does not know it)

Südbairi does not know an r Vokalisierung, it however particularly is in city dialects at penetrating. Vokalisiert after vowels l will not become here, as preliminary stage however e and i before l rounded (Mülch). In the cities the l is - Vokalisierung in the advance (even with names, e.g. Höga). Further some südbairische dialects strong and weak sounds, like with respect to Dåch beside Tåg , differentiate old k are in Kärnten and in parts of animal oil and Salzburg loud too (Affrikatum), as in Kʰlea (clover). This Affrikate represents a phoneme (see. the minimum's pair rukn/rukʰn).

A characteristic of the Kärntner dialect is the so-called Kärntner stretch: due to interference with the Slovenian one many self sounds are long expressed against the high-German standard, for example låːs lei laːfm (let it only run). This feature has the consequence that for example furnace and openly lautlich collapse (oːfm), likewise Wiesn and knows too [how: zn].

A further characteristic Südbairi is the use of the Wörtchens „its “(1. Person) and „seint “(3. Person) „are instead of of writing German “(„me its gladly “- „we are glad “). This form is typical for Tiroleri and Kärntneri. In the already several times mentioned transition dialects to the center-LBA-Irish it is however hardly to be found. Instead one uses the center-LBA-Irish „san “, partly with lautlichen shades („sän “etc.).

Dialects of the west Steiermark are characterised by the Diphthongierung of almost all stressed vowels.

A historical variant Bairi is Zimbri. It has itself already in old-high-German time seperately and today still with local variants in some upper-Italian language islands of the Zimbern is spoken.

more exact partitioning

Bairi can be divided also, apart from the historical Isoglossen, into further dialects, discussed above, which orient themselves particularly at the regions. A characteristic is Wieneri, in addition, Münchneri. In Austria Hianzi in the castle country, the Steiri dialects, the Kärntner dialects and the animal oilers dialects exist. A very own dialect in upper Austria is the dialect of the salt chamber property, in Lower Bavaria the Waidlersprach. In addition Zimbri and Egerdeut come from the language islands into upper Italy and Böhmen.

phonology (sound teachings)

vowels

Bairi differentiates between long and short vowels from each other; this is brought however not in the writing to the expression, but as in the high German by the number to the vowel following consonant: or only if no consonant stands after the vowel, this is usually long; two follow it or more, are short it. CH applies in each case and sch like a consonant, since this letter combination corresponds only to one sound.

The distribution of long and short vowels precipitates in Bairi completely differently than in the high German sometimes, so that it seems, as if each appropriate high-German word with long vowel in Bairi briefly and would have turned around; this is correct however only conditionally.

Altogether that differentiates Bairi seven vowels with respect to in each case two quantity stages from each other.

Compares the following confrontations:

Vocally long vowel high German short vowel high German
dark A wås which Wåssa water
bright A Dràm dream dràmma bright
e way, Dreg way, dirt dream wegga (D), dreggad away, dirty
dark e Bèda Peter bèdt!pray!
i gwiss certainly know know
o Ofa/Ofn furnace offa/open openly
u course course zrugg back

in the center-LBA-Irish dialects of Austria as well as in parts of Salzburg are vowels before weak sounds and r, l, n usually long, before strong sounds short. To the distribution in Kärnten S. Kärntner dialect.

dark vs. bright A

phonological differentiates Bairi between bright à and dark å, whereby the bright developed à from the old-high-German open e or A (in such a way it is called Rààdl today in Bairi lààr instead of „empty “ , instead of „Rädchen “). This characteristic has Bairi in common with the Hungarian one . Particularly with the Diminutivbildung with the Suffixen - l and - aluminium so-called A-umlaut arises, i.e. from dark - å bright becomes - à. In the following some examples of the A - sounds, among them some clear minimum's pairs:

dark å bright à
å (ab/an) à (also)
mia håmma (we have, long form) mia hàmma (we are, long form)
Ståd (city) Schdàdtal (small town)
Såg/Sågg (bag) Sàggal (bag flax)
i sågad (I would say) i sàgad/sàchad (I would see)

NB: Unbetonte A are always bright, and as such are therefore not marked. This applies particularly to the indefinite article, which is always unbetont, as well as to all unbetonten A in inflectional endings (e.g. in the Plural of the nouns and with the increase of the adjectives).

Discussion of place names

in almost all bairischen place name, which up - ing end, must if necessary. in the trunk existing - A to be by the way brightly expressed; thus „Plàttling “(not * „Plåttling “) and „Gàching “(instead of * „Gårching “), also „Gàmisch “(instead of * „Gåmisch “) and beyond that „Gràz “(not * „Gråz “- which was called city in the Middle Ages finally „Grätz “, and from this the bright A has itself developed). Exceptions are some place names also - all like „Bålling/Båing “(Palling) or „Dålling “(Thalling).

Demarcation against the o

high German speaker notice the bright à Bairi as usual A , the dark å A dark against it mostly as open o, why also many Baiern tend to it , as o to write (thus mocha instead of måcha for „makes “). This way of writing leads however to coincides with the bairischen o, which is always closed spoken (thus direction u). The words for „furnace “and „openly “differ thus in Bairi not by the vowel quality, but only by the vowel length, which is expressed as in the high German by consonant duplication ( also Gemination called): Ofa (long) vs. offa (briefly) with continuous vowel quality.

closed vs. open e

of nearly each stressed e is closed, i.e. in Bairi. sounds more near at the i than the high-German e. There are only few words with open è; as the best example the following minimum's pair is suitable: Bettn („beds “, with closed e) vs. bètn („pray “, with open è). In the high German it is by this example however exactly different: the word „bed “has an open (because short), the word „prays “a closed (because long) e.

unbetontes i and/or. e

apart from the unbetonten A gives it also a further unbetonten vowel in Bairi, which between i and e stands, and depending upon dialect openly (direction e) or more closed (direction i) one speaks. It developed usually from the Nebensilbe - el into words as gràbbln („crawl “) or for Deifi („devil “), and in the following as i is written. Not to confound is this sound with that one, which seems to the Maskulina (in the forms in, in ) only in the certain article, which lies between i and dull/musty u.

Schwa sound

in most bairischen dialects does not have the Schwa - sound, which corresponds to the unbetonten e of the high German, phoneme status. Regionally it arises in certain positions as Allophon to unbetontem A and i .

Diphthonge

a further characteristic Bairi is the retention of the medium high-German Diphthonge IE, üe, uo than ia and ua, as in liab, griassn, Bruada („dear, greet, brother “), which distinguishes it from the eastFrankish Bruda, which uses like the high-level language simple long vowels. Westward Bairi with Dåg , Wåsser defines itself and dàd („day, water “and „would do “) approximately Swabian Dààg, Wàsser and there RK .

To this Diphthongen the new Diphthonge steps öi, oi, ui, which developed from the Vokalisierung from l to vowel to i. Altogether most bairischen dialects differentiate between 10 Diphthonge, i.e.:

Diphthong of examples high-German Diphthong of examples high German
I/O i hea (ago) I hears egg again nei
OAU i woassI white åi, oi fåin, foin fall
ia d'Liab the love öi, äi schnöi, schnäi fast
ua i DUA I do ui i fui I feel
outer i look I look ou Doud death

historical excursion: old vs. young egg

a special characteristic Bairi is the vowel OAU (expressed in east Austria as A), for which from the old high German ai or egg developed. This sound change concerns however only the so-called older egg of the German, not however the younger egg, which developed only at medium high-German time from the old-high-German long î, and therefore the sound change any longer did not take part in. Therefore it is called three on Bairisch „oans, zwoa, “- the first two number words have an older egg than master vowel, the third number word a younger egg, which was expressed in old-high-German still drî.

However it gives in the Bairi third, still younger egg, which resulted from the Entrundung of the vowel European Union, of ahd. ui descends. This Entrundung did not take place however into most animal oiler dialects. Here only the Diphthong was fallen, from which nui (again), more tuier (expensively) or Tuifl developed. A short overview:

According to old-high-German Lautstand of bairischer Lautstand of again-high-German Lautstand English comparison
old egg ai OAU, z. B. gloa, Goass, Stoa, Loab, hoazn egg, and. B. small, Geiss, stone, loaf, heat clean, goat, stone, loaf, heat
middle egg î egg, z. B. knows, dreim, reitn, Leiwi egg, z. B. white, ride, body white, drive, ride drive, would run
young egg iu egg, z. B. nei/bend/neich, deia, Deifi, Greiz, Hei/Heing European Union, z. B. again, expensively, devil, cross, to find

hay out

notes over too which German egg in Bairi becomes OAU, and which not, helps mostly a view on the English. There the older egg corresponds usually to an o or an I/O, the younger is against it a i and is similarly expressed as in the high German and Bairi.

Religious one

however exceptions of the sound change rule egg gives words > OAU, which concern above all words, which were retained by their use in the service in their old shape; it concerns spirit, meat, holy and the name of the month May, which would have to read actually Goast, Floasch, hoalig , and Moa, but in this sound shape in Bairi not to exist itself.

Boa (r) or Baier?

To the Baiern Boa (r) to call, usually frightens one seems however before it back, because also the syllable number would then change, therefore is called it Baier (the Plural word is anyhow, as well as the national name, in each case Baiern). One „Bairin “is called however always Boarin, otherwise the word could be misunderstood and be interpreted as Beirin, thus as „a farmer's wife “(see young egg). Also the national language is called Boarisch, however here the standard-German form becomes generally accepted Bairisch ever more.

White beer or wheat beer?

The white beer is called wheat on Bairisch to and for itself „“.

19

phonemes, whose status is partly disputed, cover consonant the bairische consonant system:

The consonant Bairi
bilabial lab IO
dental
alveolar post office
alveolar
palatal velar glottal
Plosive b p D t g k ʔ
Affrikaten ts
Nasale m n ŋ
Vibranten r
Frikative f v s (z) ʃ (ç) (x) h
Approximanten j 1
lateral one l

thereby is the sound j a half vowel. In parentheses consonants are Allophone of other consonants; these distribute themselves as follows:

  • h arises only in the Anlaut, its Allophon x against it in in or Auslaut, whose variant appears ç again only in
  • the Inlaut z as be correctful variant of s in some dialects, v.a. intervokalisch; never however in the Anlaut, how it is in the stage German the case

although the Fortis Verschlusslaute p and t coincided with its Lenis counterparts b and D in the Anlaut, they cannot be considered as two Allophone in each case a phoneme, since they are in certain positions meaning. Only in the Anlaut they can be regarded as variants, whose discussion depends on the following sound, - see in addition the following paragraph and the Glottisschlag further below.

Plosive or catch sounds

in most bairischen dialects collapsed fortis and lenis catch sounds the p, t, k and b, D, g in the Anlaut and between vowels and were therefore not continued to differentiate. Therefore „the day is called “on Dåg , „the cross “is called as Greiz bairisch there, and „the parsley “is called there Bêdasui, and therefore words fall as „drink “and „penetrate “too dringa together. As only fortis sound k at the word beginning is received, if a vowel follows him; before r, l and n he is likewise lenisiert to the g.

The sounds b, D and g are fortisiert however at the word beginning before s , sch , f and h; these new fortis sounds have however no phoneme -, but only Allophon status, because they arise only in certain environment, where its lenis variants do not occur, and therefore to these not meaning can behave. Examples of Fortisierung in Bairi:

lenis fortis high German
b +hiátn> p hiátn protect
D +Hex> t Hex the witch
g +hoitn> k hoitn kept

Frikative or sliding sounds

Bairi knows five Frikative; f (be correctless) and w (be correctful) form thereby a pair. The Frikativ s is except before n always be correctless, thus contrary to the Germans also at the word beginning. In addition the sounds CH written with letter combinations come and sch, whereby CH appears as Allophon [x] to anlautendem h [h] in in or Auslaut; a further variant [ç], the so-called. I-loud, r appears in Bairi only as Inlaut (after - i or - e), not as in German as Auslaut or after -. The sound CH does not seem differently than in German after - to n , therefore bair. Minga, mank, Menk vs. dt. Munich, some, monk.

Sonoranten

Bairi possesses the same Sonoranteninventar as the high German, i.e. the Nasallaute m, n and ng [ŋ] as well as l, r and j. The r is rolled in some areas with the tongue point, in other areas with the Gaumenzäpfchen (so-called. uvulares r), without this of Bairisch speakers as error is felt.

Glottisschlag and/or. Crack sound

between Nasallauten can in Bairi a laryngeal catch sound, a so-called. , Arise to Glottisschlag [ʔ]. This is written k or p to D , however as t, in order to clarify the historical origin of the sound. Following the English designation it is called in the following also stop; it is described as follows by its sound environment (m, n or ng):

Sound environment Bairisch standard-German
m-stop, be correctless:[m ʔ m] Wampm belly
n-stop, be correctless:[n ʔ n] Àntn duck
n-stop, be correctful: Àndn Anden
ŋ-stop, be correctless: ʔ ŋ] sinkn sink

as in the standard German arises the Glottisschlag furthermore before vokalischem Anlaut; see in addition discussion of the German language.

morphology (form teachings)

nominal inflection

the entire bairische nominal inflection aligns itself at the noun , whose grammatical sex or Genus constitutes the declination of the nominal cliche; i.e. both articles and adjective and other attributes must be adapted in Genus, Kasus and number to the noun, which they accompany. Three Genera exist: maskulin, feminine and neutrum. As paradigm tables categories exist the cases or Kasus Nominativ, dative and accusative as well as the numbers singular and Plural. Furthermore adjectives can be increased.

the article

in Bairi nouns are divided on the basis its grammatical sex, the Genus; the Genus is as a rule not identifiable by the noun, but at its accompanying certain article:

maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
there dog (the dog) d'Ruam (the carrot) as/s'Kind (the child) de/d'Leid (the people)

the certain articles singular tool Nina, d' , often assimilates at the Anlaut of the noun which can be accompanied: before Frikativen (f, h, s, z) it is hardened too t', assimilated before Labialen (b, m, p) too b' and before Velaren (g , k) too g'. Examples:

D' > t' D' > b' D' > g'
t' Mrs. (the Mrs.) D' Bian (the pear) g' Gåfi/Gåbe (the fork)
t' Haud (the skin) D' Muadda (the nut/mother) g' Kua (the cow)
t' Sunn (the sun) D' Pfånn (the pan)

before f it can become however with Allegro discussion also too p': p' Mrs. (the woman), p'Fiass (the feet).

The indefinite article is identical against it for all three Genera in the Nominativ; contrary to the Germans Bairi knows however also an indefinite article in the Plural (see. French ):

maskulin feminine neutrum
A Må (a man) A Mrs. (a Mrs.) A child (a child)
OAU Måna (men) OAU Mrs. (A) n (Mrs.) OAU Kinda (children)

in the Basilekt becomes A before a vowel too on. In Niederbairi the indefinite article in the Plural in the sound shape oi , in Kärntneri than ane partly arises; the certain articles always keeps the out-reading vowel (de, never d' ).

The article is inflected in Bairi, i.e. at it the Kasus is made clear. Because most nouns in the Bairi all Kasusendungen lost, the Kasusanzeige is to a large extent concentrated on the article. An overview of its paradigm:

stock. maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
nom:there dog d'Ruam as child/s'Kind de Leid/d'Leid
dat:in the dog there Ruam in the child de Leid/d'Leid
akk:in dog d'Ruam as child/s'Kind de Leid/d'Leid
unbest. maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
nom:A dog A Ruam A child OAU/oi wrong
dat:at the dog ana/oana Ruam at the child ane/oane wrong
akk:at dog A Ruam A child OAU /oi wrong

the noun

the noun belongs to the inflecting kinds of word Bairi; its most salient criterion actual as in other Germanic languages - the sex (Genus), which only rarely after the article which can be designated orients itself, and therefore with each word to be along-learned must.

Pluralbildung

Bairi retained three of the four Germanic Kasus: Nominativ, dative and accusative. Latter both partly collapse; Genetiv is received only in rigid idioms. How DEK-lined the bairische noun in the high German only rarely, express Kasus separate by the accompanying article. There is it different declination classes, which differ mainly in the Pluralbildung; as rough guideline becomes between the weak declination (so-called. N-class) and the strong declination (so-called. AClet distinctive).

Weak nouns

weak nouns usually end up - n in the Plural. Many weak tool Nina educate already to the singular on the suffix - n, so that it in the Plural either loud, or - A add (in analogy to the strongly inflected nouns). Particularly the weak Maskulina has an ending for the obliquen Kasus in the singular, i.e. for all Kasus except the Nominativ, retains. It mostly reads up - n.

To the class of the weak nouns (W1) Maskulina and tool Nina enumerate - n in the Plural, as well as all tool Nina with the Pluralendung - on (mostly in the singular up - ng the out-loud; - A is here a so-called. Branch vowel and/or. epenthetisch). Furthermore all Maskulina and Neutra, which in the singular on the suffix - i end , can here be arranged. Many of the related nouns Hochduet are there however strong, therefore the high-German in each case Plural to the comparison:

W1: - n singularly Plural high-German singularly Plural high-German singularly Plural high German
m:Hås Håsn hare shrubs Buschn shrubs Deifi Deifin devil
f: - n Brugg Bruggn bridge, bridges Goass Goassn goat nut Nussn nut
f: - at Dàm Dàman lady Schlång Schlångan queue Zeidung Zeidungan newspaper
n:Oar Oarn ear Bleami Bleamin flower Schdiggi Schdiggin piece

strong nouns

with the strong declination classes does not give it Kasusendungen; the only change in the word takes place at the number inflection , thus at the change from singular to Plural. There are different possibilities of marking the Plural in Bairi. Strong Maskulina and Neutra use the ending - A, which usually from the medium high-German ending - it developed, and as such in the new high German is still received. There are words, which joined only recent time into this class, to have possessed however also thus an A - Plural ever form, without one it - Plural. Tool Nina often educate their Plural with the ending - on, as it the word ending does: OAU ending, zwoa Endungan.

One can divide nouns on the basis its Pluralformen into different classes. The most frequent possibilities of the Pluralbildung are umlaut or Suffigierung; both possibilities can be also combined. As Pluralendungen - n and - A appear ; at umlauts there are the following variants:

S1: Umlaut (UL) singularly Plural high-German S2: UL + - A singularly Plural high German
å > e Nåcht (f) Necht night Lånd (n) Lenda country
o > e Dochta (f) Dechta daughter hole (n) Lecha hole
u > i fox (m) Fichs fox mouth (m) Minda mouth
outer > ai mouse (f) corn mouse house (n) Haisa house
ua > ia Bruada (m) Briada brother Buach (n) Biacha book
åi, oi > äi, öi Fåi (m) Fäi case Woid (m) where IDA forest

the examples stated here form the classes 1 and 2 of the strong nouns, whose characteristic is a Umlautplural. The class (S1) possesses apart from the umlaut no further Pluralkennzeichen, is thus endingless; you belong only to Maskulina and tool Nina. To the class S2, which by Umlautplural plus ending - A (those usually the high-German ending - it corresponds itself) distinguishes, some Maskulina and many Neutra belong. The same umlaut rules as above apply:

To the class S3 belong all Maskulina, tool Nina and Neutra without umlaut with Pluralendung - to A; end most tool Nina in the singular on the original dative dung - n. Some Maskulina, which out-reads trunk vowel, have the ending - well:

S3: - A singularly Plural high-German singularly Plural high-German singularly Plural high German
m:Bàm Bàma tree Måna man Stoa Stoana stone
f Flåschn Flåschna bottle a Eina owl Paradeis Paradeisa tomato
n:Nouns with Nullplural apply for child Kinda child Liacht Liachta

light Gscheft Gschefta business as last strong class (S4), for example “fish” (m) and “sheep” (n). In some dialects these nouns Plural express lengthening however by vowel shortening or -. This class consists actually only of Maskulina and Neutra; all tool Nina up - n, which can historically seen to the weak nouns to belong, are however also counted, since their Plural is just as unmarkiert: “Àntn - Àntn” „duck “. Change and take this tool Nina however gradually for the group of S3, in the Plural the ending - A (see. above the example „owl “).

Furthermore there are some irregular Pluralformen in Bairi:

Singularly Plural high German
m:Boar, also Baia Baian Baier
f:Beng Benk (seat) bank
n:Gscheng Gschenka gift
August Aung eye
Fàggi Fàggin/Fàggla piglet, pig
Kaiwi Kaiwin/Kaibla calf

the following words exist only in the Plural: Wrong (people), Hiana (chickens), Fiacha (the cattle, thus for example cattle; not to confound with Fiech, Fiecha thus for example mosquitoes).

Kasusrelikte

some weak Maskulina retained Kasusendungen in the obliquen cases, thus in the dative and accusative, to z. B. “Fåda” „father “and “Bua” „son; Boy, boy “:

stock. Singularly Plural stock. Singularly Plural
nom Fåda t'Fådan nom Bua d'Buama dat in
the Fådan di Fådan dat in the Buam di Buama akk in
Fådan t'Fådan akk in Buam d'Buama just like Fåda

inflect Baua there there „farmer “, Boi „ball “, Breiss „north Germans; More strangely “, Depp „Depp “, Buasch “boy” [österr.], Frånk „Franke “, Frånzos „Frenchman “, Hiasch „deer “, Hås „hare “, Lef „lion “and some different. Similarly as Bua the words Råb inflect „Rabe “and Schwåb „Schwabe “: all forms except Nominativ singular have in place of - b the master from sound - m: Råm, Schwåm; the Pluralform Råma, Schwåma is rare.

Vokativ

in center-LBA-Irish dialects is a Vokativ with male first names, thus a case of address. It is educated through to appendices of an open - è at the first names, e.g. Glausè to Klaus, Karè to Karl, Wuifè/Weffgè to Wolfgang. Output trunk for it are the appropriate short forms of male first names, which usually on closed - e end, which the standardeutschen - i corresponds: Glause, Kare, Wuife/Weffge. The Vokativ is not possible with man names, which up - o end (e.g. Otto). By full forms such as Wolfgang no Vokativ can be formed: * Wolfgangè.

excursion: Deviating Genus of the standard and/or. North German

the grammatical sex of a noun one marks at the article (see. above). In most cases corresponds (Genus) a bairischen word the appropriate word in the high German. There are not however few exceptions:

High-German Bairisch high-German Bairisch
ash there Åschn the cart there Kårn
the butter there Budda of the litres there Lidda **
the radio there radio of the meters there Medda **
the potato there Kadoffe the drawer there Schublån
the bulb there Zwiafi the jam there Mamalàd
the virus there virus ** the chocolate there Tschoglàd
the piece of broken glass there Scherm the sock there Sogga/as Seggi
the toe there Zê (cha) the point/tooth there Zàggn
the parsley there Bèdasui/Bèdasüü the rat there Råtz
the apron there Schuaz the wasp there Weps
the father our there Vadtaunsa * the Zecke there Zegg
the month also: as month *** the grasshopper there Heischregg
hay t'Heing (f) or as Hei (n) the snail there Schnegg
of the tunnels as Tunnöi/Tunnöö/Tunell [- '-] the point there Schbiez
the sump t'Sumpfn the corner s'Egg
the fat t'Fettn the Masel d'Màsn
the plate as Della/Dölla the comment also: as comment

*Auch „the paternoster lifts “(rarely) is male in Bairi.
** This modification, ajar against up - US of ending latin and/or. up - it ending German words, which are nearly always Maskulina, divides Bairi with the high-German everyday life and colloquial language.
*** Particularly in the idioms „jeds month “ (each month), „nächsts month “ (next month), „letzts month “ (last month) and so on. - never however with names of the month: there Monad May etc.

Personalpronomina

with the Personalpronomina

Bairi partly differentiates Pronomina [work on], like many Roman and slawische languages, between stressed and unbetonten forms with respect to the dative (only 1. , 2. Singularly) and accusative (only 3. Singularly and Plural); furthermore there are its own Höflichkeitspronomen in the direct address, comparably German “you”:

1.Singular 2.Singular 3.Singular 1.Plural 2.Plural 3.Plural Höflichkeitspronomen
nom i you I/O, SE, mia ess/ia* SE SI
unbetont - A, - 's, - 's - mA - 's - 's - 'S
dat mia dia. eam, iari, us enk/eich* eana/sen Eana
unbetont - mA - there
akk - mi - eam, iari, us enk/eich* eana Eana
unbetont - 'n, - 's, - 's - 's SI

* these forms are considered as „less “bairisch.

With the combination of several unbetonter Personalpronomina, which up - 's are shortened, the binding vowel - A becomes pushed in; with the order of the arrangement there, contrary to the Germans, are different variants. It can come also to ambiguity - a few examples:

* (publicized) does high German 1.a
) Håm's unbetont da's scho zoagt?Håm s (e) D (ia) (de) s scho zoagt?Did they already show it you?
or:Håm s (e) D (ia) s (e) scho zoagt?Did they already show it you?
1.b) Håm'sas scho zoagt there?Håm s (e) (de) s D (ia) scho zoagt?Did they already show it you?
or:Håm s (e) s (e) D (ia) scho zoagt?Did they already show it you?
2.a) Hådama'n nu ned in accordance with?Håd (e) A m (ia) (de) n nu ned in accordance with?Didn't it give it to me yet?
2.b) Håda'n mA nu ned in accordance with?*Håd (e) A D (EN) m (ia) nu ned in accordance with?Didn't it give it to me yet?

It can be differentiated in (1.a) and (1.b) just as few as with respect to German whether it itself with s (e) „it “around 3. Person singular feminine or around 3. Person Plural acts.

Possessivpronomina

Possessivpronomina have different Kasusendungen for all three sexes in the singular, in the Plural against it unit endings.
Example: In Bairi there is the Pronomen meina, which corresponds high-German to the mine. It is bent as follows:

maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
nom meina my meis my
dat meim meina meim my
akk mine my meis my

also the Possessivpronomina deina and seina inflect in such a way. The Possessivpronomen iara („their “) penetrated from the German high-level language; originally Bairi for female owners uses likewise the Pronomen seina.

Indefinit and Fragepronomina

just like the Possessivpronomina specified above do not inflect the Indefinitpronomina koana „“as well as oana, which is called „one “on high German; one can place letzterm as in German the word in front iagad („possibly “).

Furthermore there is the Indefinitpronomen ebba, ebbs „someone, something “; it is plurallos and inflected as follows:

Person thing
nom ebba ebbs
ebbam ebbam akk
ebban ebbs here

becomes dat thus not between the sexes, but differentiated between persons and things.

Something similar applies to the Fragepronomen wea, wås „who, which “:

Person thing
nom wea wås
dat whom whom
akk whom wås

adjectives

many bairische adjectives a short form and a long form have. First is used in prädikativer position, thus if the adjective with the auxiliary verb is a descriptor forms (for example as house is sche). The long form is used, if the adjective serves as attribute of a noun (for example A sches house or schene house). Often short form and long form differ (as already in the example) by final consonant, which to the short form is missing (in this case - n), and only before vokalischen endings of the long form (sche n e house, but: A sche _ s house) arises. It mostly acts with this out-reading consonants over - n, - CH, - g.

declination of the adjectives

as in German adjectives in attributiver position are inflected, i.e. they receive different endings. It must be differentiated whether they accompany nouns with certain article (and therefore even in certain Foirm inflects), or one with indefinite article (and then accordingly after indefinite sample to be bent). Adjectives substantiviert used, thus only with article, they depend likewise on this. As example the adjective sche ( beautiful) serves, whose trunk is extended with the Flektion over - n (except with the Neutrum singular).

indefinitely maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
nom:A schena Mo A schene Mrs. A sches child OAU schene wrong
dat:at schena (n) the Mo ana schenan woman at schena (n) the child oane schenan wrong
akk:on schena (n) Mo A schene Mrs. A sches child OAU schene wrong
indefinitely maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
nom:there schene Mo t'schene Mrs. as schene child de schenan wrong
dat:in schena (n) the Mo there schenan woman at schena (n) the child de schenan wrong
akk:in schena (n) Mo t'schene Mrs. as schene child de schenan wrong

in prädikativer position against it adjectives - as in German - are not inflected, but are not used only in their nominal form:

prädikativ maskulin feminine neutrum Plural
indefinitely:A Mo is sche A Mrs. is sche A child is sche OAU wrong sàn sche
determines:there Mo is sche t'Frau is sche as child is sche de Leid sàn sche
increase of the adjectives

in Bairi serves the suffix - A for the education of the Komparativs, the first increase form. Basis of the Komparativs is the long form described above; with some adjectives it comes to umlauts, with others to change in the vowel length or in the konsonantischen Auslaut. Examples from Westbairi:

Umlaut positive Komparativ standard German
no umlaut:gscheid gscheida intelligently
nei neiga/neicha again
liab liawa dear
ski oh schiacha ugly
hoagli hoaglicha discriminatingly
with vowel shortening:diaf diaffa deeply
å > e:lång lenga long
å > à:wårm wàrma warmly (Westbairisch)
o > e:roughly grewa roughly
largely gressa largely
u > i:stupidly dimma stupidly
gsund gsinda healthy
young jinga young
OAU > I/O:broad breada broadly
gloa gleana small
hoass heassa hot
woach weacha softly
woam weama warmly (Ostbairisch)
OAU > öi:koid köida coldly
oid öida old
ua > ia:kuaz kiaza briefly

for the Superlativ depending upon landscape, its own form on (as in the high German) - sp is not formed or in addition. In latter case the Komparativ is taken as Superlativersatz. Like that the high-German sentence can produce „max Mueller is the largest of the twelve boys “in the Bairi following variants: „Vo de zwöif Buama is dà Mueller Màx to gressan (Komparativ)/to gresstn (Superlativ)/rarely dà gresste/dà gressane. “ There is also suppletive adjective increase, thus increase with another word trunk (so-called. strong Suppletion) or a word master extension (so-called. weak Suppletion):

Suppletion positive Komparativ Superlativ standard German
strongly:guad bessa to bessan well
stâd leisa to leisan quietly
weakly: deia (A deirigs…)deiriga at deirigan expensively

the Numeralia (number words)

Bairi number words end to e, which they often push off however in attributiver position depending upon region differently, but usually up -; they are constant, inflect thus not. Exception of it is the number word oans for the number of 1.

A listing of the most important Numeralia follows; they are difficult partly because of their unusual consonant successions for Nichtmuttersprachler to express:

1 oas/oans/àns 11 öif (e)/ööf 21 oanazwånzge/ànazwanzg
2 zwoa/zwà 12 zwöif (e) /zwööf 22 zwoarazwånzge/zwàrazwanzg 200 zwoahundad/zwàhundad
3 three 13 dreizea/23 dreiazwånzg (e) 300 dreihundad 4
fiar (e) 14 dreizen fiazea/fiazen 24 fiarazwånzg (e) 40 fiazg (e) 400 fiahundad
5 fimf (e) /fümf (e) 15 fuchzea/fuchzen 25 fimfazwånzg (e) 50 fuchzg (e) 500 fimfhundad
6 seggs (e) 16 sechzea/sechzen 26 seggsazwånzg (e) 60 sechzg (e) 600 sechshundad
7 siem (e) 17 sibzea/sibzen 27 simmazwånzge 70 sibzg (e) 700 siemhundad
8 åcht (e) 18 åchzea/åchzen 28 åchtazwånzge 80 åchtzg (e) 800 åchthundad
9 neine/nei 19 neizea/neizen 29 neinazwånzge 90 neinzg (e) 900 neihundad
10 zeene/zeah 20 zwånzge/zwånzg/zwoanzg 30 dreissge 100 hundad 1000 tausnd

Substantivierte numbers is in the Bairi Maskulina, during them in the high German against it tool Nina:

Bairisch high-German Bairisch high German
Nulla the zero Åchta the eight Oasa/
Oansa/Ànsa the unity Neina the nine Zwoara/Zwàra
the two Zena the ten Dreia the three Öifa/Ööfa
the eleven Fiara the four Zwöifa/Zwööfa the twelve
Fimfa the five Dreizena the thirteen Sechsa the six Dreissga
the thirty Simma/ Siema filters there
the Hundada the hundreds [ work on] verbal system
Bairi knows only a synthetic tense , the present there
there there there

there

there there there there there there there there there there. All other tenses, in particular Futur and perfect, are analytically formed since the upperGerman Präteritumsschwund. As mode beside Indikativ and imperative possesses Bairi furthermore a synthetic, i.e. without auxiliary verb formed, Konjunktiv, which corresponds to the high-German Konjunktiv II (usually in function of the Irrealis, the Optativ or as politeness form).

conjugation of the weak verbs

of the Indikativ expresses as in German the reality; it is educated through to appendices of different endings to the verb trunk, and is generally relatively close to the high German. Deviating from the high German the Pluralendungen is partial. In the following the example paradigm of the weak verb måcha (make) in the Indikativ and Konjunktiv as well as in the imperative and Optativ:

måcha Indikativ imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i måch--i måchad måchadi!
2.Sg you måchst måch!you måchast måchast!
3.Sg it måcht--it måchad måchad!
1.Pl mia måchan* måchma!mia måchadn måchadma!
2.Pl ess måchts måchts!ess måchats måchats!
3.Pl SE måchan (t) ** måchan'S!SE måchadn måchadn'S!

Participle II of this verb is gmåcht - see in addition more exact under past.

* See. but the next paragraph.
** To the 3. Person Plural is to be marked that in some areas (for example in Kärnten) the ending t from the old high German is retained, which became generally accepted in the Swabian one as general Pluralendung (mia, ia, SI make).

In the 1. Person Plural was specified only one form. There is actually (younger) long form, which (except in the subordinated sentence however except the above (older) short form also still another, where she is ungrammatisch in most regions) the frequent used is. It is formed, by replacing the ending - on by the ending - to mA, thus: måchma. As this developed, is located in this historical excursion further down.

verbs with Auslautwechsel

gives however verbs, which deviate from this ending pattern, because their trunk out-reads up - g or - b, and thus with the original infinitive dung - n too - ng and/or. - m merges. In addition master from sound becomes - b before vokalischer ending i.d.R. too - w frikativisiert. Thus so-called develops. Auslautwechsel with the inflection; as examples are aforementioned sång (say) and lem (live):

sång Indikativ imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i såg--i sågad sågadi!
2.Sg you sågst såg!you sågast sågast!
3.Sg it sågt--it sågad sågad!
1.Pl mia så ng ng mA!mia sågadn sågadma!
2.Pl ess sågts sågts!ess sågats sågats!
3.Pl SE så ng (t) ng' S!SE sågadn mågadn'S!

The participle II reads gsågt; Participle I is not common.

lem Indikativ imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i live--i le w ad le w adi!
2.Sg you lives lives!you le w branch le w branch!
3.Sg it lives--it le w ad le w ad!
1.Pl mia le m le m A!mia le w ADN le w adma!
2.Pl ess lebts lebts!ess le w ats le w ats!
3.Pl SE le m (t) le m' S!SE le w ADN le w adn'S!

The participle I reads lewad “living”, the participle II glebt.

verbs with topic suffix - A or - i

a further group of verbs, whose infinitive ends up - on or - in, shows in the 1. Person singular the ending - D; the topic vowel - A and/or. - i remains in the entire Indikativparadigma. These verbs often correspond to the German verbs up - ern (> - on) and/or. - eln (> - in); as example first ziedan (tremble), which in the Konjunktiv on the one hand again (- A >) r - haltige forms show, on the other hand on doubling of the syllable - ad back grip arms can:

ziadan Indikativ imperative r-Konjunktiv dupl. Konjunktiv
1.Sg i ziadad--i zied r ad i ziad ad ad
2.Sg you ziedast ziedad!you zied r branch you zied ad branch
3.Sg it ziedad--it zied r ad it zied ad ad
1.Pl mia ziadan zieda m A!mia zied r ADN/zied r adma mia zied ad n/zied ad mA
2.Pl ess ziedats ziedats!ess zied r ats ess zied ad ats
3.Pl SE ziadan (t) ziadan'S!SE zied r ADN SE zied ad n

differently than above verb exhibits the next verb kàmpin (comb) beside the periphrastischen Konjunktiv (by means of Konjunktiv of the auxiliary verb doa) only one possibility of the Konjunktivs, i.e. master modulation i > l; a syllable doubling as is not possible above:

kàmpin Indikativ imperative l-Konjunktiv periphr. Konj.
1.Person i kàmpid--i kàmp l ad i dàd kàmpin
2.Person you kàmpist kàmpid!you kàmp l branch you dàst kàmpin
3.Person it kàmpid--it kàmp l ad it dàd kàmpin
1.Person mia kàmpin kàmpi m A!mia kàmp l ADN mia dàdn/dàdma kàmpin
2.Person ess kàmpits kàmpits!ess kàmp l ats ess dàdats/dàrats kàmpin
3.Person SE kàmpin (t) kàmpin'S!SE kàmp for l ADN SE dàdn kàmpin

conjugation of the strong verbs

strong verbs form their Konjunktiv partly also ring off in place of ad - in addition, suffix, they can combine both (these forms are in parentheses). With strong verbs with master vowel - e (see examples above) arises besides in the Indikativ and imperative singularly change inflection , D. h. a vowel change of - e too - i takes place, however contrary to the high Germans also in the 1. Person singular. The Umlautung (high German: it strikes) against it is not accomplished: it strike.

kema Indikativ imperative Konj. + ring off Konj. + ring off + ad
1.Sg i kim--i kâm i kâmad
2.Sg you kimst bilge!you kâmst you kâmast
3.Sg it kimt--it kâm it kâmad
1.Pl mia keman kemma!mia kâman/kâma mia kâmadn/kâmadma
2.Pl ess kemts kemts!ess kâmts ess kâmats
3.Pl SE keman (t) keman'S!SE kâman SE kâmadn

participle II of this verb is kema - see in addition more exact under past.

Also strong verbs can show Auslautwechsel - b-/-w-/-m; Example in accordance with “give”:

in accordance with Indikativ imperative Konj. + ring off Konj. + ring off + ad
1.Sg i give--i gâb i gâ w ad
2.Sg you gives gives!you gâbst you gâ w branch
3.Sg it gives--it gâb it gâ w ad
1.Pl mia ge m ge m A!mia gâ m /g â m A mia gâ w adn/gâ w adma
2.Pl ess gebts gèbts!ess kâmts ess gâ w ats
3.Pl SE ge m (t) ge m 'S!SE gâ m w ADN

participle II of this verb is in accordance with.

As example to - g-/-ng change serves sèng “sees”; there are here however also forms without - e-/-i changes:

sèng Indikativ imperative Konj. + ring off Konj. + ring off + ad
1.Sg i victory/sèg--i sâg i sâgad
2.Sg you triumphs/sègst to victory/sèg!you sâgst you sâgast
3.Sg it triumphs/sègt--it sâg it sâgad
1.Pl mia sè ng ng mA!mia sâ ng of /s â ng mA mia sâgadn/sâgadma
2.Pl ess sègts sègts!ess sâgts ess sâgats
3.Pl SE sè ng (t) ng 'S!SE sâ ng sâgadn

participle I of this verb is seeing” sègad, participle II gsèng.

imperative and Optativ

Bairi know Imperativformen for the 2. Person singular like also Plural as well as for the 1. Person Plural, furthermore for the polite address. The following rules apply for education:

  • for the 2. Person singular take one the word trunk without ending; with strong verbs becomes thereby if necessary. Master vowel - e too - i; this usually leads to equality with the form of the 1. Person Sg. Ind. - the Personalpronomen you is usually not used (except in the Emphase): måch!, får!, bilge!, give! etc.
  • for the 2. Person Plural take one the word trunk plus ending - ts, thus the Indikativform; the stressed Personalpronomen may be used alternatively for it: måchts!, fårts!, kemts!, gebts! etc.
  • for the 1. Person Plural, the so-called. Hortativ, take one the so-called. Long form of the Indikativs, always up - (m) A ends (d.i. the formerly klitisierte Personalpronomen, see historical excursion to the Klitisierung); the stressed Personalpronomen mia may be used alternatively for it: måchma!, fårma!, kemma!, gema! etc.
  • in the polite address one uses the imperative of the 3. Plural, D. i. the word trunk plus ending - (A) n; the unbetonte form of the Höflichkeitspronomens - S must be klitisiert: måchan'S!, fårn'S!, keman'S!, gem'S! etc.

The Konjunktiv can be used also as Optativ, whereby here in the 1. Person Sg. /Pl. in each case the klitisierte Personalpronomen - i and/or. - mA is mandatory. The forms up - mA correspond to the long forms of the Konjunktiv, those the 1. Person Plural similar to the long forms of the Indikativs exhibits.

rarely changes arise

to conjugation of the auxiliary verbs with some often used verbs with the Kojugation, therefore these are here specified. In addition they show many regional special forms. In addition belong in first row the auxiliary verbs is (its), håm (have) and doa/dea/duan (to do).

Indikativ is imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i bi--i wâr/wârad* wâri/wâradi!
2.Sg you is bi!you wâst/wârast* wâst/wârast!
3.Sg it is--it wâr/wàrad* wâr/wârad!
1.Pl mia sàn/hàn sàmma/hàmma!mia wân/wâradn wâma/wâradma!
2.Pl ess sàts/hàts sàts/hàts!ess wâts/wârats* wâts/wârats!
3.Pl se/Se sàn (t) /hàn (t) sàn'S!SE wân (t) /wâradn* wân'S/wâradn'S!

Can, as with all verbs, which appear to Imperativformen also as long Indikativformen in the superordinate sentence; selbiges applies to the Optativformen as long Konjunktivformen. The participle II reads gwen, more rarely gwesn.

Indikativ is imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i hå (n)--i hedd/hêd heddi/hêdi!
2.Sg you håst--you hest/hêst hest/hêst!
3.Sg it håd--it hedd/hêd hedd/hêd!
1.Pl mia håm/håmma--mia heddn/hêdn heddma/hêdma!
2.Pl ess håbts--ess hets/hêts hets/hêts!
3.Pl se/Se håm (t)--SE heddn (t) hêdn (t) heddn'S/hêdn'S!

The participle II reads ghåbt, regionally also ghåd.

The most important Modalverb in Bairi is doa (n), which arises in many regional forms, which can be listed not possibly here all. The master vowel knows - OAU with Pluralumlaut - I/O its (usually Westbairisch), - ua without umlaut (rather Ostbairisch) and - ua with Pluralumlaut - ia (v.a. Tirolerisch). However there are so-called in all dialects. Allegroformen for the Indikativ Plural, which instead of Diphthongs the short master vowel - à show. Further from area to area - n is added to the infinitive, or also not.

Here the westbairische paradigm with umlaut in the Indikativ Plural:

doa (n) Indikativ imperative Konjunktiv Optativ
1.Sg i doa--i dâd/dâdad* dâdi!
2.Sg you doast doa!you dâst/dâdast* dâst!
3.Sg it doad--it dâd/dàdad* dâd!
1.Pl mia dean/dàn deama/dàmma!mia dâdn/dâdadn* dâdma!
2.Pl ess deats/dàts deats/dàts!ess dâdats/dârats dâdats/dârats!
3.Pl se/Se dean (t) /dàn (t) dean'S/dàn'S!SE dâdn (t) /dâdadn* dâdn'S!

The participle II reads då (n).

* These forms are here quite rare; they arise also also - r in place of - to D : i dàrad etc. (see also 2.Pl in the paradigm). In the second person Plural is mandatory the long form with D - or r - module against it since the form which can be expected became dàts alike in with the Allegroform of the Indikativs.

Modalverben

most Modalverben are in Bairi like also in the high German so-called Präterito Präsentia. These have often a vowel change in the Indikativflexion, zero dung in the 3. Person singular as well as a strong participle II (which always as the infinitive reads and therefore specially one does not indicate). In the following the paradigms of the most important Modalverben are shown:

deaffa (may)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i deaf mia deaffan/deafma 1.Person i deaffad mia deaffadn
2.Person you deafst ess deafts 2.Person you deaffaast ess deaffats
3.Person it deaf SE deaffan (t) 3.Person it deaffad SE deaffadn

kina (to be able)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i kå mia kinan/kimma 1.Person i kànt/kunt mia kàntn/kuntn
2.Person you kåst ess kints 2.Person you kànst/art ess kànts/kunts
3.Person it kå SE kinan (t) 3.Person it kànt/kunt SE kàntn/kuntn*

beside it gives it also to the regular Konjunktiv i kinad. The long forms of the 1. Person Plural in the Konjunktiv read mia kàntma and/or. mia kuntma; in the Indikativ Plural exist also to forms with master vowel - e instead of - i, which however to coincide with the Pluralparadigma of the verb kena (know) lead, and therefore to be only regionally used.

mix (like; in non-modal use) Indikativ also

love singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i måg mia mix (mA) 1.Person i mêchad mia mêchadn
2.Person you mågst ess megts 2.Person you mêchast ess mêchats
3.Person it måg SE mix (t) 3.Person it mêchad SE mêchadn

miassn (must)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i muass mia miassn/miassma 1.Person i miassad mia miassadn
2.Person you muasst ess miassts 2.Person you miassast ess miassats
3.Person it muass SE miassn (t) 3.Person it miassad SE miassadn

woin (to want)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i wui/woi mia wuin/wuima
woin/woima
1.Person i wuiad/woiad mia wuiadn/woiadn
2.Person you wuist/woist ess wuits/woits 2.Person you wuiast/woiast ess wuiats/woiats
3.Person it wui/woi SE wuin (t)/woin (t) 3.Person it wuiad/woiad SE wuiadn/woiadn

likewise inflects the Modalverb soin/suin (are).

irregular verbs

as last Präterito Präsentium exists in Bairi knows (knows), which no Modalverb is, but one inflects similarly as these:

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i woass mia know/wissma 1.Person i wissad mia pointing ADN
2.Person you woasst ess wissts 2.Person you point-sown ess wissats
3.Person he woass SE know (t) 3.Person he wissad SE wissadn*

the participle II of this verb are however weakly formed: gwisst, more rarely gwusst.

Further irregular verbs are specified in the following:

(go)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i gê mia gèngan/gèmma 1.Person i gàng (ad) mia gànga (D) n
2.Person you gêst ess gèts 2.Person you gàng (A) sp ess gàng (A) ts
3.Person it gêd SE gèngan (t) 3.Person it gàng (ad) SE gànga (D) n

the verb is a special case: On the one hand the long form of the first person Plural reads gèmma, on the other hand is the Konjunktiv „i gàng (ad) “a bairische self-formation. Bairi pupils are therefore with learning the high-German Konjunktivs II often the opinion, too „go “read these „courses “instead of „would go “.

By this the paradigm of the following verb was affected:

stê (stand)

Indikativ singularly Plural Konjunktiv singularly Plural
1.Person i stê mia stèngan/stèmma 1.Person i stànd mia stàndn/stàndma
2.Person you stêst ess stè (g) ts 2.Person you stàndst ess stànts
3.Person it stêd SE stèngan (t) 3.Person it stànd SE stàndn

past

the imperfect, the synthetic past form of the high German and also in principle Bairi, exists only with two words: is (with wår) and woin (woit with), whereby also this not undisputedly autochthone forms are; it could concern leaning property out of the high-level language. With these it is taken for the description by conditions, whereas with events the perfect outweighs also here. Details in addition see upperGerman Präteritumsschwund.

For the expression of the past the perfect is used; it analytically with one of the two auxiliary verbs ham or is plus participle II formed (in addition see further below). On the basis the education way of the participle II strong and weak verbs are differentiated; this becomes with the prefix g and the Suffixen - n or - A (strong verbs) and/or. - t (weak verbs) in an educated manner. The prefix knows so the participle II with the Stammanlauten g, b, t, D, k , p, z disappears (except in Südbairi) and with the infinitive to coincide. You find a listing of all strong verbs Bairi here.

participle I

the participle of the simultaneousness, also participle I or participle present mentioned, is formed with the suffix - ad, for example:

  • drenzad „crying “
  • drågad „basic “
  • (g) schiaglad „squinting; flunkernd “
  • (g) spinnad „spinend “
  • stingad „stinking “
  • brennad „burning “
  • blearad „plärrend “
  • bliarad „flowering “

these participles as adjectives or are adverbiell used - in attributiver position, as part of a nominal descriptor or halbsententiell. For the formation of tenses, how it is in English the case, they are not used usually (see. but next section).

its participle

II on the suffix - t or - D form participle II all classes of weak verbs; they must be therefore not further differentiated. The prefix g disappears just like with the strong verbs before Plosiven (g, b, D, t, k, p) and becomes before Frikativen (s, sch, h…) to k hardens. Master change arises rarely:

Verbs with frikativem master from sound - f, - s, - z or - CH use the Fortissuffix - t:

  • bàssn, bàsst - fit, fit
  • brotzn, brotzt - , boasted browsn
  • , browst - browsen , gebrowst butzn
  • , butzt - deseam , deseamed dånzn
  • , dånzt - dance , danced dràtzn
  • , dràtzt - piesacken , gepiesackt gugazn
  • , gugazt - cough , coughed hoffa
  • , ghofft - hope , hoped for kocha
  • , cook - cook , cooked låcha
  • , glåcht - laugh , laughed måcha
  • , gmåcht - make made ràffa,
  • gràft, - raufen , gerauft schwànzn
  • , gschwànzt - tails , geschwänzt sîmsn
  • , gsîmst - smsen , gesmst soacha
  • , gsoacht - pissen , gepisst stèssn
  • , gstèsst - push , pushed likewise

verbs with master from sound boast - gg or -bb:

  • båbba, båbbt - stick, adhesive
  • bigga, biggt - , adhesive brogga
  • , broggt - pick , picked jobba
  • /jobbn, jobbt - jobben , gejobbt jogga
  • /joggn, joggt - joggen , gejoggt jugga
  • , gjuggt - itch , itched schigga
  • , gschiggt - send , skillfully stegga
  • , gesteggt - put , put stobba
  • , gstobbt - stop , stopped with

verbs with nasalem master from sound - m stick, - n or - ng arise the Lenisvariante - for D:

  • dràmma, dràmd - dream, dreamed
  • fånga, gfångd - , imprisoned (
  • g) långa, glångd - are enough , handed leana
  • , gleant - learn , - to make
  • , made scheina, gscheind - to seem
  • learned måcha, gmåcht , seemed woana
  • , gwoand - to cry , cried wona
  • , gwond - live , used short verbs

catch:

  • drân, drâd - turn, turned
  • mân, gmâd - mähen, gemäht
  • nân, gnâd - sew, sewn
  • sân, gsâd - sow, sown
  • rean, gread - cry, cried
  • spöin/spuin, gspöid/gspuid - play, easily
  • wân, gwâd - blow blown,
  • wöin, gwöid - select, selected
  • zoin, zoid - pay, paid/pay, paid
  • zöin, zöid - count, counted

short verbs with strengthened Dentalsuffix - dt:

  • bån, bådt - bathe, bathed
  • bèn, bèdt - , gebetet verbs

with master from sound - l or unbetontes - pray i/- A:

  • biesln, biesld - pissen, gepisst
  • driggin, driggid - dry, dried
  • gàtln, gàtld - gardners, fermenting mink
  • gràxln, gràxld - climb, climbed
  • kàmpin, kàmpid - comb, combed
  • kàtln, kàtld - maps play, maps easily
  • schnàxln, gschnàxld - bumsen, gebumst
  • wåggin, gwåggid - wackeln, gewackelt
  • ziedan, ziedad - tremble, trembled
  • zöitln, zöitld - tents, camped

back umlaut is in the Bairi, different than verbs following in German, also with diminished:

  • brena, brend - burn, burned
  • kena, kend - , known
  • rena, grend - run, coagulated

only with a verb is still present he:

  • bringa, bråcht - bring, brought

with some verbs the master from sound one fortisiert:

  • denga, - think , meant schenga
  • , gschenkt - gives , given further

applies Auslautwechsel thinks with g and b-trunks:

  • frång, gfrågt - ask, asked
  • lem, glebt - , lived leng
  • , glegt - put , put sång
  • , gsågt - to say , without Dentalsuffix

appear verbs with master from sound live - t said:

  • åwatn, gåwat - , worked in

Südbairi apply partially different rules work. The prefix ge is received (before Sonoranten as g). Before Frikativen will the prefix to k (ksegn, khåp), before Plosiven remains also the e , before r becomes it too kh (khred, khråtn; before anlautendem r in former times generally h , which applies this very day to some dialects, stood e.g. hrous Ross).

A special change can occur with håm (to have): Beside ghåbt (südb. khåp) it forms also ghåd.

The past finally analytically, thus with the inflected forms one of the two auxiliary verbs håm or is formed, whereby the portion of verbs, which is requires, is higher opposite the high and above all north German (to it soon more).

aspect

as in the most Germanic languages and dialects is not explicitly pronounced the category aspect in Bairi. There are however possibilities of expressing incohative actions as the participle I is used in connection with the verb wern („become “):

  • as house is brennad worn “the house began to burn”
  • di Bàm sàn bliarad worn “the trees caught to flower on”

in other connections, particularly with meteorological phenomena, Incohativität with kema to + the infinitive is expressed:

  • often as kimt to the Wedan “soon a thunderstorm to give
  • ” as kimt to the Schneim “it will soon snow
[to work on

]

to Morphosyntax in Bairi is the transition from the word diffraction to the Satzbau (syntax) flowing, why many ranges of the grammar are best seized of the Morphosyntax.

prepositions

prepositions can in Bairi, just like in the German, with which into a word merge certain article (see. dt. with = with, to = at, under = untern the etc.). However Bairi far more prepositions are affected by this procedure than in German in; an overview:

Preposition file. Sg. m./n. (- m) file. Sg. f. (- there) files. Pl. (-) Akk. Sg. m. (- n) Akk. Sg. f., Akk. Pl. (- D) Akk. Sg. n. (- s) high German
ån åm ånda åndi ån ånd åns, ås on
af afm afda afdi afn afd afs on
fia, foa fiam, foam fiada, foada fiadi, foadi fian, foan fiad, foad fias, foas forwards
hinta hintam hintada hintadi hintan hintad hintas behind
in, A in inda, ada indi, adi in, on ind, ad in, as in
iwa iwam iwada iwadi iwan iwad iwas over
unta untam untada untadi untan untad untas under
nema, newa nemam, newam nemada, newada nemadi, newadi neman, newan nemad, newad nemas, newas beside
with with beida beidi------with
wenga, wega wengam, wegam wengada, wegada wengadi, wegadi------because of
too to, zun zuda zudi------too
fia------fian fiad fias for
genga, gega------gengan, gegan gengad, gegad towards gas, gegas approximately
over------umman umd around around

there prepositions the stress on the following sentence element, can them only stressed, Personalpronomina never unbetonte directs to follow.

preposition use

in Bairi for localities not the prepositions are used „after “and „in “, but instead af and z' ; thus one e.g. drives. af Minga instead of „to Munich “and is then z'Minga, not „in Munich “. Likewise one is also z' Wea („in Vienna “), z'Strâwing („in Straubing “) or 'z'Grâz („in Graz “), equivalent consonant bundling at the word beginning also becomes as difficult. Therefore also the joke that all bairischen place names begin with z! With holidays is depending upon landscape either likewise z' : z'Ostan, z'Weihnachtn; or up: on Easter, on Christmas; or under high-German influence on; a Baier would never use these words however (as possible in the northern high German) without preposition for the date.

A regional characteristic is åft the preposition, which is used in the Steiermark. It corresponds etymologisch to the English after and means, just like this, „after “(however only speed ral); it can be used also as temp-oral conjunction, more rarely than adverb in the meaning „afterwards, afterwards “.

preposition lots restaurant coding

in südbairischen dialects arise prepositionless indications of direction and local (Adverbialien). One does not go accordingly „into the church “or „on the market “, but to mA gêd Kiacha/Moakt, thus without use of any preposition. The restaurant meaning is marked by being missing the article, which is mandatory with each noun otherwise. Further examples: i live Knittelfeld, i wår train, it goes first class train (see. also lat. Romae in Rome, Romam to Rome).

local and Richtungsadverbialien

Bairi have a complex system of Richtungsadverbialien, which take purchase to the speaker perspective; just as in German it must depending upon that, whether the movement is carried out away from the speaker or to the speaker, the affixes - and/or. - ago to the adverb to be added (in Wieneri however one does not differentiate, e.g. auffi and auffa too auffe is collapsed). In German these affixes become however as prefixes and/or. ago uses, thus the adverb placed in front. In Bairi the opposite is the case: the affixes are used as Suffixe, i.e. the adverb in the back added. The suffix - too - becomes i, regionally - e weakened, the suffix - ago too - A. A comparative overview:

Preposition of the speaker (- i) high German () to the speaker (- A) high German (ago)
å, åb åwi down there, down åwa down, down
å, ån åni * hinan åna near
on / af auffi /affi up auffa/affa up
out aussi outside sow out
dåni hintan (to the side dåna (away from the side)
through duachi through duacha [rarely] *herdurch
fia fiari (forward) fiara out
hinta rear air (to the rear) tare (to the rear)
zua zuari/zuwi in addition zuara/zuwa (here)
over umi over there uma over here

historical excursion: To the Klitisierung in Bairi

in Bairi a process took place, which is called in the linguistics Klitisierung. Thus adding of the Personalpronomens is meant to the conjugated verb in this case. This adding arises as a result of the inverse sentence position. In Bairi as for example in the high German, in the interrogative sentence, the subject moves behind the descriptor:

normal Satzbau inverse Satzbau
we do we do?
mia dean dean mia?

The Personalpronomen is as a rule weakened, since it is not stressed. From here it is only a small step for the contraction of verb dung - n and Anlaut of the Personalpronomens m:

stressed subject unbetonte subject
dean mia?dean mA? > deama?

That is the reason, why the Pronomen of the 1. Person Plural in Bairi on m anlautet: the medium high-German verb dung - n and the Anlaut of the Personalpronomens w IR merged into the m (likewise in the Swabian one). This m did not become afterwards longer from the speakers than verb dung, but than Anlaut of the Personalpronomens analyzes, therefore the Wahlspruch is called that Lower Bavaria: „mia hàmma mia! “and not „we are we! “. However is the Personalpronomen for the 1, anlautende on m. Plural nearly all high-German dialects commonly and to that extent no bairische characteristic; it arises also in Alemanni, in the Frankish one, in Pfälzi and in the Thuringian one .

In the 2. Person Plural took place a similar process, however with other result. Since Bairi, differently than the high German, anlautet which uses former Dualpronomen ess in place of it, and ess on a vowel, this vowel in the inverse Satzbau could be swallowed:

normal Satzbau inverse Satzbau
*ess deat deat ess? > deats?

This adding was not noticed in the course of the time any more than klitisiertes Pronomen, what led so far that the ending - s for all verbs in Bairi became mandatory. Therefore frequently the Personalpronomen is again added, if today in Bairi an interrogative sentence is formulated; this is historically seen a tautology, a double denomination of the subject, however no more than such consciously is thus noticed:

1. Person Plural 2. Person Plural
dea mA mia?dea ts ess?

The italically printed endings were thus grammatisiert. This Grammatisierung is however with the 1. Person Plural not finally. To it it refers on the one hand that no subject must be used, if a klitisierte verb form were used: In place of the o. g. deama mia, deats ess there is deama, deats also still easily subject. One can say thus instead of „kànnts ess us easily höiffa “(„can perhaps help her us “) also still, however more rarely , „kànnts us easily höiffa “. On the other hand there is also a further bairisches phenomenon, the so-called conjugated subordinate clause A LEADERs. The verbal endings - sp, - become mA and - s/- ts, thus the verb endings of the 2. Person singular, the 1. Person Plural and the 2. Person Plural, to the subordinate clause A LEADEr (usually a conjunction or a Relativpronomen) added, if the subject agrees with the appropriate person. Examples:

Center-LBA-Irish high German
2. Person singular:I ask those whether sp you heid nu epps DUA sp.I ask you whether you today still which undertake.
2. Person singular:I ask enk whether s /ob deat ts ess heid â nu epps s.I ask you whether its today also still which undertake.
1. Person Plural:Mia wiss mA ned whether mA mia heid nu epps dean.We do not know whether we today still which undertake.
(still) not possible: *... whether mA mia heid nu epps dea mA.

During thus the endings of the 2. Person singular like also Plural are festgefügt in conjugation the paradigm, may in case of a subordinate clause with the 1. Person Plural only not klitisierte form (in this case dean) to be used; in all other cases the klitisierte form is optionally usable deama. In the main clause both the klitisierte form is wiss mA and the unklitisierte, older knows possible.

Südbairi seems to play the role of the pioneer with this process, because here also the Klitisierung is the 1. Person Plural in the subordinate clause possible or even mandatorily. The fact that the Klitisierung had also its beginning in Südbairi is difficult to prove; however there is this phenomenon at least with the 2. Person singular also in other German dialects, z. B. in Ruhr flat.

syntax

word position

in the following constructions differs the word position from in the Standardsprache:

  • the direct object follows after the indirect, for example says mirs;
  • placed behind adjectives (when stress, for example dog, vàreckdà!; there Månn, there ålte);
  • Initial position of the verbs (Emphase or answer, for example kumm i glei as answer to when kummst z'uns);
  • Perfectly the Modalverben (only in the Basilekt, for example it håt miassn aufstehn).

Regionally also different deviations can occur.

In subordinate clauses with Modalverben often nichtprojektive dependencies occur, whereby most bairischen dialects cannot be described with a context-free grammar.

Verbrektion

some verbs Bairi require another Rektion than e.g. in the high German. diaschtn („dürsten “), dràmma („dream “) and purely („repent “). They are used with the logical subject in the dative or accusative (so-called. Quirky Case); a formal subject is often missing:

mi diascht I have thirst
dràmt badly you dream badly
reid eam repents it

Prädikative of attributes

in Bairi, differently than in the high German, adjectives in attributiver position are marked; in addition the invariable suffix serves - A and/or. - e; it concerns thereby rigid Nom.Sg. - Forms (maskulin and/or. feminine). Solcherlei of attributes can being related to subject like also object. Examples:

Koid A schmeggt bessa. - Tastes coldly better.
Nearly hèttn's'n lewad A eigråm. - Nearly they would have alive entrenched it.

- Depending upon context - this attribute with a placed in front can be clarified oisa.

Oisa dreggad A kimmstma ned in the house! - Dirty do not come you me into the house!

spare forms

in the dialect are avoided certain infinitive constructions (subject and object sets, AcI) and replaced by subordinate clauses with a finite verb, for example:

  • schwar is, dåss mA heat A Årbeit fint (it is heavy to find today work)
  • are gegwehnt rivet, dåss i friah rise (I am not accustomed it to rise early)
  • i siech, dåss it kummb (I see it coming)

something similar also attributive Partizipialphrasen are avoided, for example:

  • de Kinder, de wås lafm (the current children)

to be limited participles adverbiell uses, for example:

  • sitzndà are i eingschlåfm

denial

a range, within which Bairi is very creative, is the denial, since there is the so-called double denial, which a Litotes represents not at all.

Example: In there Ståd huift koana neamdm nêda; dåss A-r-eam amoi A bissl wås z' essn gâbat, if dear amoi koa Göid håt nêd, åba nâ: Då gives to' koane freindlichn Menschn s nimma, då gives nia koana nix. (In the city none helps; it could give to eat it nevertheless once a little, if that no money has, but no: There there are no friendly humans more, there gives never someone somewhat. literally: In the city none does not help nobody; that he it once a little which to eat would give, if that does not have no money, but no: There there are not no friendly humans any longer, there never gives no nothing.)

this sentence, although admittedly designs, could thus be expressed quite in such a way. However one can express the just as well also following bairischen sentence: In there Ståd huift koana; dåss A-r-eppam amoi A bissl wås z'essn gâbat, if dear amoi koa Göid håt, åba nâ: Freindliche humans gives' s då never, då gives nia oana wås. (equivalently).

To hold remains only: A Baier can answer a sentence in the negative once or several times, the sense remains generally the same (exceptions further down).

The following words are used for the denial:

bairisch high-German use
ned, neda not general denial word
nia never (mark) does not answer numerical data in the negative
nimma, neama no more/never presses change out
nix, nixe anything answers in the negative things
niangdwo, niagadwo nowhere answers in the negative map references
niagads nowhere answers in the negative map references
koa [inflected] no etc. answers in the negative nouns
koana (only in the Nom.!) none does not answer persons in the negative
neamad (s), neamde anybody answers in the negative persons
(files. neamdm*, Akk. neamdn*)

* neamdm and neamdn are from the discussion not to differentiate ([nεam'm]).

loss of “it” in impersonal sentences

the formal subject it is often elidiert, e.g. it is largest Docker, where give (t). Particularly in the gemischtsprachigen Kärntner Unterland does not give it under Slovenian influence the formal subject at all, e.g. Rains (it rains).

Lexik

an overview of the most important word fields and possibilities of the word formation:

greeting formulas

the most important chapter with learning a language are naturally greeting and address forms. An overview of the most important:

Bairisch (use) high-German correspondence literal transfer
servus!(familiar; Greetings/Verabschiedung) good day! /good-bye!“servus!” (also in the Dt. usually)
(hawe) dere!(familiar - politely greetings/Verabschiedung) good day! /good-bye “(I) the honour has! ”
griass (God)!(familiar; Greetings) Hello!“(It) greet you (God)! ”
griass enk/calibrate (God)!(familiar; Greetings) greet you!“(It greets you (God)! ”
griass Eana (God)!(formally; Greetings) good day!“(It) greet you (God)! ”
griass God!(formally; Greetings) good day!“(It) greet (it) God! ”
pfiaddi (God)!(familiar; Verabschiedung) good-bye!“(It) protect you (God)! ”
pfiat enk/calibrate (God)!(familiar; Verabschiedung) good-bye!(to more than 1 person) “(it) protect you (God)! ”
Eana (God) pfiat!(formally; Verabschiedung) good-bye!“(It) protect you (God)! ”
pfia God!(formally; Verbabschiedung) good-bye!“(It) protect (it) God! ”
af Widaschaung!(formally; Verabschiedung) good-bye!“On Wiederschaun! ”
bà bà! - with stress on the 2. Syllable (cordial family; Verabschiedung) good-bye! (to 1 or several persons) (more in Austria common) see. English. bye bye!
gua (D) Moang!formally; Breakfast greeting) good mornings!dto.
Moang! /Moing!(familiar; Breakfast greeting) (good) mornings!dto.
guan' Åmd!(formally; Evening greeting) good evening!dto.
guade Nåcht/guad' night!(familiar and formally; Verabschiedung to the night) good night (to 1 person) dto.
guad enk/calibrate Nåcht!(familiar; Verabschiedung to the night) good night! (to more than 1 person) “well you night! ”
at Guadn!(familiar and formally; Meal greeting) good appetite!“a good one (appetite)! ”
Moizeid!(familiar and formally, greetings, no meal greeting) good noon!“Meal! ”

Against many prejudices over the bairische Frömmigkeit the rich Fundus shows at greeting formulas to avoid that it in Baiern is quite possible that word God „God “in handling other contemporaries, if it contrary-runs the own faith.

Note: It can still happen you also nowadays that you are tituliert as an individual of wild-strange humans with “Enk”. Please you understand it this case as capitalized “you”, thus “you”.

specific vocabulary

around the regional differences to become fair, some words are separately marked:
A Austrian vocabulary (above all Danube Austria)
B Altbairi vocabulary (upper and Niederbaiern, possibly. Upper Palatinate)
H Burgenländi vocabulary (Heanzisch)
K Kärntner vocabulary
S Steiri vocabulary
T animal oiler vocabulary
W Viennese vocabulary

of nouns

many job titles divides Bairi with other South German dialects, e.g. Butcher „butchers “, carpenters „carpenters “, Spàngler „plumbers “- some of it decrease/go back strongly, then z becomes. B. the bairische Beck often by norddt. „Baker “replaces; other job titles like the Zeidler, high-German „beekeepers “, and the Hafner, high-German „Töpfer “, disappear with the handicraft ever more. Particularly Austrian expressions such as Sàndler for „homeless people “or Striezi for „Zuhälter “keep themselves better.

The bairische colloquial language is characterised often by variety at terms for in and the same designated in the high German; this wealth is often noticed of not Baiern as crude, and not like that very much as poetic - „the mouth “can be called for example mouth (neutral) , Mei (umgs., but not negatively) , Goschn (impudent) or Goschal (affectionate) , Bàbbn (just as impudent) , Lêtschn (devaluing) or Fotzn (insulting).

Special clothe vocabulary concerns the Joppn („jacket “) and the Pfoidl or Pfoadl („shirt “, in addition, Hemad) and. v. m.; „Clothes “are generally called Gwand, what seems to German speakers very medievally. The word Dirndl designation not only the appropriate article of clothing, but is also usual for name for „girls “in Altbaiern, while in Austria the word Mâdl outweighs here. Young hot generally Buam (Sg. Bua), in Austria also Burschn, in Kärnten and the Steiermark also Ledda (Sg. Lodda).

Also within the range it gives particularly bairische words to the fauna, e.g. Giggal (m) for „cock “, Bibbal (n) also Ziwarl (n) for „Küken “, hot (aluminium) or Heinss (aluminium) for „young horse, Fohlen “, Goass for „goat “, Hebbal for „young goat “, Får (n) for „Jungstier, bull calf “, Böichn (f, ahd. belihha) for „pale chicken “, Beifogl (m) for „bee “, Oachkàtzl for „squirrels “, Brotz (m; lat. Leaning word) for „toad “, Håtz for “Eichelhäher” etc.

To the special vocabulary within the range food see to Bairisch Austrian kitchen vocabulary.

verbs

Bairisch high-German Bairisch high German
SI åwiduan grämen themselves kean turn, sweep
odln liquid manures (fertilize with liquid manure) kewin, kebbln kebbeln, keifen
leitn (stV: glittn) clips, ring
loana lean
ådaun knock against loatn steer, steer
åglånga touch, affect losn horchen, listen
åzipfn to A nerves, trouble luang look, spähen
båbba stick meamin meckern, murren
to SI bâzn aalen themselves mosan nörgeln, meckern
bân roast [bread] mugazn W quietly/secretly grumble
båtzn kleckern papriziern A with Parpika pepper
baun plow pfigazn W whistle
beaschn raufen pfugazn W kichern
benzn flehen; scolding pressiern biesln
pinkeln râtschn chat, plaudern bigga
stick raunzn nörgeln, jammern blånga
+ Akk hurry + af gelüsten + Akk + after rean cry, howl
recha rake
böiffan out scolding roasn travel
brogga pick sàndln herumlungern, nothing do
brunzn pissen sâbln, sâwin run
dabågga bear, bear schåffa + Dat arrange, instruct
schaun (g) kucken
daduan kill scheim push, push, cones
daung fallen, do good schepfn to A work
dàchin klauen schiagln, schiang squint; petzen, flunkern
deftn annihilate, humiliate pariern obey
dinkn + Akk seem + Dat schliaffa (stV: gschloffa) sharpen, creep
drân turn schloaffa drag
dràtzn annoy, trouble schmàtzn talk, plaudern
dreim (stV: to driem), make schmutzn smile drenzn
cry schnaufa breathe driggin
dry schnàxln B birds SI
do dummin hurry schneim (stV: to gschniem) SI
snows eiweimberln in-flatters itself schnoatn schnippeln, to Klein oaths
eiwoagga in-soft schoasn furzen
faschiern A by the Fleischwolf turns schupfa gently throws, schubsen
feanzn scoffs, verhöhnen sekkiern A nerves, troubles
putrefies finely, rots sempan nörgeln, complains
fexn harvests siedn (stV: gsottn) brühen, cook [coffee]
fechtln beg soacha pissen
(SI) are missing finely, wrongrun söicha smoke
fiesln abnagen spåna understand
flâdan A klauen speachn S spähen
SI frettn abmühen themselves speanzln liebäugeln, flirt
friasn, froisn freeze speim (stV: gspiem) kotzen
fuxn klauen; do not smooth-go splitting sprâgln
gein praise, boast stèssn (swV: gstèsst) push
SI gfrein are pleased stigga provoke, interest
gleschn slap miss strân strew
gletzln scrape, scratch strawànzn vagabond
gliam, gloim (stV: glom) split, chop [wood] stroaffa (stV: gstroffa) touch
gneissn notice; understand the Sudan A meckern, jammern
gnotzn lungern, lümmeln; deeply sleep tachiniern A are lazy; blue-make, schwänzn
grain scratch tschentschn meckern, nörgeln
gråsn jäten úråssn waste, - geuden
gràttln pedantically do wâchin, wàchln flutter; fächeln
grâwin mould wâtschn slaps
gràxln climb weizn spuken
griang gotten woing roll
gugazn W cough, hüsteln wualn wimmeln
hàckln A work zân live; pull
hàtschn limp; defy zàxln pull, pull
hudln hasten, rush zumpan drängeln
hupfa jump zuzln suck
hunzn annoy, nerves zwigga pinch; [Work on

the most productive

suffix cancel ticket for the education from adjectives are - ad; it goes either on the suffix - ore back, or on the suffix - ends, which is actually used for the formation participle of the present (see there; both Suffixe collapsed in Bairi lautlich). Master endings in parentheses (usually - g or - CH) are spoken only if the adjective is inflected and thus a vokalische ending receives.

Bairisch high-German Bairisch High-German
ågfressn insulted gschlåmpad untidily
more åper free of snow gschleggad slimily [with persons]
impudently gschmeidi (g) A ausgschàmmt madly
ausgstocha discriminatingly gschmoassn slim
båbbad sticky gschnåbbad impudently, schnippisch
båcha A kitschig; stifling gschodad unfrisiert, zerzaust
båmpad unwirsch, schroff gsöicht smoked
båtschad tolpatschig gspàssi (g) merrily
biggad sticky gstingad stinking
blåddad glatzköpfig gstumpad blunt, mute-lie
blâd aufgedunsen; thickly gumpad jerkily, nervously
blosshàxad barfüssig gwåmpad bulgy, beleibt
bumbalgsund core-healthy shark, hâl smoothly [with ice]
dàmmisch confused, taken away haudi (g) exhausts
dàntschi (g) nicely, dear-attractive hànti (g) bitterly [with coffee]
dearisch A deaf, schwerhörig hâtschad ponderously
dèbbad dämlich hieni (g) broken; dead [ugs]
doarad B deaf, schwerhörig hintafotzi (g) hinterhältig
doiggad täppisch hoagli (CH) discriminatingly
hoibschâdi (g) halfheartedly
drâmhàbbad overslept kommódt comfortably
dreggad dirtily leiwand W wonderful, greatly
drenzad weinerlich len softly
drutschad einfältig, naively lêtschad lax, flabby
dusi (g) those victory, foggy liab sympathetic, nicely
entrisch strangely, strangely lind ungesalzen
fabàndlt associated må (b) mürbe
fakuid, faköid afflicted with a cold nàrrisch moved
fâd boringly nei (g), nei (CH) again
fesch prettily neidi (g) enviously
gâch suddenly pfànzi (g) B gracefully
gàmsi (g) lüstern pfundi (g) B madly
gàmpri (g) lüstern ràss sharply; unfriendly
gfleggad spotted resch knusprig; sourly [with wine]
ghoazt/A ghàzt stifling roglad zappelig, nervously
glumpad uselessly, useless ruachad raffgierig
gnâtschi (g) depressed såmft sacht
goschad before-loud ski oh ugly
graubbad unattractively schleissi (g) schäbig; carelessly
grànti (g) übellaunig; furiously sec. Kant A nervig
greisli (CH) terribly siari (g) stingy
griabi (g) B pleasantly soich impure, clouds
grindi (g) eklig, disgustingly stâd quietly, quietly
grosskopfad arrogantly (g) wågglad wobbly
grossgoschad grossmäulig wèpsad jerkily, zappelig, hyper+actively
gschàmmi (g) shyly, been ashamed wualad excited
gschead fies zâch toughly, with difficulty
gscheggad scheckig ziagad viscous
gscheid intelligently zimpfti (g) comfortably
gschiaglad squinting; lied zwieda unsympathisch

adverbs

particularly within the range of the times of day arise some differences to the standard German:

Bairisch standard-German Bairisch standard German|now - af iatz (ad) B agràt
d'Nåcht in the evening just in there Frua in the morning
with there Nåcht at night iwahàps at all
oreidig ugly lei T K only
only only easily about [question adverb]
here oim T always
e, ê anyway; reliably oiwei last
year always fert pfeigråd protects directly,
exactly pfent rapidly
gâch suddenly, unexpectedly pomâli W slowly
gråd only; just sauwa quite
gscheid efficiently, rather sàggrisch condemns
gschwind rapidly söitn rarely; remarkably
haia this year úmbàndi (g) extraordinarily
hoid evenly, probably zmoast mostly

time

with the indication of the time gives it some ditches on the German language area, which do not coincide necessarily with regional dialects; Bairi (together with other upper-German dialects) can be distinguished after the preposition use at quarterly hours from to north ones and Central German ones nevertheless:

12:15 - bair: Viertl nå zwöife, rarely as in the standard: Viertl oas

12:30 - bair: hoiwe oas

12:45 - bair: Dreiviertl oas/Viertl af oas, rarely, rather standard: Viertl forwards oas

particularly at full hours is necessary it, - to forget e with the numbers starting from four not:

16:00 - bair: fiare

16:30 - bair: hoiwe fimfe

natural applies in the first example for Ostbairi, particularly for Wieneri, àns instead of oas.

monetary units

at times of the D-mark were usual in Altbaiern the following Münzbezeichnungen:

  • Fimfal, Fümfal: 5 Pfenning
  • Zehnal: 10 Pfennig
  • of Fuchzgal: 50 Pfenning
  • Màgl, Iggl: 1 Mark
  • of Zwiggl: 2 Marks
  • of Dåla: 5 Marks

most of these designations were transferred to the appropriate euro-units, whereby still the “Zwånzgal” (in Austria “Zwànzgal”) to it-associated for the 20-cent coin. This designation became already D-mark times in the sheep head - language for the basis tariff 5/20 (Fimfal/Zwånzgal) uses.

The designation “Dåla” (high-German: Valleys) one uses however not for the five-euro-note, but is today probably unfortunately limited on duck living; also the “Iggl” and the “Zwiggl” come slowly from the mode to be silent from the “Màgl”, a Diminutiv of the D-mark, naturally completely.

weekdays

as Vorgeschmack on a list in more detail follows here a list of the bairischen weekday names, which are affected by the gothical language property partly and do not only deviate therefore from the high German in their sound shape. They are however strongly on the retreat and today in rural areas are only used; many Baiern are already perfectly unknown it:

Standard-German Bairisch explanation
Monday Månda/Mondåg same word trunk („day of the moon “), with bair. A for o and decrease of the Auslauts - g
Tuesday Iada/Ergedåg of Ertag, which is a short form of suppl. day, thus „day of the acre “; see. in addition Thursday
Wednesday Migga/Mitchtåg contracted form of the high-German word (with the isolated sound development powerplant > gg)
Thursday Pfinzda/Pfinsdåg of Pfinztag, a derivative of griech. penté „five “, thus the 5. Day of the week (outgoing from Sunday, see. the word Whitsuntide)
Friday Freida/Freidåg same word trunk, derived from the Germanic goddess Freyja
Saturday Såmsta/Såmståg same word trunk, from which Hebrew ones (see. the word Sabbat)
Sunday Sunda/Sundåg same word trunk („day of the sun “), with bair. to u for o and Auslautschwund

name

see Bavarian names

word formation

verbal prefixes

it gives two verbal prefixes, which have a counterpart in the high German, which are many more productive in Bairi however.

there

there (< 'in addition, the) corresponds to the high German he, occurs with verbs, which cannot have the high-level language this prefix. It the knappe accomplishment of an action and is meant often used also for different kinds of kindkind; therefore verbs with this prefix are always perfektiv (see also aspect of verbal).
Examples:

  • dabågga (< der+packen) “create; bear, bear "
  • SI dabårma (< der+barmen) “pity” (more common than in the Hdt.)
  • daduan (< der+tun) “kill” (jokeful)
  • that narrow (< der+sehen) “(straight still) to see can”
  • (SI) darenna (< der+rennen) “running (straight still) reach”; [refl.] “dead-drive themselves”
  • SI dasàffa (< der+saufen) “totrinken themselves”
  • daziang (< der+ziehen) “(straight still) to pull can”

zsåmm

zsåmm [com] corresponds to the high-German together, it however more frequently one uses than this.
Examples:

  • zsåmmbringa „create “
  • zsåmmkema „ending “
  • zsåmmfårn „down-lead; to scrap iron “zsåmmdrân
  • employ “zsåmmhaun
  • smashed “zsåmmklaum
  • aufklauben “[
work on] collective nouns

collective nouns

drive every now and then with the suffix - àch are formed, which is limited however to Südbairi and the center-LBA-Irish at the border to Swabia. Examples:

  • Angeziagàch garb, articles of clothing
  • Erlch Erlengebüsch
  • Gschwistràch of brothers and sisters
  • Kindràch of children, child crowd
  • Kreitlàch herb
  • Standràch rock
  • Staudàch Stauden, bushes

the Diminutiv

Bairi possesses two Diminutivsuffixe: - l and - aluminium (<- erl). First is strongly lexikalisiert, i.e. it is not understood often no more than Diminutiv. Bairi exhibits thus, similarly as the Netherlands and Alemanni, a number of lexikalisierter Diminutive; Examples:

  • for “horse” one uses both in the Bairi either Ross or Pfeadl, is however equivalent (i.e. Pfeadl is not considered any longer than Diminutiv). In order to designate a small horse, one uses the suffix - aluminium: A Pfeaddal. The Diminutiv Ressl to Ross is used rather for the figure of Springer in the game of chess (see. dt. Rössel).
  • when to “house” one cannot form Diminutiv in the Bairi Haisl, because designates the toilet (in former times except, today also within the house); Haisal against it unambiguously a small house is

however can also the suffix - aluminium its Diminutivfunktion lose:

  • A Sàchal is not a small thing, but a small messuage
  • A Blàtzal is not as in the high German a Plätzchen, a small place (in addition, Plätzchen/cookie)
  • A Griagal is no small jug, but a unit (0.5 l)
  • A Drimmal may be a small Trumm, it concerns in the high German however more precisely a heap of dog

with the Diminutivbildung must on umlauts be counted; is the umlaut å > à mandatorily (and further productively); other umlauts do not step always in of examples:

  • A Gloggn - A Gleggal („a bell, a Glöcklein “), but: A Goschn - A Goschal („a mouth “(vulgär) - „a Mündchen “(Kosewort))
  • A Kuacha - A Kiachal („a cake, a Küchlein “), but: A Guaggn - A Guaggal („a cucumber, a Gürkchen “)
  • A Drumm - A Drimmal („a Trumm, a Trümmlein “), but its causer: A dog - A Hunddal („a dog, a Hündchen “)

ends the word trunk up - n or on Nasalvokal, is pushed in a epenthetisches - D before the Diminutivsuffix; nasaliertes becomes - n restitutes:

  • A Pfånn - A Pfàndl („a pan - a Pfännchen “)
  • A Stoa - A Stoandal („a stone - a Steinchen “)
  • A Henn - A Hendl („a hen “(zoo-logically) - „a chicken “(culinarily))
  • A Må - A Màndal (the Diminutiv does not designate a small man, but the male in the biological sense, like in German)

two Diminutive show umlaut e > à; they are however lexikalisiert, the umlaut may therefore as unproductive apply:

  • A Hefn - A Hâfal („a pot - (large) a cup “)
  • A humans - A Mànschgal („humans - a play figure “)

many Diminutive without etymon often refer to humans, who are pitied in any way; they are however no insult words, but rather compassion testifying:

  • A Zeisal („poor humans “)
  • A Wâsal („poor humans “; Etymon possibly. Nature or orphan?)
  • A Båtschal, A Drutschal („clumsy, awkward humans “)
  • further: A Bibbal („a Küken “; likewise without etymon)

Bairi transcription

the Bairi also often writing light was established (of dialect poets, musicians), a kind standard for the bairische transcription there.

This transcription was used also in the this article. In many cases she sees similar to the high German, where the word is however differently expressed. Here some guidelines for the discussion of the transcription used in the article:

  • The r after vowels except A usually becomes before consonant bright à. There are however also Baiern, which after o and u sometimes a strongly rolled r speaks, which does not sound less bairisch then.
  • The r after A against it is often expressed also at the word ending and before consonant, rolled if then strongly, so always - also at the word ending - before vowel. Exceptions are the words hia (r), Bia (r) and the like.
  • unbetontes - it is expressed always like bright A, but more briefly.
  • For the regulation of the A and its variants see further above under phonology and in the discussion to this article.
  • A and o are expressed like e and u such as i, even if quibbling researchers find sometimes still tiny differences out.
  • äi and öi approximately like English ai in pain are expressed.
  • egg against it is completely normal high-German egg. If it does not correspond to high German European Union, sometimes it is spoken with a tiny breath toward äi.
  • g is expressed before f , s and sch like k; gh always like k one expresses: ghabt, ghåitn and so on. This applies it in the rest of also for the Jo gh urt, why Baiern do not understand at all, why one with bare g to write should.

literature

of dictionaries

the vocabulary of the bairischen dialects in Bavaria is seized and described in the Bavarian dictionary (dialects in Bavaria), in the Sudeten German dictionary (Sudetenland) and in the dictionary of the bairischen dialects in Austria (Austria, South Tyrol, Zimbri language islands).

westcenter-LBA-Irish

  • Johann Andreas Schmeller, Bavarian dictionary (Oldenburg, new edition 2002)

the classical author of the bairischen dialect dictionaries. To read with difficulty, there in german type and in Schmellers of peculiar Alphabetisierung. Franconias and Swabia includes also.

  • Ludwig Zehetner, Bairi German. Encyclopedia of the German language in old Bavaria (1997)

new one, extended edition 2005 straight appeared. In the way of writing often ajar against the high German.

eastcenter-LBA-Irish

  • Otto Hietsch, From “pick up” tons of “Zwetschkenknödel”. At Austrian Lexical Cultural Guide (Tyrolia, 2000)

like the sub-title suggest, only in limited measure as dictionary suitably. Nevertheless very informatively! In English written.

  • Otto Hietsch, Bavarian into English (3. Edition, 1997)
  • Peter Wehle, Sprechen it Wienerisch?

reference books to the grammar

Altbairisch

  • Cordula May forest, the temp-oral system of the center-LBA-Irish. (Heidelberg 2002)
  • Ludwig Merkle, Bairi grammar (Heimeran publishing house, Munich 1976)

maintenance SAM written, without academic requirement. Nevertheless indispensable overview!

  • Karl Weinhold, Bairi grammar (Berlin 1876)

only one scientific reference grammar to Bairi, unfortunately meanwhile of the language development overhauls.

see also

Web on the left of

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