Baktrien (lat. Bactria, chines. TA-Hia) is the name of a landscape and a small kingdom in Central Asia, which in the time of the Achämeniden north the Hindukusch and south the river Amu Darja, with the capital Baktra (the today's Wazirabad in the northern Afghanistan), lay. The area, made of which also the religion founder Zarathustra comes, belongs today majority to the north of Afghanistan and to the southern Turkestan. The inhabitants Baktriens were the Baktrer.
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of the Perserkönig Kyros II. Baktrien subjected around 540 v. Chr. a Satrapie of the Persian realm made from Baktrien. After the large conquest of the Perserreich by Alexander the large one 330 v. Chr. tried the sowing RAP von Baktrien, Bessos, to the independent king ofBaktrien to make, but he was subject to Alexander, which conquered Baktrien after heavy fights.
After Alexanders death belonged to Baktrien to the realm of the Seleukiden, to itself governors Diodotos 256 the v. Chr. made independent and the Greek baktrische realm based. It covered also a part of India,separated however around 182 v. Chr. after a war between Demetrios and Eukratides into several realms up, which were hard pressed by the Parthern and Indoskythen. Among the kings these realms as the most important Greeks Alexandros and Hermaios are called.
141-129 v. Chr.Baktrien was occupied of Yüe tschi. After Hermaios followed in the 1. Century v. Chr. a not-Greek king, Kadphizes (house Kuschan, Yüe tschi realm).
In the 1. Century n. Chr. the king Gudopheres descending from the Parthern prevailed over the largest part of the realm; under it announced after thatPutting one the holy the Thomas's Christianity in Baktrien. To 200 the dynasty of the Turuschkas prevailed, until the rule of the Kuschan, Hephtaliten and (in the southwest) the Sassaniden made an end for this remainder brightistic culture in the east and the Greek language by the native againdisplaced.
The antique name TA-Hia probably appears in the today's word Tadschik .
„the gold of Baktrien “
end of the 1970er years found archaeologists in the today's Afghanistanthe remnants of an antique grave field. In some the graves, among other things in that, one found to a wealthy woman over 20.000 gold articles. The probably most well-known piece of find is a crown from pure gold, aufwändig worked, which one could fold up on journeys. The treasure, its extent quitewith the grave-added of the Tutanchamun is comparable, could be never completely saved, since still during the excavations Soviet troops in Afghanistan einmaschierten. The excavation team had to flee. „The gold of Baktrien “was stowed away hastily in crates and driven on a jeep to Kabul. Afterwards loses itselfthe trace of the treasure.
Only in the year 2002, the lose-believed treasure dipped. It stored in the Afghan central bank. He had been hidden there by a guard of the bank, when the Taliban came to power. A German television team was allowed thereupon some the articlesfilm, the authenticity of the pieces shown by the excavation leader at that time one confirmed. Meanwhile is however again unclear, where „the gold of Baktrien “is and whether it is issued ever in a museum.
- Baktrien. in: Small encyclopedia of the brightism. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1993, S. 93-96. ISBN 3-447-03278-2 (there literature also resuming).