Baldassare Galuppi

Baldassare Galuppi (* in Burano with Venice to 18. October 1706; † 3. January 1785 in Venice) was as an Italian composer of central importance for the development opera buffa its time, in addition, one of the most important representatives opera seria. After its place of birth it was designated also as IL Buranello or under the venezianischen form of its first name Baldissara.

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Galuppi monument in Burano

after with its father, a bar beer and amateur violonist, first musical training had kept, composed Galuppi supposed it at the age of 16 years its first opera Gli amici rivali, one „favola pastorale “, which fell through however completely. Probably on recommending the composer Benedetto Marcello it studied counterpoint with Antonio Lotti, the first organists of pc. Markus, like probably it not, as further suggested by Marcello, for which remainder of its life took distance from composing operas.

1726 it was engaged in the venezianischen theatres San Samuele, San Angelo („the house theatre “of Vivaldi), and in the largest and most important theatre of Venice, the San Giovanni Grisostomo, which concentrated on opera seria. Its activity existed there in the setting-up of operas of other composers for certain occupations, what included also composing inserting airs, and in the Cembalospiel. Gli'odi del sangue of 1728, one seria like nearly all operas from Galuppis early work, whose three document he divided with his Mitstudenten Giovanni Pescetti, had a certain success and smoothed its further way; in December 1737 already two of its operas had approximately at the same time premiere, Alessandro nell'Indie in Mantua and Issipile in Turin, whereby Galuppi was present with the Mantuaner premiere probably only. The music for the celebration, composed by it, hl. Maria Magdalena led Mendicanti, which assured a certain financial independence to it to a fixed employment at the Ospedale dei.

1740 appeared with Oronte its first opera for the stage of the San Giovanni Grisostomo. Shortly thereafter it received an invitation to London, where it led eleven opera performances during a one and a half-year old stay, among them four new own works. In London the opinion was divided over it: Trade mokierte itself over the only opera, which it had seen, and after whale poles was its music „a disappointment for everyone “. Its operas were taken up nevertheless well and further works of it were specified also after its Londoner stay. After its return to Italy Galuppi took its position in the Mendicanti and continued working as Cembalist, composer and Arrangeur. When it furnished operas of Gaetano Latilla , Rinaldo di Capua and other one, it came for the first time with the style that neapolitanisch - Roman opera buffa into contact, which spread gradually to north Italy. Its first own attempt with the amusing category, La forza d'amore after a libretto of Panicelli, was however a failure. Regardless of its career made as seria - Kompionist large progress, its operas were also abroad more frequently played and taken up better. In May 1748 it received the important position of the vice maestro cappella the ducale from pc. Markus. Shortly thereafter it had an enormous success in Vienna, which set up new cash records with Demetrio.

Although the first Vertonung of a Goldoni - text with seria „the Gustavo I, RH svezia “ already the 1740 took place, the Kollaboration, for which Galuppi admits today primarily is and which should become style-forming for it, but indirectly also for the Opera buffa altogether, should still until 1749 take time: Starting from this time and beginning with L'Arcadia in Brenta Galuppi with this kongenialen partner in the area of the amusing opera co-operated. Fruits of this co-operation were over the next eight years 15 amusing operas, among other things IL filosofo campagna, IL mondo della Luna and Le the Nozze, which had San Samuele and San Moisè premiere predominantly in the venezianischen theatres. These works conquered stages, which looked for their-same with an ease of Europe. Short time was Galuppi the most well-known opera composer of its time later. Since this new career developed without prejudice to its activity on the range opera seria, it had to deliver its post at the Ospedale depression Mendicanti 1751 because of work overloading. It wrote the Madrider engagement opera and the Turiner with Demofoonte both festa teatrale La vittoria di Imeneo, who was twenty times specified more as, on the occasion of the wedding of Maria Antonietta Ferdinanda of Spain with the piemontesichen heir to the throne Vittorio Amadeo. In April 1762 it held a so undisputed position in Venice that it could take the most important position in the music life of the city without Animositäten, those maestro coro from pc. Markus.

In September 1765 Galuppi of an invitation followed to the Russian yard Katharinas of the large ones after pc. Petersburg. For this it composed Ifigenia in Tauride beside other works, had with a performance of Didone abbandonata large success and dedicated themselves to the church music, which formed 1768 more and more also after the return after Venice the emphasis of its work. Its last opera was dramma giocoso the La serva by livigna from 1773. Nevertheless Galuppi was very busy with its other musical and social activities. So it visited of the future Zaren Paul and led the musical honours of the Pope Pius VI. in Venice. Starting from 1784 Galuppi had increasing health problems, continued however noticing its kompositorischen and musical obligations. Briefly before its death at the 3. January 1785 it composed its annual Weihnachtsmesse for the Markusdom.

Music historian Charles Burney, which felt him, after Jomelli and before Piccini and Sacchini, as which most inspired venezianischen composer regarded, him on the occasion of an attendance from the year 1770 as charming and spirit-rich, he spoke him opposite of his work room as „the area, in which I soil paper “. It described Galuppi as „from figure small and thinly, but it has the exterior of a Gentleman “, and it was impressed the Galuppis outstanding call in Venice likewise on its character as on its public abilities as musicians to be justified seemed. „An extremely exzellenter composer “ was the estimate of hate in a letter at Metastasio, and its partner of many years Goldoni honoured it with the following dedication: „Which music! Which style! Which masterpieces! “


Galuppis music-historical main earnings/services lies surely in the impulses justified, which it, together with Goldoni, which could give opera buffa. The best example of this co-operation is the ensemble of final, which Galuppi and Goldoni developed to a new, through-composed form, which should become style-forming for the entire opera buffa starting from this time up to Haydn, Mozart , Rossini and many different. Goldonis amusing occasionally texts sentimental peppered with wordplays and find elegant, easy melodies their equivalent echo, whose rhythmic instinct contributes the seinige to the joke of Goldonis verses in Galuppis. Numerous contrasts in speed, kind of clay/tone and kind of clock reflect the various, surprising equivocations of the action and the facets of the emotions within a musical „number “ again, without falling back for this to the Rezitativ, as at that time usual. Form, Melodik and Harmonik subordinate themselves here clearly to the forward urge of the action.

Although the name Galuppi is thus associated, partly by right, from today's viewpoint with opera buffa, it contributed its opere series at least just as much to its lifetimes to its fame which was justified probably also in the fact that Venice represented a center since Monteverdis times rather seria and opera buffa neapolitanischer coinage only had to be established here. Specified despite the enormous success of the Goldoni operas, which conquered Europe in the storm completely, Galuppis serious operas during its lifetimes, as it also numerically in its work to dominate clearly more frequently; under a total number from approximately hundred operas are only 21 amusing works. Goods its early operas of this type still completely to the since-capo-air turned off, with their for the time typical extensions and modifications - as AABAA, AA'BAA' or ABC OFF forms and with Metrums and changes of speed for the middle parts -, then its style became later innovative.

Galuppi generally stands clearly in the Italian tradition for that primarily the charming, simple and beautiful melody committed music, with a clear, transparent company, which leaves sufficient area for Virtuosität and emotion. In the discussion with Burney it designated the most important elements of good music as „vaghezza, chiarezza e buona modulazione “(beauty, clarity and beautiful intonation). Its often surprising musical ideas characterize effectively persons and situations and open occasionally new perspectives, however always subordinate themselves to the statement of the text material.

Galuppi, when conductor and Arrangeur an absolute man of theatre practice was, a master of the dramatically appropriate employment of the orchestra, whose outstanding features are motivische and topic tables teeth with the Singstimme, paired with a clear orchestra set, which leaves sufficient area for the ensemble on the stage. The orchestra of the Markusdoms, which it led long time, was considered as the best of Italy. In the same way a special attention of its kompositorischen activity, already since its earliest years, applied the setting-up and adaptation of airs and singing portions to certain singers, a practice, which is not to be excluded from the Italian theatre life at that time. Galuppi had, also owing to its position in Venice, one „of the capitals “of the Italian opera, opportunity, to co-operate with the most famous singers of its time, like Caffarelli, Giocchino Conti, Caterina Gabrieli, Guadagni, Amorevoli and Manzuoli.

list of selected works

work premiere kind dear savingist
L'olimpiade Milan, 1747 opera seria Pietro Metastasio
Artaserse Vienna, 1749 opera seria Pietro Metastasio
L'Arcadia in Brenta Venice, 1749 dramma giocoso Carlo Goldoni
IL mondo della luna Venice, 1750 dramma giocoso Carlo Goldoni
IL filosofo campagna the Venice, 1754 dramma giocoso Carlo Goldoni
La diavolessa Venice, 1755 dramma giocoso Carlo Goldoni
Le nozze Venice, 1755 dramma giocoso Carlo Goldoni
L'amante the tutte Venice, 1760 dramma giocoso Antonio Galuppi (son of the composer)
L'inimico depression Donne Venice, 1771 dramma giocoso Giovanni Bertati


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