Bamboo

bamboo
bamboo in the Botani garden in Vienna.
Systematics
Department: Bloom plants (Magnoliophyta)
class: Einkeimblättrige (Liliopsida)
subclass: Commelinaähnliche (Commelinidae)
order: Sweet-grass-well-behaved (Poales)
family: Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
Unterfamilie: Bamboo
scientific name
Bambusoideae
Luersson
tri bus
  • Olyreae
  • Bambuseae
bamboo at the Lijiang in China

Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a multiform Unterfamilie from the family of the sweet grasses (Poaceae). There are about 1,200 kinds in the Unterfamilie of the Bambusoideae. There are two fundamental types (at the same time also tri bus corresponds to the taxonomischen organization into two.) of bamboo:

  • Tri bus Bambuseae: Tree-well-behaved increasing felling trees Taxa with slim, getting goats, pretty often branched, often meter-long stems, airy, delicate Blätterkronen, grass-like sheets and sometimes enormous blooms rispen.
  • Tri bus Olyreae: Taxa, which grow like “normal” grasses, form refuges and do not fell trees, these kinds of bamboo become also rarely higher than a meter.

Table of contents

spreading

you to have theirHomeland on the continents: Asia, (north and south) America and Africa. There is tropical to subtropical plants. But some kinds prosper even within colder ranges well; thus for example Chusquea forms aristata in the eastern and chain still with 4.700 m NN impenetrable Dickichte and goeseven up to the snow border, also in the Himalaja some kinds to 3,800 m NN rise, and Bambusa metake from Japan and several Chinese kinds prosper in Central Europe completely well.

stature

of selected kinds

the Bambusse enormous dimensions

reach description [work on] (Dendrocalamus brandisii becomes 38 m highly with 80 cm stem extent). They belong to the most useful plants, and Bambusa arundinacea is to be compared in this regard only with the Kokospalme. Its actual homeland is unknown, one finds it in both hemispheres, and it prospers inAlgeria and in Southern France sumptuously. From the Rhizom numerous stems coil 18 m and more highly with large speed, the sheets are 16 cm long, but only 1.3 cm broad, the blooms are only in 25. Year and then it appears so plentiful that the plantsby large production by fruits to be exhausted and completely or up to the Rhizom die.Bambusa gigantea flowers only in 30. Lebensjahr. B. tulda in Hinterindien the height of 22 M. reaches in one month. In the area of the Amazon is B. latifolia more importantlyA component of the vegetation. From China and Japan buntblätterige Bambusse is imported, of those particularly the Japanese, remaining low B. fortunei as pretty ornamental plant is recommendable. During planting of Bambussen in domestic, European garden it is to be noted that many Bambusse Ausläufer (Rhizome) form.This Rhizome moves in the earth and can quite put some meters back per year. In order to prevent an uncontrolled propagation, it is advisable to set a Rhizomsperre around the plant.

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some only very rarely only every 100 years flower to bloom some kinds of bambooor still more rarely. Even the soil-covering Sasa flowers only about every 20 years.

If rarely flowering kinds of bamboo flower nevertheless, it can occur that they die, since the plants use thereby their last force reserves. Since the plants in a region flower at the same time, this dying can concern a large region from plants. That is among other things in the nineties-years 20. Century in Europe occurred, where bamboo is used as garden plant. By a back cut of the plant, which drives in the following year out again, as long as the Rhizome is present, can flowering andso that also dying to be prevented.

Because of the rare frequency the bloom of the bamboo is not yet very in detail investigated, it e.g. is. yet it does not admit why the plant flowers so rarely and which it energizes for flowering. It is accepted that the rare andwide bloom contributes to receive the seeds since no animals can specialize in their consumption.

use

food

freshness bamboo rungs in the supermarket
the only food of the large Panda are kinds of bamboo.

The young Schösslinge of the bamboo cane becomes as vegetablesenjoyed or inserted into vinegar. Particularly the kinds Bambusa, Dendrocalamus and Phyllostachys are suitable for the consumption.

Freshharvested bamboo rungs have a very firm, lightyellow meat with narrow Luftkammern in the center of the rung. They are won, by being excavated from the soil, andare surrounded with several very firm, haarigen and dark-brown sheets, which are removed before cooking. Bamboo rungs are predominantly imported made of Asia and Latin America. In Europe they are cultivated only in Italy. Bamboo rungs are also before-cooked and offered packaged for the sales.

The Schösslinge containsToxin (Blausäureglykosid), which must be neutralized by cooking. Since many kinds of bamboo contain also bitter materials, these should be likewise neutralized when cooking. In Japan bamboo rungs e.g. become. together with the flour cooked, that when polishing rice develops („nuka “) and above all the outsideLayers of the Reiskorns contains. It is also possible to along-cook for this purpose Chilischoten.

The inserted bamboo rungs are called „Achia “or „Atchia “.

Since bamboo rungs contain a high portion of silicic acid, which is necessary for hair, skin and bone and can also lindernd with depressions work, becameit also used in the traditional medicine.

Also the oats-similar grain bamboo is edible.

Bamboo is the only food of the large Panda - bears.

Verwendung von Bambus: Ein Baugerüst in Mumbai, Indien.
Use of bamboo: A scaffold in Mumbai, India.
A house completely from bamboo
winter insulation for cold from bamboo staffs (Japan)
work on []

Building material

from the tough, light and very hard wood whole houses can be built. In former times whole villages were built only from bamboo, and nearly the whole capital of Siam swam on bamboo rafts. Also bridges and water pipelines were built from bamboo.

horticulture

In the Chinese garden architecture the bamboo is a substantial design element. Also in European gardens the bamboo becomes in the last years ever more popularly.

The following ranges of application for the bamboo in the garden are only smaller outlined the actual possibilities: The bamboo as Hain, hedge, bamboo asBodendecker, bamboo on the terrace, inner courts, view and wind protection, roof gardens, Kübelpflanzen, Wintergartenbegrünungen. That flirrend becomes green to leaves, the elegant stems in beautiful colors fits into nearly each Gartenambiente, harmonieren with blooms and trees.

Bamboo is an evergreen plant. Also in the winter the bamboo keeps its sheets.80 per cent of all bamboo sorts offered in Germany (Fargesie, Phyllostachys) and bear briefly temperatures up to -20 degrees are durable.

Bambusa spinosa gives impenetrable hedges.

Since bamboo is very hard, so that it splinters with cutting up dangerously and also only extremely slowly one decomposes, particularly are high kinds with strong trunk with the composting problematic.

Among other things one uses bamboo also for scaffold construction, building of houses, bridge construction as well as road construction.

utensils

bamboo in various ways, in order to manufacture furniture and all kinds of domestic appliances, among other things artful twisted Körbchen, curtains, doses is used and.A. In addition, other practical thes subject of the daily use such as hats, baskets and staggered arrays are made of bamboo. The long, frizzy Geschabsel served for padding. A splinter of wedge-shaped cross section, whose sharp edge is formed by the flint-rich outside, uncommonly hard layer, gives muchsharp knife. The same outside layer served also as Wetzstein for iron measurers.

Into bamboo canes, which chars thereby, but, did not cook the Javaner at a bamboo fire does not burn recent bamboo impulses.

In China for roles tied together bamboo strips were used as write material.

Zerklopfter bamboo split pin can as brushare used, and also in Europe bamboo feathers/springs are used.

A climbing kind is converted to all kinds of wattlework, bags, even jackets.

Also in Europe bamboo was used for production by sticks (pepper pipe) and umbrella handles.

music instruments

in some countries and regions, for exampleJava (Angklung), China or Tahiti, are made also music instruments of bamboo. In Japan bamboo is above all used, in order to manufacture flutes like the Shakuhachi or Shinobue. On Hawaii bamboo is used for the production of a flute-similar woodwind instrument, the Xaphoons. It gives however alsoImpact and pulling instruments from bamboo.

weapons

also as weapon bamboo was used: Blasrohre, arrow shanks and heads of the arrow, lances and Palisaden consisted of the material.

In Japan of bamboo during a complicated process the elbow of the Samurai are made. Similar bamboo elbows who that alsotoday in Japan and of advanced contactors in Europe in the Kyudo uses.

With bamboo points equipped traps and drop pits became still in the Viet Nam war in 20. Century by the Vietnamesen successfully assigned.

raw material

in China was produced most paper from recent bamboo impulses andon Jamaica very much bamboo fiber for the North American paper production won.

In the knots of old stems a Kieselkonkretion, the bamboo fighter ( bamboo sugar , Tabaxir ) forms, who in the Chinese medicine, in addition, when polishing agent is used and exported in large quantity to Arabia.

cultural meaning

painting of Hsü Wei (China, approx. 1540-1590)

Different symbolful meanings are assigned to the bamboo. So it is for example in China a symbol for long life, in India however a symbol of the friendship. In the Philippines become bamboo crosses of farmers as Glücksbringerset up.

In Japan bamboo is likewise a positively occupied term. There bamboo very straight grows and due to its fresh green color is considered it as symbol of the purity. It appears as symbol also together with Kiefernzweigen and Kirschblüten. The three plants do not only become asLuck symbols assigned, but e.g. also, in order to mark with the Sushi different price stages. At the year end on each side of the Eingangstür a bundle from bamboo canes and Kiefernzweigen is set up, which are to bring luck („kadomatsu “).

Since bamboo flowers only rarely and was predominantly eaten the seeds during hunger times,the bamboo bloom in some cultures is interpreted as a harbinger of a hunger emergency.

In some cultures of Asia, e.g. into the Andamanen, is assumed mankind out-stepped with its emergence from a bamboo cane. In Malaysia and Japan there are legends over a young (andvery small) woman, who lives and appears in a bamboo cane, if the pipe is cut.

systematics

This article overlaps thematically with [[taxonomy of the Bambusoideae]] {{#if: | and [[{{{3}}}]]}} {{#if: | and [[{{{4}}}]]}}. Help to define or combine the articles better from each other.You find a guidance for the use of the collecting main and a list of the past multiple entries under Wikipedia: Article to the same topic. There please expresses you, before you remove the component. Javaprog 16:32, 19. To January 2006 (CET)

to the Unterfamilie Bambusoideae about 1200 kinds belong. It becomes intwo tri bus and several Subtribus arranged with approximately 98 kinds:

Tri bus Olyreae, are not felling trees kinds of bamboo, with 21 kinds:
  • Agnesia,
  • Arberella,
  • Buergersiochloa,
  • Cryptochloa,
  • Diandrolyra,
  • Ekmanochloa,
  • Eremitis,
  • Froesiochloa,
  • Lithachne,
  • Maclurolyra,
  • Mniochloa,
  • Olyra,
  • Pariana,
  • Parodiolyra,
  • Piresia,
  • Piresiella,
  • wheel dia.,
  • Raddiella,
  • Rehia,
  • Reitzia,
  • Sucrea.
Tri bus Bambuseae, are getting goat kinds of bamboo, this tri bus arranged into nine Subtribus with 77 kinds:
Subtribus Arthrostylidiinae, with 13 kinds:
  • Actinocladum,
  • Alvimia,
  • Apoclada,
  • Arthrostylidium,
  • Athroostachys
  • Atractantha,
  • Aulonemia (Syn.: Matudacalamus),
  • Colanthelia,
  • Elytrostachys,
  • Glaziophyton,
  • Merostachys,
  • Myriocladus,
  • Rhipidocladum.
Subtribus Arundinariinae, with 16 kinds:
  • Acidosasa,
  • Ampelocalamus,
  • Arundinaria,
  • Borinda,
  • Chimonocalamus,
  • Drepanostachyum (Syn.: Himalayacalamus),
  • Fargesia,
  • Ferrocalamus,
  • Gaoligongshania,
  • Gelidocalamus,
  • Indocalamus,
  • Oligostachyum,
  • pseudo ASP,
  • Sasa, with 60 kinds.
  • Thamnocalamus,
  • Yushania.
Subtribus Bambusinae, with ten kinds:
  • Bambusa (Syn.: Dendrocalamopsis), with 120 kinds.
  • Bonia (Syn.: Monocladus),
  • Dendrocalamus (Syn.: Klemachloa, Oreobambos, Oxynanthera, Sinocalamus),
  • Dinochloa,
  • Gigantochloa,
  • Holttumochloa,
  • Kinabaluchloa (Syn.: Maclurochloa, Soejatmia),
  • Melocalamus,
  • Sphaerobambos,
  • Thyrsostachys.
Subtribus Chusqueinae, with only two kinds:
  • Chusquea, with 120 kinds.
  • Neurolepis.
Subtribus Guaduinae, with five kinds:
  • Criciuma,
  • Eremocaulon,
  • Guadua,
  • Olmeca,
  • Otatea.
Subtribus Melocanninae, with nine kinds:
  • Cephalostachyum,
  • Davidsea,
  • Leptocanna,
  • Melocanna,
  • Neohouzeaua,
  • Ochlandra,
  • Pseudostachyum,
  • Schizostachyum,
  • Teinostachyum.
Subtribus Nastinae, with six kinds:
  • Decaryochloa,
  • Greslania,
  • Hickelia,
  • Hitchcockella,
  • Nastus,
  • Perrierbambus.
Subtribus Racemobambodinae, with only oneKind:
  • Racemobambos (Syn.: Neomicrocalamus, Vietnamosasa)
Subtribus Shibataeinae, with eight kinds:
  • Chimonobambusa,
  • Indosasa,
  • Phyllostachys, with 55 kinds.
  • Qiongzhuea,
  • Semiarundianria (Syn.: Brachystachyum),
  • Shibataea,
  • Sinobambusa.

With other authors this Unterfamilie contains much more Taxa. (nevertheless the representation with GRINcorresponds probably to the opinion in AGP II, the other Taxa belong today into other Unterfamilien of the Poaceae.)

see also

consider

seems particularly popular lately the so-called luck bamboo to be, which is however no bamboo, becausebut two kite tree species (Dracaena) are used. The name luck bamboo is a registered registered trade mark. It is offered in Europe in many furniture houses, building markets, supermarkets, garden centers and flower shops.

Likewise no genuine bamboo is the Seychelles grass, which is offered as dwarf bamboo or also Bonsai bamboo. ThatHanging tree bamboo is likewise a grass, the so-called Flechtstraussgras. Further falsely than bamboo designated plants are: Sky bamboo, Bambusorchidee, bamboo begonia, Bambusficus, Bambusblättrige oak, central multi-bamboo.

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