|of these articles treats a region in three-landhits a corner Hungary Romania Serbia. The designation Banat was used also for those areas, which were administered by a Ban.|
The Banat is a landscape, those between Serbia, Romania and (to a very small part) Hungary is divided. It is limited in three directions by rivers: in the north of the Mureş (dt. Marosch, ung. Maros), in the west the Theiss (ung. Tisza, serb. Tisa) and in the south the Danube (serb. Dunav). The bordereastward the Karpaten forms. Surface-moderately the historical Banat has about the size of Belgium and/or. the Viktoriasees.
The Romanian Banat consists similar field level (“the heath ”) in the west of one the Hungarian Puszta, in the northeast part of hill country (“thoseHedge ") and in the southeast from low mountain range. Economical and cultural center is the large city Timişoara (Temeswar and/or. Temeschburg, ung. Temesvár). The Serbian part consists of flat country.
In the antique one the Banat part of the Kingdom of Dakien was later andafter the Trajan - wars part of the Roman province Dacia. During the Awarenzeit in 5. and 6. Serbs settled century . Centuries later it came at Hungary. The Turks conquered it 1526. It became 1718, nearlytwenty years later than Hungary (peace of passport aero joke) Austrian and got the name of Teme Banat. Probably comes the name Banat of the awarischen prince title Ban, which changed into the Middle Ages also on the Serbs and Croat. 1867 becameit in the Kingdom of Hungary integrates. The Komitate Torontal (today main in Serbia), Temes (approximately Timiş corresponds to the today's Romanian district) and Krasso Szöreny (corresponds to the today's Caraş Severin) was formed.
After the First World War the Banat was divided: in Peace treaty of Trianon (4. To June 1920) 18,945 km fell ² at Romania, 9,307 km ² to the new State of Yugoslavia and 217 km ² remaining with Hungary. At that time the drift of the Banater Swabia began. The Westbanat belongs today to Serbia Province Vojvodina (capital Novi Sad). West lies the Batschka, which was likewise German-language settled around 1700 .
The population structure was still very much mixed in both parts of the Banat until 1944. In 18. Century - after end of the Turk wars -by the Austrian crown predominantly catholic settlers German in the majority (the so-called Banater Swabia) were settled here to the Serbs: Pfälzer, Swabia, Bavaria, Hessen, down and upper Austrian (“Landler “), Natives of Alsace, in addition,a small number of Frenchmen, Italians and Spaniards. There were Slowaken , Ruthenen and Armenians beside Hungary , Romanian , Serb and German also. In the eastern Banat (in the Banater heath) gave it villages and citieswith German majorities. Also in Timişoara 2 was up to. World war the Germans the largest ethnical group.
As consequence of occupation by the German armed forces and their Gräueltaten in relation to the Serbian population in the Second World War the German minority is inSerbian Westbanat (to 358,604 persons in the Vojvodina according to census 1931, see Danube swabia) because of their active accomplice shank at the National Socialist crimes immediately after the war by escape, kidnapping in Russian hard labour, murder, driving out and drift nearly completely disappeared. ThatRomanian Banat remained to a large extent spared by such incidents. There was (temporary) a Entrechtung and a total expropriation of the German minority and the temporary Deportation also here nearly all German at age able to work to the Soviet Union. But contrary to at that time Yugoslav, today Serbian, Westbanat here no systematic driving out took place. So the Banater Swabia in Romania could protect their identity and their possession. Only the large emigration waves of the 1960er and 1980er years left the number of the Germans in the Banatto one today infinitesimal small minority decrease/go back, however particularly this very day place names point such as old rings, praying living, God praise, Johanisfeld , Lenauheim , favourite , Niţchidorf or Gherman to the German past to that in the environment from TimişoaraRegion.
Living together of the subpopulations is traditionally good. The ethnical conflicts of the past faded away long. In the Romanian Banat to the place of the emigrated Germans numerous settler from other parts of Romania advanced, predominantly Romanians, in addition, a great manyHungary (so-called.Székler) and gypsies (by the majority Roma) from filter defiency guarantees. Nationalisti Hungary demand however the borders old medieval Hungary again, to which this Romanian and Serbian region belongs (demand: Connection of the northern Vojvodina at Hungary, autonomy in Romania),whereby certain tensions develop.
For an inhabitant of the Banats it is not also today unusual to control two or three languages. Many leaning words besides locally under the languages were exchanged. Like that it is in the range of the city Lugoj (dt. Lugosch, ung. Lugos) for example not uncommonly to use in the daily linguistic usage the word “Bigleis” for” irons “.
cities and larger municipalities in the Banat
Romania: Timişoara (German: Temeswar and/or. Temeschburg, Hungarian: Temesvár), Reşiţa (German: Reschitz), Lugoj (German: Lugosch, Hungarian: Lugos), Jimbolia (German: Hatzfeld), Sânnicolau Mare (German: Large sink Nikolaus), Nădlac (German: Nadlak, border place to Hungary), Periam (German: Perjamosch, Hungarian: Perjamos), Anina (German: Steierdorf), Oraviţa (German: Orawitza)
Serbia (Vojvodina): Pančevo (German: Pantschowa, Romanian: Panciova), Zrenjanin (German: Large Betschkerek, Hungarian: Nagy Becskerek), Kikinda, Vršac (German: Werschetz, Romanian: Vârşeţ), Bela Crkva (German: White churches), Zenta.
partitioning of theBanat
in Serbia into three districts:
- Severni Banat (Северно Банатскиокруг)
- Srednji Banat (Средње Банатскиокруг)
- Južni Banat (Јужно Банатскиокруг)