Bangkok

Bangkok
Krungthep Mahanakhon
กรุงเทพมหานคร
coat of arms
Wappen von Bangkok
base data
surface: 1.565, 2 km ²
inhabitants: 6.642.566 (1. January 2005)
10.787.211 Metropolregion (BMR)
population density: 4,244 Einwohner/km ²
height: 20 m and. NN
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 13° 45 ' N, 100° 31 ' O
13° 45 ' N, 100° 31 ' O
city arrangement of 50 districts
ISO 3166-2: TH-10
homepage: www.bma.go.th
politics
governor Apirak Kosayothin
Bangkok in Thailand
Thailandkarte (Bangkok)
view over Bangkok
Blick auf Bangkok

Bangkok (thail. officially Krungthep Mahanakhon, Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร, briefly Krung Thep, กรุงเทพฯ- usually translated with „city of the angels “) the capital of the kingdom is Thailand and a special administrative territory since 1782. It has the status of a province (Tschangwat) and by a governor is governed. The actual city has 6.642.566 inhabitants.In the Bangkok, the largest dye in Thailand, 10.787.211 humans (conditions in each case 1 live metropolitan region (BMR). January 2005).

The city is the political, economical and cultural center of Thailand with Universities of, universities, palaces and over 400 Wats (buddhistische temple plantsand monasteries) as well as most important traffic junction of the country. The national museum in Bangkok is the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia.

In Bangkok also the UNESCAP is resident.

Table of contents

the name of the city

Krung Thep... in Thai-Schrift vor der Bangkok-Stadtverwaltung
Krung Thep…in Thai writing before thatBangkok city administration

the official name of the city Bangkok in Thai reads Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan sowing hit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit.

While Bangkok became the internationally common designation, to use Thai usually the short form Krung Thep („city of the angels “). The official designation, for example on license numbers, reads Krungthep Mahanakhon.

The coat of arms of Bangkok shows the divinity Indra to Erawan, the mythologischen Elephanten, that in some illustrations also three of headsto have can. In its hand Indra holds lightning. The coat of arms is based on a design of Somdej Chaofa Kromphraya Narisra nuwattiwong.

The Wahlspruch of Bangkok reads:

Help the underprivileged persons,
terminate the air pollution,
solve the large traffic problems,
everyone in the city is friendly.

geography

geographical location

satellite photo

the city is because of the seam of Indochinesi and Malaii peninsula at the Chao Phraya river (called in the western world Maenam, what literally translated „nut/mother of the water is called “, actually howevercompletely generally „river “means) and north the gulf of Thailand on the average 20 meters over the sea level. The Chao Phraya has width of approximately 400 meters.

That west the Chao Phraya convenient area is called Thonburi and was until 1971its own city, while the part lain east was more than two hundred years ago only a small village, mainly inhabits from Chinese dealers.

The city has a surface of 1.565, 2 square kilometers, the entire Metropolregion a floor space of 6,193 square kilometers. Thosegeographical coordinates of the city are 13.75 degrees northern latitude and 100.51 degrees of eastern length.

city arrangement

of urban districts of Bangkok

Bangkok is divided into 50 districts (Khet, sometimes falsely also Amphoe mentioned) and these are further in160 Kwaeng, the Tambon comparably, divided. The Khets follows in German Transkription and in Thai.

Fear for Bon (บางบอน), fear for Kapi (บางกะปิ), fear for Khae (บางแค), fear for Khen (บางเขน), fear for Kho Laem (บางคอแหลม), fear for Khun Thian (บางขุนเทียน), fear for well (บางนา), Fear for Phlat (บางพลัด), fear for Rak (บางรัก), fear for Sue (บางซื่อ), Bangkok Noi (บางกอกน้อย), Bangkok Yai (บางกอกใหญ่), Bueng Kum (บึงกุ่ม), Chatuchak (จตุจักร), Chom Thong (จอมทอง), DIN Daeng (ดินแดง), Don Mueang (ดอนเมือง), Dusit (ดุสิต), Huai Khwang (ห้วยขวาง), Khan well Yao (คันนายาว), Khlong SAMWa (คลองสามวา), Khlong San (คลองสาน), Khlong Toei (คลองเตย), Lak SI (หลักสี่), Lat Krabang (ลาดกระบัง), Lat Phrao (ลาดพร้าว), Minburi (มีนบุรี), Nong Chok (หนองจอก), Nong Khaem (หนองแขม), Pathum Wan (ปทุมวัน), Phasi Charoen (ภาษีเจริญ), Phaya Thai (พญาไท), Phra Khanong (พระโขนง), Phra NAK-hone (พระนคร), Pom Prap Sattru Phai (ป้อมปราบศัตรูพ่าย), Prawet (ประเวศ), advice Burana (ราษฎร์บูรณะ), Ratchathewi (ราชเทวี), Samphanthawong (สัมพันธวงศ์), Sai May (สายไหม), Saphan Sung (สะพานสูง), sowing horn (สาทร), Suan Luang (สวนหลวง), Taling Chan (ตลิ่งชัน), Thawi wading Thana (ทวีวัฒนา), Thonburi (ธนบุรี), Thung Khru (ทุ่งครุ), wading Thana (วัฒนา), Wang Thonglang (วังทองหลาง) and Yan Nawa (ยานนาวา).

climate

Klimadiagramm
climatic diagram
Siam Square (Rama I. Road)

Bangkok is in the tropical climate zone. The annual average temperature amounts to 28.4 degrees Celsius, the annual amount of precipitation of 1,507 millimeters on the average. Main rain time is between May and October, in individual cities must be particularly counted in September and October on inundations. Most precipitation falls in September with 344 millimeters on the average, few in January with on the average eight the millimeters.

The average temperatures liethe whole year over between 26,1 and 30,4 degrees Celsius. The middle daytime temperature amounts to maximally 32 degrees Celsius, minimum 24 degrees Celsius with high air humidity.

Warmest month is April with maximally 35 degrees Celsius and minimum 25 degrees Celsiusmiddle daytime temperature. The coldest month is in the area around Bangkok of Decembers with maximally 30 degrees Celsius and minimum 20 degrees Celsius daily average temperature. The drying time goes from December to March. March and April are the hottest and most arduous monthsin Bangkok.

environmental problems

Bangkok has to fight with substantial environmental problems. A close cloud from exhaust gases lies permanently over the city. Experts stated that in the major roads the air pollution achieved values already injurious to health. Since the buildingthe multistoried buildings is the ventilation of the roads no longer ensured, thus that the concentration of the poison materials dramatically rises. About bronchitis, asthma or exhaustion each sieved inhabitant already complains. Particularly loaded, like Tuk Tuk - drivers, traffic policemen and street traders, carried protective masks.

Bangkok prepares problems also the water supply. Thus the city does not possess a central water supply net. Also the structure of a sewage system stands only at the beginning. Into the 1990er years led the industry and private households the waste water central without any cleaning inthe river Chao Phraya. The wastes get air dirty and poison frequently any life in waters. Numerous factories in the Metropolregion - under it also in many populated areas - may establish own wells for regulated water supply, what to a continuousDrop the ground-water level contributes.

history

origin

historical map (around 1888)

the origin fearing for coke is to part fearing for coke in the town Thonburi, today, because of the western bank of the Chao Praya. General Taksin made Thonburi inYear 1772, after Ayutthaya had been destroyed to a large extent 1767 in the war with Burma, to the new capital. Later the new king Rama I. shifted ten years., Founders to Chakri dynasty governing today, the seat of the government on the eastern bankand with it the area began named Rattanakosin, with at that time particularly the village inhabited by Chinese fears for Kok (บางกอก), actually probably fears for Makok (บางมะกอก), what meant in each case „village of the game plum “( Spondias mangifera), after the model of the earlierTo develop Residenzstadt to the capital.

The official name of the city reads since at that time in the short form Krung Thep - thus „city of the angels “. That is however only one short form of the complete name, the world-wide longest city name (see above the name to thatCity). Western dealers and traveler used the name of the village Bangkok instead of its, from which those became today internationally well-known designation.

the city of the channels

Rattanakosin became by a channel, the Khlong plumb bob, to oneartificial island in a bend of the Chao Praya into their center the new king palace and the royal temple, wade to Phra Kaeo with the emerald Buddha (Phra Kaeo), to which Nationalheiligtum Thailand were established.

In that time was the wholeCity of a close network of channels (Khlongs) pulled through. Traffic took place to the majority on this Khlongs. Even the markets („swimming markets “) took place on the water. There were roads hardly. Also sometimes at that time Bangkok becamethe Venice of the east calls. Most Khlongs became starting from the center 19. To create century successively filled up around area for the constantly increasing traffic and the increasing city.

1863 became the first paved road of the city ThanonCharoen Krung (the Farang called it new Road - „new road “, literally „road for the enlargement of the capital “) in place of an earlier elephant trampling path finished. During the regency king Rama V. Chulalongkorn (1868 governed - 1910) developed a railway line the KrungThep with the north of the country connected, strassenbahnlinien for traffic in the city, a large number of new roads and the majority of the government buildings often affected by European styles.

the modern Bangkok

Skyline of Bangkok
Baiyoke Tower II (304m) the highest building of Thailand

at the beginning 20. Century grew the city beyond its earlier borders northward and the east. West the river of quarters lain, the inauguration of the first bridge, that meant a further, growth thrust in particular for those Memorial Bridge, over the Chao Praya in the year 1932. During the Second World War Bangkok was occupied for some years by Japanese armed forces and starting from 1944 of the allied ones was bombarded. After the end of the war those recoveredCity however rapidly and continued to grow steadily.

Up to the center 20. Century most Khlongs had been already filled up and replaced by boulevards and roads. Starting from the 1960er and 1970er years so many houses were built and developed urban motorwayslike never before. With the restaurant boom of the 1980er years (see „tiger states “) a further new development began, which led a large number of multistoried buildings to the establishment and which townscape changed lastingly. The number of the inhabitants rose at the same time rapidlyand Bangkok finally made one of the largest metropolises of the world.

At the beginning 21. Century live in Bangkok over six million humans, in the Metropolregion even over ten million. The city recovers economical appreciably from the collapse at the endthe boom of the 1980er years, which finds its expression not least also in new building projects. One of the largest urban problems represents the traffic. Also the development of the public transportation network with Bangkok Metro and Bangkok Skytrain knew the situation so farease only minimum.

live

inhabitant development view of the Baiyoke Tower

II in the actual city Bangkok 6.642.566 humans on a surface of 1.565, 2 square kilometers. The population density amounts to 4,244 inhabitants per km ². In Berlin there is to the comparison 3.800.Bangkok reserves seat 22 of the most densely populated cities world-wide.

In the Bangkok 10.787.211 humans on a surface of 6.193 km live metropolitan region (BMR) ². The population density amounts to 1,742 inhabitants per km ². To the BMR the actual city Bangkok Metropolis and those belongit to surrounding provinces NAK-hone Pathom, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Samut Sakhon. The BMR reserves seat 26 the most densely populated Metropolregionen world-wide.

Bangkok is an example of a dynamic, however unplanned urban growth. Between 1970 (3,1) And the number of inhabitants doubled itself millions to 2000 (6.3 million). The city is by far larger than all other cities of Thailand. It has at present (2005) already 17 times as many inhabitants as the next larger city Samut Prakan (388,920 inhabitants), the dyeBangkok even 44 times as much as the next larger densely populated area Udon Thani (247,231 inhabitants).

Since in the capital all important political and economic decisions pleases become, Bangkok is a Primatstadt. Pro head the gross domestic product is ten times higher than in the poorestRegion of the country. While the capital region developed economically, far parts of the country did not profit or had a decrease of the gross domestic product to register. By this primacy the city had an immense migration increase in the last decades.

The following overviewshows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1910 it concerns around estimations, from 1919 to 2000 around census results and 2005 a computation. The numbers of inhabitants refer to the actual city without the suburb belt.

View over the city
Year inhabitant
1880 255,000
1910 365,000
1. April 1919 437,294
15. July 1929 713,384
23. May 1937 890,453
25. April 1947 1.178.881
Year inhabitant
25. April 1960 2.136.435
1. April 1970 3.077.361
1. April 1980 4.697.071
1. April 1990 5.882.411
1. April 2000 6.320.174
1. January 2005 6.642.566

development of the living situation

a large problem for the metropolis Bangkok is it, many in the last years tightened humans, above all land refugees, to supply sufficiently. For numerous humansdwellings had to be built. The increasing demand for development land increased the housing and plot prices substantially.

Therefore many settlements for the fewer earning at the outskirts of a town are established (Slums). The public mechanisms (hospitals and schools) are insufficient. Garbage and waste waterno longer sufficiently are disposed, the ground-water level sinks by risen consumption ever faster.

Above all humans in the Slumsiedlungen are endangered by infection illnesses such as Cholera , diarrhea and typhoid fever, which are spread by insufficient hygenic conditions. In addition comeBreath way and skin diseases due to the poisonous emissions of the numerous industrial companies and the motor traffic.

A further problem in Bangkok is increasing traffic. The road system is completely overloaded. In addition Bangkok with relatively small underground has - and overhead railway net onlyfew mass means of transport. By the numerous cars it comes too much in the city large air pollution (high ozone - and carbon mono oxide values).

politics

old parliament building

administration

governor of Bangkok are Apirak Kosayothin of the democratic one A party. It won the elections of 29. August 2004 with 40 per cent of the voices opposite the candidate of the Chart Thai party, Paveena Hongsakul, which received only 16 per cent of the votes. Hongsakul had followed between 1996 and 2000 governor of Bangkok,of Samak Sundaravej, which exercised the office until 2004.

Bangkok is a special administrative territory and has the status of a province. Differently than in the 75 further provinces of Thailand (changwat), it is however the only province, in that thatGovernor is selected directly. Governor elections take place generally every four years.

The city of the Metropolregion Bangkok goes however beyond the borders of the province Bangkok and is enough into the neighbour provinces Nonthaburi, Samut Prakan and Pathum Thani.The today's Bangkok developed 1972 from the pool of the old province Bangkok - changwat Phra NAK-hone - and the Thonburi province.

partnerships between cities

Bangkok maintains with the following cities partnerships.

culture and objects of interest

overview

wade in the eastthere is

the city in the city over 400 Wats (buddhistische temple plants). The most important is wades to Phra Kaeo (wade to Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram), which accommodates the “emerald Buddha in such a way specified “and enjoys country-wide a high admiration.

Togetherwith the Grand Palace (Phra Borom Maharatchawong), wade to Pho (wade to Phra Chetuphon), the oldest and largest temple fearing for coke with his 46 meters are enough gilded statue of the lying Buddha, and wade to Mahathat, the one of the large buddhistischen universities(Maha Chulalongkorn university) of Southeast Asia accommodated, forms wades Phra Kaeo on the “Koh Rattanakosin” (Koh = island) the historical center of the city.

Further important temples are wade to Arun (temple of morning redness) into Thonburi and wade to Trimitr (also wadeTraimit), with the Buddhastatue of Thailand most valuable in material regard, which was manufactured from more than five tons pure gold.

In Bangkok are besides the Thai national museum, the national gallery and the national theatre.

theatre

the national theatre in BangkokPhra That Road is on the area of the old Wang well, the palace of the second king of Thailand („the Uparaja “) at the well. Before the east entrance a statue of Phra Pinklao, that is as a younger brother of kingMongkut was appointed from this to the next to last Uparaja.

The building was developed after a fire from 1960 to 1965 in its present form: the t-shaped building shows a combination of Thai and western architecture. Over the main entrance of the theatre is a relief, which the protection God of the arts, which Ganesha represents hinduistischen God. In the building performances of the classical Thai dance take place. The hall possesses an original tapered form. Up to the completion of the renovation work at the end of of 2006 the theatre remains closed.

In newbuilt Joe Louis Theatre on the area of the Suan Lum Night Bazaar the Ramayana - for Epos as Thai doll play are specified. Before the performance the traditional figures are presented. Three artists act with multicolored, aufwändig embroidered staff dolls, those from the family head SakornYanghiawsod (Joe Louis) for the 1950er years to be made.

,

a considerable collection of artifacts and art articles from the Thai Bronzezeit to the Bangkok time accommodates museums the national museum, the largest in Southeast Asia. The whole complex consists ofhistorical buildings in the Thai style, Chulalongkorn of the Wang was here nevertheless well, the palace of the Uparaja, the second king of Thailand up to the time of king.

The Bootshäuser at the Khlong Bangkok Noi, a Dependance of the national museum directly behind thatPin Klao bridge, accommodate the Royal would save (king barks). These artful carved and verzierten barks are used only with all-highest ceremonies of the king house.

The national gallery (national Gallery museum) is opposite the national museum because of the Chao company Road. There are old and contemporary paintingsimportant Thai artist issued.

„Jim Thompsons Thai house “at the Khlong sowing Saeb in the Soi Kasemsan 2, a transverse lane of the Rama I Road, is an ensemble from several, each other assigned timber buildings in the old-Thai style. This became of Jim Thompson (1906- 1967), that legendenumwobenen man production, that after end 2. World war the Thai silk trade revived and world well-known made, and which then under mysteriösen circumstances without trace disappeared. Today the complex is a museum, in which Thompsons exquisiteCollection of asiatic art to see is.

In the Bangkok Doll museum (doll museum) in the Soi Ratchataphan behind the Ratchaprarop Road dolls from native production are issued. In the Ban Kamthieng, a 200 years old Thai house in the Lan well - Thai style in the garden of the SiamSociety in the Soi 21 (Asoke) the Sukhumvit Road is to be seen a collection from implements of Thai farmers and Fischer to. The Queen's Gallery to the Ratchadamnoen Avenue the close Phan company Lilat bridge points regularly to four floors exhibitions more well-known and lesswell-known contemporary Thai artist. Often are these exhibitions of I. M.Queen Sirikit of Thailand gesponsort.

buildings

Grand Palace and wade to Phra Kaeo

Phra Sri Rattana Chedi into wade to Phra Kaeo

this most important landmarkFearing for coke on the bank of the Menam Chao Phraya consists of over 100 buildings in different architectural styles. The entire area with a surface of more than 200,000 square meters by 1.9 kilometers are enough tin-reinforced wall covered.

A special Kleinod of thisEnsemble is wades Phra Kaeo (temple of the emerald Buddha), a piece of gloss of Thai art. To its preciousnesses the emerald Buddha , those belongs to most admired Buddhastatue of Thailand.

Further attractions of this large palace are the Phra Thinang Amarin Winichai throne-resound, the PhraThinang Dusit Maha Prasat throne-resounds and the large Chakri palace. To it continue to count „the Royal Thai Decorations and Coin pavilion “with a constant exhibition of royal Insignien, Preziosen, medals and coins as well as other currencies, at the beginning of the 11. Century in circulationwere.

Before the Grand Palace is the Sanam Luang (also Phramen Ground, thus „the Phra Meru “- field mentioned), an extensive parade place umsäumter of Tamarindbäumen, since the establishment the fearing for coke for the Kremation of members of the royal family, in addition,for other public ceremonies, as for instance the royal plow ceremony is used in the month May. Around the place several buildings of splendour group themselves: the Fine kind department (academy of the beautiful arts) with the Silpakorn academy of art, the Thammasat university and the national museum, the national theatre,the Ministry of Justice as well as the Lak Mueang, the geographical center of the historical city.

further temple plants

wade to Pho (temple of the lying Buddha) is directly southern an extensive temple plant the Grand Palace. There the enormous is, with gold foilcovered statue of a lying Buddha - 46 meters long and 15 meters highly, its foot brines are inserted with Perlmutt. Wade to Pho was once also the first public educational facility of the country. In addition the temple is famous for its traditional Thai Massage.

wade to Arun (the temple of the dawn) is an impressing building of temples and the landmark fearing for coke on the other bank of the Chao Praya, opposite the Grand Palace. Its about 75 meters rising Pagode is with porcelain - tiles coveredand sparkles in the sun.

Wade triwith (temples of the golden Buddha) is a Heiligtum at the end of the Yaowarat Road in Chinatown, in the proximity of the Bangkoker main station Hualampong. There a three meter of high Buddha from five one half tons solid gold thront.

Wade to Benchamabophit (marble temple) is appropriate at that for SI Ayutthaya Road, beside the Chitralada palace, the residence of king Rama IX.. This is one of the newest temples fearing for coke. It became during the rule of king Rama V. (1853 - 1910) establishes from white Carrara marble. Remarkably elements of the Sakralarchitektur Europe are, for example multicolored Glasfenster. In the change course (Phra Rabieng) around the Ubosot is approximately a collection of Buddha-Statuen from bronze of the most diverse art styles of Thailand.

Wade Suez-has onthe Bamrung Muang Road is admits for its erlesenen wall painting from that 19. Century, which had been restored still on the occasion of the 200-Jahr-Jubiläums fearing for coke with financial assistance of the Federal Republic of Germany. The giant swing before the temple became long ago for bramahnischeRituals uses. Some business in the environment offers buddhistische devotional objects for sale.

Wade to Saket (the golden mountain): The most interesting at this temple is from that the 19. Century coming golden mountain over the Ratchadamnoen Avenue. The golden Chedi, an artificialHill with its 87 meters high gilded Pagode crowns, accommodated Buddha Reliquien. From there the old part of town can be visited of Bangkok.

Further important temples in the center of Bangkok are wade to Mahathat at the edge of the Sanam Luang of field, which the main universitythe buddhistischen Mahanikai religious community accommodated, wade to Ratchanatdaram to the Ratchadamnoen Avenue behind the Rama IIi Memorial park with its Loha Prasat (a Pagode, which due to their building material „iron palace is called “), wade to Ratchabophit, a temple to the Ban Mo Road with a mixture of nativeand European style elements as well as wade to Indrawihan into the Wisutkasat Road with a 32 meters high standing Buddhafigur.

further buildings

Vimanmek palace
Khlong Sanam Chai with wade to Raja Orasaram

Lak Mueang (shrine of the city column), the Bangkoker „Stadtheiligtum “, lies closethe southeast corner of the Sanam Luang of field. It accommodates from king the Rama I. (1736 - 1809) put foundation-stone fearing for coke - actually a column. This stands in the call to meet desires. All day long become long by the GläubigenDancers paid to discuss with their dances those in such a way there residents of city spirit to betören and them health and prosperity.

Vimanmek Mansion (the himmlische palace) - it is the largest Teakholz building of the world - lies behind the parliament. It accommodates upthree floors 81 rooms, halls and anterooms and is with Erinnerungsstücken of the king house of end 19. Century furnishes. The Teakholz is covered in numerous places with gold foil.

The Suan luggage pool of broadcasting corporations palace is a complex of five Thai houses in the midst of a gardenat that SI Ayutthaya Road and accommodates an important collection of asiatic antiques. Most important building is thereby „the lacquer pavilion “, a small wood pavilion from the time of king Narai of Ayutthaya (1656 - 1688), that up to the year 1960 inWade to Ban sound with Ayutthaya as Kuti served. It is decorated with murals in layman red Nam technology (black gold lacquer) from the late Ayutthaya - or early Rattanakosin - period.

Also the Chao Phraya is worth seeing and still receives remained channels from Bangkok (Khlongs) still up to the center the 20. Century far parts of the city pulled through. For the building of roads many of these old traffic routes were filled up. Together with the Chao Phraya, „the river of the kings “, show it descriptive, like thatLife and driving on the water essentially already for some centuries hardly changed run off.

Objects of interest at the Chao Phraya are inaugurated the Memorial Bridge („Saphan Phut “), the first bridge between Bangkok and Thonburi, to 150. Anniversary of the establishment fearing for coke, and thoseRama viii-bridge, which had only been inaugurated in May 2002.

park

Lumpini park
Chatuchak park

the Lumpini park is the largest park in the center of Bangkok. There daily „Tai Chi become “- practices to exercises (shade boxes). Close one is the Lumpini stadium, inwhich fights in Thai boxes will deliver. Opposite the Lumpini park - after in São the Paulo - second largest the queue farm of the world lies. Those about thousand poison queues of the farm are held for production and development by welfare serum.

In „the Dusit zoo “, fearing for coketo oldest zoo beside the Royal Plaza, are to be seen the most well-known African and asiatic mammals and birds and still many further animal species. On the area Cafés and a lake artificially put on with surfaces are for recovery. The areaby two channels it is flowed through about which one in the autumn venue of a famous raft competition on the occasion of the Loi Krathong - celebration is.

Worth seeing also „the King Rama IX park is “, an about 80 hectare large park and botanischer garden in the Soi 103(Udomsuk) the Sukhumvit Road. It became in the year 1987 on the occasion of 60. Birthday of king Bhumibol Adulyadej opens.

„The Rommaninat park “to the Maha Chai Road was to center of the 1990er years the city prison of Bangkok. The city administration evacuated the prisonbefore the gates of the city and made a beautiful park from it. It offers a allabendliche sport and recovery possibility for many adjacents resident.

sport

in two large and several small stages distributed over Bangkok gives it the possibility, that“muay thai”, better Thaiboxen with all its rituals admits to look at Thai national sport to be able under the name. Both in the Lumpini and in the Ratchadamnoen stadium are to be seen some the best fighters of the country. The meetings find the whole week alternatingin both stages instead of. Refrained from the fight in the ring additional maintenance takes place by music company, which is played by a traditional ensemble, on pii or Thaioboe be based.

Another popular kind of sport is the traditional “Takro lod huang” (Ringtakro).Here it concerns a kind ball play, with which a twisted Rattanball with all parts of the body - except with the hands - must be kept as long as possible in air. Professional teams play on the Sanam Luang field(Phramen Ground) before the Grand Palace in Bangkok against each other. A further version of this kind of sport is the Netztakro that in the national stage and in the Hua Mak stadium is played.

Likewise a traditional sport in Thailand is the kite fight, with a symbolic fightthe sexes in air takes place. Here the large “male” kites, called to Chula, fight against the smaller, “female” Pakpao. The enormous Chulas must be steered by a whole team of men. These multicolored meetings find in March and April on thatSanam Luang field instead of, because then each afternoon the wind necessary for it arises.

regular meetings

Thien company shrine during the Chinese New Year celebration

national holidays and large religious celebrations are particularly splendidly committed in Bangkok: To the birthday of the queen orthe king take place parades in the decorated roads. With large celebrations even the royal barks are left to water. Also the Chinese New Year celebration is cause for three-day-long ceremonies in Chinatown.

Visakha Bucha, the largest buddhistische celebration, becomes inWade to Phra Keo and on the Sanam Luang committed. Already starting from eight o'clock pull 30 to 40 affectionately decorated cars with statues, which represent scenes from the life of Buddha, by the Rachdamnoen Road to the king palace.

During the cool seasonfrom in the middle of February to at the end of March take place on the Sanam Luang of kite matches. To the plow ceremony on the Sanam Luang in the middle of May flow farmers out of the whole country to Bangkok. During the Songkran - celebrations are delivered in fearing for coke roads true water battles.To this time numerous shut-off positions lead to the traffic chaos, particularly in the old part of town; however it is calm in Chinatown.

meal and drinking

Thai Curry with sea fruits

in Thailand is the harmony the goal of each meal. By thatVerzehren a Dips with vegetable, a soup, a Currygerichtes and a spicy salad can an equilibrium be manufactured. Sharp, salty and sweet-sour courts as nam phrik (Dips) and soups - serves with cooked rice - belong to that to the standard mealsfruitful central region, in which Bangkok lies.

Rice as main part as well as sharp, salty and sour courts are common, in many restaurants in Bangkok are offered in the dry northeast region (Isaan) in addition, far. Some the most popular courts are Somtam (greener Papaya salad), gai yang (grilled chicken) and laap (salads with chopped meat and blow herbs). A large part of the road courts in Bangkok comes likewise from this region, since numerous salesmen originate from the northeast.

With thisit acts regional kitchen with the rice usually over sticking rice, which is not cooked but is not gedünstet.

Courts from the north of the country are usually mildly or spicy, salty or sour, but not sweetly. Is also here rice main part. Vergorene,sour pig sausages, which are grilled also on the road in Bangkok, are much like. In the maritime south of the country fish is mostly preferred to the meat. Sour Currys (without coconut milk) belongs to the standard. In the restaurants of the city can also this kitchen to be tried out.

In Bangkok are also numerous restaurants, which offer international meals, for example from Greece , India , Latin America or the Middle East. There are many good Chinese, Japanese and European restaurants, where the guestthe various kitchen of the respective region is offered. Also one can enjoy the variety of the Thai kitchen at the many small restaurants and kitchens.Muslim and southasiatic courts are predominantly in the Islamic municipalities of the city available. Is tasty toExample chicken Biriyanis or chicken Karuma, after which sweet Bodin is eaten. This authentic meal is much likes and represents a skillful mixture from different added and cultures.

The German kitchen is represented with some baker's shops and restaurants, those of native one, touristand resident (Farangs) good to be visited.

(See also: Thai kitchen)

buying

market in Bangkok

large shopping centres, which can quite measure with those from Singapore or Hong Kong, concentrate particularly in thatlower Sukhumvit Road, the Silom Road and particularly at the Siam Square. Here lie the MBK, the Siam Discovery center, Zen and the straight opened Siam Paragon next to each other, in that it beside all erdenklichen luxury marks such as Ferrari and Lamborghini also inenormous accessible aquarium gives.

In the Shoppingcentern are accommodated business, offices, restaurants, cinemas and department stores. The purchase palaces, which rank among the largest world, are to Seacon Square and series center because of the arterial roads outside of the center , for example in the SrinakarinRoad far east the city center.

In the town with millions of inhabitants Bangkok survived some markets with a rural character, on which fresh fruit and vegetable, fish and meat are offered. There are the legendary swimming markets however only outside of the metropolis. Upabove all textiles and drugstore articles are sold to most markets fearing for coke, in addition, plants and souvenirs.

In Bangkok to be attractive offer silver and Niellowaren, dolls and masks, Holzschnitzereien, abrasions of temple reliefs on thin rice paper, bronze article, cotton textiles, sun screens, fan andmuch more. The trade with antiques is forbidden in Thailand since 1989. Therefore a whole industry of production lives partly deceptively genuine falsifications.

economics and infrastructure

economics

of the Chao Phraya

the city are one of the most important restaurant and transportation centers in Southeast Asia. Bangkok is both traffic junction and port, over this city runs 90 per cent of the foreign trade; there half of the gross domestic product of the country is gained; there industry and administration concentrate. ThoseThai stock exchange has its seat in Bangkok. In addition are in the city the headquarters of the economic and social commission for Asia and the Pacific of the United Nations (UN) as well as further UN-places.

Finished courts, wood and textiles are fearing for coke most important export goods. ThoseCity is in lowlandses, in which one cultivates to rice predominantly, then in the rice mills the fearing for coke, one of the most important branches of industry, is processed. Further important industrielle of products are among other things food and motor vehicles as well as textiles, cement and decoration.

Oil refineries and there are shipyards in Bangkok numerous. The city is well-known as decoration and jewel commercial centre. It is inferior the world-wide center for the processing and the production of synthetic stones. The sapphires and rubies promoted in the own country are relatively small,most is imported.

Tourism is an important source of income. The Khaosan Road, in the proximity of the palace complex, is the meeting place for backpack tourists from all world. At the other end of the routistic spectrum orders Bangkok with the “Oriental” and the “Peninsula”over luxury hotels, which are ranked for years among the best ones of the world.

Although illegal, also prostitution is a restaurant factor and a large problem in Bangkok. Sextourists come particularly from Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Australia, Europe, the Arab states and the USA to Bangkok. The most well-known and most notorious red light districts in Bangkok are Patpong, Nana Plaza and Soi cowboy.

traffic

long-distance traffic

Bangkok internationally air haven
station Hua Lamphong

thoseCity is most important junction of the road and Eisenbahnnetzes in Thailand.

air traffic

Bangkok is seat of an international airport meaning for Southeast Asia, the Bangkok internationally air haven (Don Muang), 22 kilometers north the city centre. The domesticTerminal is 500 meters city inward from the two international terminals. A free bus oscillates between both dispatch halls. The completion of the Suvarnabhumi air haven planned for May 2006 - the close Eastern Outer ring Road is and a capacityof three million passengers per year to have is - because of incorrect building method around at least one year retarded.

most courses direction the north, northeast, the east and the south drive Eisenbahnverkehr of Hua Lamphong, to the main station fearing for coke. AfterKrabinburi drive besides courses starting from Makkasan station. Courses direction Kanchanaburi/River Kwae and some slow courses into the south drive off from the station in Bangkok Noi. Instead of of the old station building start the courses of that new station, to more free of chargeShuttle in five minutes drives.

End 19. Century finished an English society the railway connection Bangkok Ayutthaya - Khorat . The southern line after Pak Nam became at the 11. Open , afterwards one built the line Bangkok Ratchaburi for April 1893 -Petchaburi out, which was finished placed briefly after 1903.

bus traffic

Bangkok has three remote bus stations, from which most penalty (except some AC - penalties and mini penalties) drive off: The Eastern bus terminal (direction east coast), Sukhumvit Road, opposite Soi Ekamai;the very large Northern and Northeastern bus terminal (“Mor Chit”; The north and northeast), Kamphaengphet 2 Road, west the road to the airport and the Southern bus terminal (direction the south and the west), south of the Hwy 338, at the ramp of the Borom RatchaChonni Road.

Maritime traffic
Bangkok

Phraya bank is to harbor facilities [work on] and occupies a surface by more than 3.6 square kilometers because of the right eastern Chao. In the everyday life life it is called Khlong Toei, is called however actually Pak Nam (as much howDelta, literally water mouth). The sea port is one of the largest Southeast Asia. Already end 19. Century existed regular steamer connections to Hong Kong, Singapore and Saigon.

suburban traffic

Tuk Tuk and taxi in the Khaosan Road
Traffic

the traffic chaos during the peak hour in Bangkok is well-known. Into the 1970er years European town planners without large success tried to eliminate the problem with modern bridge constructions. Into the 1980er years an extensive one-way street system was furnished. Penalty received duringthe peak hour an own bus lane, where they can drive also into one-way streets into both directions.

Only the establishment of numerous duty-requiring high routes and additional bridges (fly more over) achieved a certain improvement.

The public suburban traffic is mastered predominantly at present by the same-trieven city penalties.

Individual traffic is predominantly completed by the numerous taxis, motorcycle taxis and Tuk Tuks (open motorcycle scooters with seat), the passengers by the city to carry. In particular the Tuk Tuks coined/shaped particularly in the past the townscape fearing for coke substantially and is stillalways a special tourist attraction. In their function they are replaced however meanwhile from the motorcycle taxis.

rail traffic

to 22. September 1888 drove the first horse route course and in May 1894 the first electrical streetcar into Bangkok. ThatTraffic became at the 1. October 1968 adjusted. To end of the 1990er years had Bangkok no mass means of transport. By the structure of a rapid-transit railway net one tries to become the traffic chaos gentleman, after in the decades before rather set on development of the traffic netbecame.

To 5. December 1999 opened the overhead railway Bangkok Skytrain, the first public rapid-transit railway project of the city, their enterprise. It operates on two lines at 23 kilometers length and 23 stations. It was the first electrically operated course with more EuropeanStandard gauge (1435 millimeters) and carries at present 250,000 passengers per day. Both lines cross at the railway junction cent ral station at the Siam Square.

At the 3. July 2004 was opened the first distance section of the Bangkok Metro. It is 21 kilometers long transfersAnd the same electrical and technical equipment possesses 18 stations as the Skytrain. Transfer possibilities for the Skytrain exist in Silom/Saladaeng, Sukhumvit/Asok and Chatuchak/Mo Chit. The capacity per driving direction amounts to about 40,000 passengers per hour. In planning extensions are northward toCharansanitwongse and Tha Phra, to the south until fear for Khae, with a possible execution as if struggle-strain.

navigation
Chao Phraya Fährboot (left) and Rua slope Yao (center) before the Rama VIII bridge

Personenfähren - relatively high boats alsoRoof - cross from numerous jetties from the Menam Chao Phraya. However the landing places do not agree with the jetties of the express boats. The long boats with many seats operate on the Maenam Chao Phraya over 18 kilometers between Nonthaburi (the north)and Krung Thep bridge (the south) as well as river upward beyond Nonthaburi to Pak Kret.

Rua slope yao - narrow boats with seats for approximately 15 persons, who are propelled by Aussenborder at a long bar, operate regularly in the regular transport service upthe Khlongs by Bangkok and Thonburi. They are used particularly by commuters, in order to arrive into the suburbs.

media

daily appear themselves three English-language newspapers, the outstanding Bangkok post office and The nation, also criticallywith the policy of the prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra standing under corruption suspicion apart set, as well as a Thai expenditure of the Herald grandstand. In addition there are to Asia Week, South and far Eastern Economic Review as well as the Newsweek or Time. In German languagethe newspaper with local information and contributions appears weekly over the current political world happening. Current scene information stands for a English-language monthly city magazine in the Bangkok Metro. Information for tourists is from indicator sheets as to be inferred the Guide OF Bangkok.

The numerousTelevision and Radiosender in Bangkok offer their programs daily 24 hour and are over normal antennas to be received. The transmissions are interrupted however very frequently by advertisement, there for the basic supply by television and radio programs the population no broadcast feesto pay must.

To the most important television stations the private station Channel 3 belongs. It transfers frequently features from the People's Republic of China. The army transmitter TV 5 Army Television shows against it many Thai series and numerous music contributions of native interpreters. TV 7 is likewisein the possession of the army, it however transmitting time rents also private societies. Occasionally on Thai synchronized features from the USA are sent. Der Originalton des Films wird auch über einen UKW-Sender übertragen. The radio frequencies are faded in on the screen.

ThoseFernsehstationen TV 9 and Channel 11 are national, whereby radiates latter predominantly sporty and scientific programs. Very frequently matches are transferred in the Thaiboxen. Channel 11 informs also about the football in Europe and weekly about the results of the federal league. Alsothe receipt of satellite-to-receiver telecasting took introduction in fearing for coke households. Thus then also further television stations, above all from Hong Kong radiated star TV (several channels) and stations such as Thai the Sky TV, BBC, CNN, IBC, ITV, and that can be receivedMusic transmitter MTV.

education

Chulalongkorn university

Bangkok accommodates different technical institutes, several high and technical schools and six universities, by which two are integrated in the world-wide research group: the Chulalongkorn university and the Thammasat university. Close ones wade to Phra Kaeo is thoseAcademy of arts, the 1921 created Silpakorn university.

The Chulalongkorn university (designated after Rama V. Chulalongkorn) is one of the oldest universities of Thailand. Them became to 26. March 1917 of king Rama VI. Vajiravudh based, after it existed since 1899 as administrative technical school. OfOne on attached very much importance to beginning to the student autonomy. Today (2003) about 28,000 students at the university learn, the number of the academic coworkers amount to scarcely 3.000.

The Thammasat university became to 27. June 1934 as “university of the moral scienceand politics " based and are called today still “university of the people”, because it particularly strives for a university entrance for all humans of the country. Since have about 240,000 students at the university studied 1934, of those some prime ministers of Thailand,Presidents of the highest court, members of parliament, senators and successful businessmen became.

The Kasetsart university (designated after the purpose of the university) is one of the famous universities and was the first Thai agricultural university. Them became to 2. February 1943 based, afterit since 1914 as educational professional school existed. Today about 47,000 students at the university learn, the number of the academic coworkers amount to about 5.200.

famous sons and daughters of the city

Blick über die Stadt
view over the city

literature

Sonnenuntergang
Sunset
  • Steve Van Beek: Bangkok once and now. STARTING FROM Publications, Bangkok 2001, ISBN 974-87616-2-2 (English. Version: ISBN 974-870639-7)
  • Bronger, Dirk: Manila Bangkok Seoul. Regional development and space economic policy in the Philippines, Thailand and South Korea. Hamburg: Institut for Asia customer, 1997, ISBN 3-88910-178-X
  • Husa, Karl; Wohlschlägel, Helmut: “Booming Bangkok”: A megacity in Southeast Asia in the area of conflict of Metropolisierung and globalization. In: Husa, Karl; Mushroom, Erich; Stacher, Irene:Mega+ Cities: The metropolises of the south between globalization and fragmenting. Frankfurt/M.: Fire & Apsel; South wind, (historical social customer, 12),1996, ISBN 3-86099-172-8
  • Kraas, Frauke: Bangkok. Unplanned Magastadtentwicklung by restaurant economics and soziokulturelle persistences. In: Geographical ones round-look, Jg. 48, H. 2, S. 89-96, 1996.

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