Bangladesh

গণপ্রজাতঁত্রীবাংলাদেশ
Gan Prajātantrī Bānglādesh
People's Republic of Bangladesh
Flagge von Bangladesch
Wappen Bangladeschs
(detail) (detail)
office languages Bengali
capital Dhaka
system of government People's Republic of
head of state Iajuddin Ahmed
prime minister Khaleda Zia
surface 144,000 km ²
number of inhabitants 144.319.628 (July 2005)
population density of 1002.2 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitants 369 US-$ (2004)
independence 1971 of Pakistan
currency Taka
time belt UTC +6
national anthem Amar sonar Bangla
national holiday 26. March
Kfz characteristic BD
Internet TLD .bd
preselection + 880
Karte Asiens, Bangladesch hervorgehoben
Karte von Bangladesch

Bangladesh (bengali বাংলাদেশ, Bāṃlādeś) is a state in south Asia. Itborders in the south on the gulf of Bengalen, in the southeast on Myanmar and otherwise by India one encloses. It takes the eastern part of the historical region Bengalen , the 1947 due to the Muslim population majority of India abgespalten andunder the designation „east Pakistan “for the component of Pakistan became. 1971 attained east Pakistan as Bangladesh its independence. Bangladesh means country of the Bengalen in the national language „“.

Table of contents

geography

Bangladesh border on the Indian Federal States West bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram (inClockwise direction, beginning in the west), as well as to Myanmar and the gulf of Bengalen (part of the Indian ocean). The overall length of the border amounts to 4,246 km, of it with Myanmar 193 km and with India 4,053 km. The coastal length amounts to 580 km.

Klimadiagramm Chittagong
Climatic diagram Chittagong

the largest part of Bangladeschs is formed by the delta range of the rivers of course and Brahmaputra; an even area durchzogenes of many watercourses, which is threatened by inundations frequently, there the large rivers due to the clearing in the Himalaya ever more frequently largeWassermassen to lead must. The capital Dhaka lies only six meters over NN. Within the muzzle range of the course and Brahmaputra the Mangrovengebiete of the Sundarbans extends over far parts along the coast. Due to the flat, broad coastal strip before Bangladesh ranitself also the force of the Tsunamis in consequence of the earthquake in the Indian ocean 2004 nearly completely before the coast.

The climate Bangladeschs is tropical with increasing precipitation from west to east. Bangladesh lies in the sphere of influence of the southwest of monsoon, thusthat 1,500 to 2,250 mm of yearly precipitation sum to be reached on the average. In the east, at the foot of the Tripura Lushai mountains, falls 3,000 to 4,000 mm (see climatic diagram Chittagong). There is with the Mowdok Mual also the highest collection Bangladeschs (1003 m). More than thoseHalf of the yearly precipitation is allotted to the months June until August. Into March/April and also in October it comes frequently to tropical eddy towers over the gulf of Bengalen, which have often catastrophic consequences, there the associated tides far partsthe country inundate.

The original forest vegetation is destroyed, the extraordinarily high population density of 1.002 Einwohner/km ² (the highest of all surface countries) to a comprehensive transformation in field led to a large extent, on which almost exclusively one cultivates to rice.

cities

Stadtzentrum von Dhaka
City centre of Dhaka

the capital Dhaka had during the census to 22. January 2001 in the actual city of 5.378.023 inhabitants and in the dye 9.912.908. It is thereby before Chittagong and Khulna the largest city of the country.

The largest citiesare (census 2001):

  1. Dhaka: 5.378.023 inhabitants
  2. Chittagong: 2.095.846 inhabitants
  3. Khulna: 773,216 inhabitants
  4. Rajshahi: 383,655 inhabitants
  5. Sylhet: 285,308 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities in Bangladesh

population

population trend x1000

with 144 million inhabitants(Conditions: 2005) Bangladesh is the seventh-most densely populated country of the earth and with a population density of more than 1000 humans for each square kilometer also the most closely settled surface state of the world. Live only 26 per cent of the inhabitants in cities.

ethnical ones Composition and languages

contrary to the other states of south Asia are Bangladesh ethnical extremely uniformly. About 98 per cent of the population are Bengalen with native language Bengali. Under the central and Oberschicht English is far common as education language. To the fewMinorities belong the Bihari (1 per cent), which came due to religious conflicts into consequence of the division of British India with its independence from Bihar into east Pakistan at that time. They speak mostly Urdu. The remainder distributes itself on different master peoples, usually more tibetobirmanischerDescent and language, which live in the Chittagong mountains in the extreme southeast.

religion

the majority of the population, 88%, professes itself to the Islam, followed from the Hinduismus with 10% and the Buddhismus with only 1%.

history

historical map of Ostbengalen and Assam (1907)
Das National Martyrs' Monument in Savar bei Dhaka erinnert an die Opfer des Unabhängigkeitskampfes
national the Martyrs' Monument in Savar with Dhaka reminded of the victims of the independence fight

Bangladesh (country of the Bengalen, bangla = bengalisch + desh = country) formed until 1947 a part of British India. After the division of the country into a by the majority hinduistischen, secular State of (India) and a Muslim State of (Pakistan) that was slammed shut likewise predominantly Islamic east Bengalen Pakistan, by that it geographically by Indiawas separate. Despite the common Islamic religion west Pakistan and east Pakistan did not however only separate linguistic and cultural differences. The fruitful east obtained with its jute - and rice exports of surplus, which benefitted almost exclusively the west wing, where them againwith priority on the military were spent. In particular in the of Pakistan-Indian Kashmir war in the year 1965 clearly that on the one hand west Pakistan did not undertake any efforts toward the military safety device of east Pakistan, on the other hand the Kashmir question in east Pakistan became on interest hardly pushed. Besides Bengalen were both in the militaryand in the public administration strongly underrepresented. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the charismatische leader of the Awami league eastof Pakistan, demanded therefore most extensive autonomy for Bengalen (east Pakistan). After the resignation from president Mohammed Ayub Khan 1968 saw being successor general Yahya Khanno alternative to the advertisement of the first free elections in total Pakistan since the establishment of state. In view of the landslide victory of the Awami league in the east and population conditions in both regions this would have had to lead to a ostbengalischen government for the total state, which in west Pakistanparticularly with the there choice winner Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the army westof Pakistan on resistance pushed. They decided to a bloody suppression of the separatist effort, which come down particularly to an elimination of the bengalischen elite. Only one day after thatSeizure of power of the army proclaimed Mujibur Rahman the independence of the country. A final decision could be caused however only by an intervention of India in east Pakistan, which had made itself strong for the liberty fight of the Bengalen, (3. - 16. December 1971). To 17. December 1971 attained east Pakistan finally also according to international law independence, and gave themselves the name Bangladesh. After representation of the government of Bangladesh the war of independence cost to three million the Banglade life and more than 20 million refugees fledto India. Many Indian see the immeasurable number at refugees to northeast India as actual reason for the Indian intervention in the conflict. Starting from the spring 1972 Bangladesh was recognized gradually by the majority of the community of states.

politics

republicsince 1991; Condition of 1972 (in the Commonwealth), last change 1996; Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad, dt. „House of the nation “) with 330 members, of it 300 directly selected, 30 for women reserves; Choice every 5 years; Choice of the head of state by parliament all 5J. (unique re-election); Right to vote starting from 18 J.

  • Administration: 6 provinces with 64 districts
  • head of state: Iajuddin Ahmed (BNP), since 6. September 2002
  • head of the government: Khaleda Zia (BNP), since 8. October 2001
  • exterior: Morshed Khan, since 16. November 2001
  • parties: Elections to the parliamentof the 1. October 2001: Bangladesh national Party/BNP 193 of 300 seats (1996: 116), Awami League/AL 62 (146), Jamaat e Islami 17 (3), Jatiya Dal/Ershad 14 (32), Jatiya Dal/Naziur 4 (-), other one 4 (2), independent one 6 (1) -
  • independence: Proclamation 26. March 1971, finally 17. December 1971 (ehem. Part of British India; starting from 1947 part of Pakistan)
  • national holiday: 26. March

for six years builds India at a border barrier secured with Stacheldraht, which 4000 km long border against illegal migration from Bangladeshto block is. In India roughly 20 million live Banglade.

administrative arrangement

administrative units Bangladeschs

Bangladesh is divided into six administrative units (division), which were designated after their capital. These again are divided into 64 districts (Districts). The divisions are:

economics

with a GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head of 360 US Dollar in the year 2003 belongs to Bangladesh to the poorest countries of the earth. With the HDI it takes to rank 139 of175 seized countries in. Because of the extreme population of over die with floods regularly a large number of humans.

Still the importance of the agriculture is very great, works nevertheless 56% of all employed persons in it; the contribution to the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT amountsbut only on 23%, while the industry and the service sector 52% gain 25%.

The internationally operating airline Biman Bangladesh airlines belongs to the state to 100%.

foreign trade balance

in the year 2000 for 8.403 billion US Dollar goods were imported andfor 5.762 billion US Dollar exports, so that the foreign trade balance exhibited a negative balance of 2.641 billion US Dollar. Main export property are with a portion of over 75% textiles.

corruption

a large problem of the state is the high degree on Corruption. Bangladesh occupies one of the last places in the statistics of the Transparency international.

between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was to public expenditures for health, education

infrastructure

the infrastructure Bangladeschs is very badly, still in addition the country almost each year by strong inundations in consequence of the monsoon is afflicted, which causes often devastating damages. The road system hasa length of 222,990 kilometers, about which only 15.7 per cent (35,038 kilometers) it is fastened. The railway system of the state covers 2706 kilometers (conditions: 1995). There are only three international airports (Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet) and two seas port (Chittagong, Mongla). The underdeveloped infrastructure reflects the overall economic situation of the country again.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Bangladesh - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 24° 1 ' N, 89° 52 ' O

 

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