() the baroque is the art style from approximately 1600, prevailing in Europe , to 1750. It proceeded from Italy and spread over completely Europe and in some colonies. Also the appropriate age is called often „baroque “.
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The term „baroque “
the designation of this epoch goes on 17. Century back and leads itself from the Portuguese barroca or Italian barocco (inclined, strangely) off in resemblance on pérola barroca (irregularly formed bead). Thoseexact Etymologie is uncertain (lat. veruca, rampant growth?). An influence in the French is accepted by the name of the syllogism baroco, with which in the Renaissance verschnörkelte thinking and arguing of the Scholastik one scoffed. Erwin Panofsky favors this meaning derivation:„It came off in such a manner that the word served Baroco for it, all game Verworrene, unclear one, to mark Wunderliche and useless ones “(What is baroque?, 1935; see under “literature”). The characteristic word baroque stands today also for verschnörkelt, overloaded and isolates for strange-grotesque. The mental basis of the baroque is despite all connection completely different than those the Renaissance. No more optimism, but pessimism coins/shapes the life feeling. The time events (dreissigjähriger war) revived medieval dualism between this life and the other world.
In 19. One understood century by baroque first excluding those the Renaissance the following art epoch between approximately 1570/1600 and 1750. In this sense Jakob Burckhardt used the word since 1855. This terminology was transferred to other languages and used soon internationally.The literature historian Fritz line (1882-1963) transferred the term baroque to the literature 17. Century. In 20. Century became generally accepted the term baroque for the entire historical epoch .
- In the history of art the organization applies to the architecture, those screen end art and for the music, whereby the epoch borders between the arts deviate. Baroque also age of the Theatralik and production one calls. The baroque music is regelhaftig and pathetisch. Art-historically the baroque divided into the epochs early baroque,High baroque and late baroque. The art-historical late phase of the baroque, the Rococo (in Germany approx. 1730-1770), are called frequently own style. Which applies to the change of style in the music (see Vorklassik), is however for other art ranges less clearly. The literaturedesignated excluding 17. Century as baroque, however before-classical 18. Century as clearing-up and/or. Feeling SAMness.
- Politically corresponds the baroque to the end of the dreissigjährigen war, the age of the absolutism and - particularly in Central Europe - drawing a deep breath afterthe Turk wars.
- Broad universitäre philosophy busy itself particularly with the topics of the Barockscholastik. Besides the currents of the rationalism and the Empirismus marked the philosophy of this time. The most important philosophers are Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz.
- Religion-historically the baroque introduced by the Gegenreformation particularly carried by the Jesuiten.
the baroque literature strongly affected by the 30-jährigen war. From this a pronounced occupation with topics resulted such as Vanitas (Vergänglichkeit), to Memento mori(It intends that you must die/intend death) and Carpe diem (use the day). The authors confronted often terms antithetisch , typically were the confrontation of lives and death, present and infinity, light and its.
the preferential literature form was the poem, above all the sonnet, usual verse measure was the Alexandriner with 6-hebigen Jamben with strong breaks. Style means such as Anaphern and symbols were preferentially used, around things elementary by figurative representations such as this life and the other world, as well as the roleto describe humans.
Important representatives of a time coined/shaped by war and destruction are the poets Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664), Martin Opitz (1597-1639), Angelus Silesius and Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau (1617-1679). The minister son Gryphius for example had as a child heart deathits father see, after a plundering Soldateska penetrated in its church. Its poems over vanity and Vergänglichkeit “everything is vain” and “tears of the native country” is probably the most well-known baroque poems. Also the church songs from Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) as “proceedmy heart and looks for Freud " the Barocklyrik is assigned. Most important Prosawerk is the Schelmenroman “the adventurous simplicissismus Teutsch” (1668) of Hans's Jakob Christoffel of Grimmelshausen (1621-1676).
The baroque lecture
the baroque lecture is characterized by a blumige language. The most frequent style means are the repetition (repetitio), the amassment (particularly the Epitheton), symbols and emblems as well as particularly Allegorien and metaphors. Fables and fairy tales obtain usually moral teachings. As well as furthermore comparisons, vary frequently used proverbs. Many Prediger used language pictures and seizednot only on the Bible back, but also on antique works.
At the end 16. Century will the lecture a mass medium and can by the invention of the printing the public opinion affect. Thus the intention of the Prediger changed,to the theological message the political influencing control came. The church recognized this Machtpotenzial and made mandatory on the council of Trient the lecture activity for priests. The topic choice of the lectures was broadly strewn. Thus theological problems were likewise discussed like bibelexegetische statements.
Abraham A Sancta Clara is in the German-speaking countries a most well-known catholic Prediger of the baroque. Today less well-known George Scherer often fought the reformation in his baroque lectures.
The Jesuit Piotr Skarga (1536-1612) was a most well-known Polish Prediger of the baroque time. Its most important works are the parliament lectures of 1597, holy stories of 1579 and the military fairs of 1618.
Reference works to the baroque lecture:
- Werner Drobesch: Sociopolitical statements in the lecture collections of the Gegenreformation.
in: Catholic reform and Gegenreformation in inside Austria 1564-1628, OD. France M. Dolinar (complaint ford, 1994) 491 - 507
- Valentin Hertle: Andreas Strobl as case of model of the Bavarian baroque lecture (kath. - theol. Diss. Munich, 1965)
- Maximilian Neumayr: The writing lecture in the baroque. Due to thatTheory of the catholic Barockhomiletik (Paderborn, 1938)
in 17. Jh. as new development in theatre history the window blind stage was introduced, itself opposite the angle framework stage of the Renaissance (16. Century) by its convertableness and the strong depth effect distinguished. Also Bühnenmaschinerien of allKind enjoyed of large popularity.
Screen end art
the painting of the high Renaissance was endeavored around harmonious, balanced and form-strict composition. In the late Renaissance and/or. in the mannersism this equilibrium from the joints turned out. In the baroque painting it cameto a synthesis of mannersism and high Renaissance. With the mannersism the painting dedicated itself for the first time explicitly to the unbalanced one and Bizarren. Characteristics its are the figurae serpentinatae in such a way specified. They bring up for discussion human Affekte. The baroque painting left these deephuman Affekte not suddenly stands, but consolidated it to a total statement of highest dramaturgy.
In the baroque painting accordingly dynamic picture worlds prevail forwards, which are used for religious topics just like for lay, mythologische or landscape representations.
As founders of the baroqueStyle apply Caravaggio with its crude-realistic light dark painting and the Carracci in Rome. Further famous Italian baroque painters are Guido Reni, Pietro there Cortona, Carlo Carlone and Domenichino. In the flämischen painting was Peter Paul Rubens with its schoolprominently, in Spain Diego Velázquez. In Holland fray neck and rem Brandt dominated.
Architecture and landscape architecture
in the baroque architecture the whole of the building no more was not understood by summation about individual parts, was turned around thus from the part to the whole one, butas a out-differentiated organism of the whole one partially.
The baroque architecture went out of the late form of the architecture of the Renaissance, which mannersism, out, in which that increasingly spielerische handling the strict order system of the Renaissance became already recognizable. InBaroque the design elements of the Renaissance in pure quotation form are used, while it completely says good-bye to the purchase of the outside organization of the building to the internal constructional structure. This leads to a separation from internal construction and outside glare, whereby the wholeAttention of the organization of interior and outside space flowed and the construction to the basic function was completely reduced. So a column cannot have basic function, it must it however in a baroque building.
When outrider of the baroque architecture knows Michelangelo with its late Roman buildings, in particular the Peter cathedral is regarded. Because in the draft to the latter was an up to then unknownkolossale holistic reaches. Its pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this inheritance in Rome, whereby in particular the front to IL Gesu - which nut/mother church of the Jesuitenordens - to call is. This led up directly to the most important earlybaroque church front, Santa Susannaby Carlo Maderno. In 17. Century spread the baroque style in completely Europe and South America, whereby the Jesuiten did out as promoters.
Further important characteristics of the baroque architecture are
- separation of narrow, long church ships by broader, sometimes roundForms
- Dramaturgi use of the light either by strong bright/dark contrasts (z. B. Monastic church world castle) or uniform Durchflutung by numerous windows (z. B. Basilika wine garden)
- frequent use of plastic Zierelementen (Girlanden, deseaming from (often gilded) wood, tail work, Cartouches, gypsum and/or. Stucco, marble or stucco marble)
- wide cover paintings
- the external facade are frequently characterized by a dramatic increase to the center.
- The inside is often only bowl for the decorative decoration by painting and plastics (above allin the late baroque).
- Frequent use of illusionistic effects such as illusory architecture or fusion of painting and architecture
- in the Bavarian and Swabian baroque are very common bulb towers.
- Suites of rooms
- gradations with stairs for the representation of the ranking (who stood more highly, had also onehigher rank).
- more approximately and oval forms as for instance domes
- of mirror halls
during the Sakralarchitektur of the baroque particularly by Italy, D. h. by Rome by the paradigm of the basilikalen cross dome church with nave, its initials of impulses, was the center of the baroque experiencedfeudalen everyday architecture France. Already in 16. Century was established there the open three-wing plant as canonical solution of the feudalen lock. But became only by Salomon de Brosses palace you Luxembourg (1615-1620 build) here also structurally the paradigm for the baroqueArchitecture supplied. Because for the first time the Corps of the Logis was here clearly taken off from the lower Seitenflügeln, which formed farm buildings, than representative main part of the building. Thus a Ausdifferenzierung with the goal, an organic whole carried out itself also hereto form. Finally also here the development is carried out from the tower to the Risalit completely. A further step of the development places the consistent inclusion of the garden into the entireness of the lock ensemble, which example-giving in Vaux le Vicomte (construction period of 1656-1661) with Parishappened. Here the architect Louis Le Vau and the garden farmer André Le Nôtre complemented each other in ideal way. The same artists increased this concept with the royal hunting seat and later main residence lock Versailles (1661-1690 extended) in the monumental. Although here many stylistic inadequaciesto day stepped, then lock Versailles was nevertheless conceptionally determining for many European residences (for instance Mannheim, north churches, Caserta, and. A.).
In Central Europe and/or. Germany set the baroque only retards. Already Augsburger architect-generals had Elias Holl (1573-1646) as well as the most important theoretician of the time spiral Dietterlin (approx. 1550-1599) the turn to the baroque carried out, but these achievements remained by the catastrophic effects of the dreissigjährigen war first without follow-up. Only starting from 1650 again an intensified building activity set, whereby Sakralbaukunst and profane architecture adhered to meaning into for instance the balance. Often between South German and north German baroque was differentiated, what however masks the fact that it was actually the difference Protestant and catholic baroque, which coined/shaped this time.The catholic Sakralbaukunst found by the Vorarlberger building school in connection to the residents of Munich Jesuitenkirche pc. Michael and above all the study church of the Jesuiten in Dillingen quite soon for the extremely common pattern of the wall column church to differentiate (of the Italian Abseitensaal clearly, type is IL Gesù in Rome). This pattern was maintained and varied in the South German baroque up to the exit of the epoch.
On the other hand the breath-robbing space compositions of Balthasar Neumann decrease/go back to another tradition strand, the böhmischen “radical baroque” of guarinesker coinage. The differencecan be observed very well in the comparison of the realm abbey churches of Zwiefalten (wall column church with circled before-stepping lofts, of Johann Michael Fischer) and Neresheim (cure fourth architecture, whose sketch assembles from ovals, sketched of Neumann).
The largest and most impressive baroque castle of Germanyis in Ludwigsburg (approx. 12 km from the Stuttgart city center removes). The plant exhibits an enormous baroque garden plant. Occasionally in 18. Century was Ludwigsburg the main and Residenzstadt of the duchy Württemberg.
Typical representatives of baroque building of churches are many upper-Bavarian churches, like Ettal or the pointing church.
In the profane architecture finds apart from an intensive argumentwith the classical French pattern of the three-wing plant the development of the mehrhöfigen city residence instead of (resident of Munich residence, citizen of Berlin city lock, yard castle in Vienna).
1966 were brought the holidays road “upperSwabian baroque route “into being. It is approx. 500 km longand too Upper Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria leads and approximately around the Bodensee over 100 churches and locks worth seeing in upper swabia .
the first building of baroque in Poland is Peter and Paul Kirche in Krakau, with their building 1597one began. The centers of the early baroque in Poland were Krakau and Lemberg. Worth mentioning above all the church chapels of the Polish monarchs, aristocrats and large citizens , who were cultivated to many gothical churches, are in special the Waza chapel to the Wawelkathedrale. Toothe masterpieces of sakralen Polish baroque architecture the Anna church and the Benediktinerkirche in Krakau, the Dominikanerkirche and orthodox church of the Hl count. Law in Lemberg, the Jesuitenkirche in floats, the king chapel in Danzig, the holy cross, the Sakraments,the Kapuziner and the Visitenkirche in Warsaw, the Petruskirche in Wilna and the monastery holy lime tree in Masuren.
The everyday Polish Barockarchitekur is characterised by the many palaces of the Magnaten. Worth mentioning are above all however Warsaw king locks, the Wilanów palace with Warsaw and the Krasinski palace in Warsaw.
Prominent countries and masters:
- Italy (Gianlorenzo Bernini, Pietro there Cortona, Francesco Borromini, Filippo Juvara, Pietro Bardellino)
- Austria and Germany (Johann Lucasby Hildebrandt, Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Andreas Schlüter, Daniel Pöppelmann, Balthasar Neumann, the brothers Cosmas Damian and Egid Quirin Asam, Carlo Carlone from the steiermärkischen branch of the artist family Carlone, Daniel Gran, Paul Troger, Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Friedrich Joachim stack (architect), Martin Johann Schmidt, Leonhard core, Johann George Plazer, Peter Thumb, Johann Michael Beer)
- the Netherlands (Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt, Jan sea, JacobIzaaksoon van Ruisdael)
- France (Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, Charles le Brun, Louis le Nain, Pierre Mignard)
- Spain (Diego Velázquez, Jusepe de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo)
- Poland (Karol thank-waited, January Piotr Norblin, Tylman Gamerski, Jerzy Siemiginowski, Baltazar Fontana)
- England (Christopher Wren, Thomas Gainsborough)
- Brazil (Aleijadinho)
pictures of sakraler baroque architecture from South Germany
Birnau at the Bodensee
- a well-known example of a park plant of that time are the manor-houses gardens in Hanover.
- The most well-known master in the art of gardening of the baroque time was André Le Nôtre.
- Acquaintance PolishGarden plants of the baroque time in Warsaw the Saxonian garden, and the park around the Krasinski palace, in Bialystok the park around the Branicki palace, in Pulawy the park around the Czartoryski palace and with floats the park around the palace inRogalin.
the clothing and hair-style mode - so also the different time currents of the baroque can baroque garden clothing and hair-style mode the development of historical epochs be read off to. Also humans of the early modern times dressed in such a way, howit felt, and/or. in accordance with the spirit of the time. Within other fields of culture history changes carried out themselves usually gradually. In the mode against it changes pierced again and again spontaneously and suddenly, usually lively by famous personalities. The fashion of the baroque became mainlyof the large European yards affects.
Within the generic term “baroque” one finds different, sometimes currents moving in opposite directions.
The Spanish fashion the Renaissance followed at the beginning of the “baroque” the Dutch flämische fashion. From the round Spanish Halskrausen unloading point collars became - boththe ladies, and with the gentlemen.Point was at that time ultramodern - even the usual soldiers of the 30-jährigen of war carried it in the field. The otherwise dominating color was black. In addition one carried very large, breitkrempige hats.
Into the 1660er yearsa new direction became generally accepted with the gentlemen: It called itself Rhine count mode. As still with the preceding “Spanish mode” the gentlemen carried far, pluderige trousers, which accepted now however trousers skirt form. First one carried over it a far, approximately cutUnion coat; later the Kasak became generally accepted, the jacket-like “skirt” of the gentleman. For the Rhine count time volumes and Schleifchen are very typical. Some “Cavaliere” over-accumulated itself up thereby - that impact was taken. The fashion became generally color-more joyful. One carried the man hairat that time long - the Perücke was not yet in mode. The dresses of the ladies fell, like before, to scarce over the soil or affected this. 17 was particularly remarkable around the center. Century the broadly turned over seam within the Dekolleté range.Very common closely fitting Halsketten were, usually from beads. The hair of the lady was strictly to the rear combed, where it often fell down then in sumptuous curls.
Starting from the high baroque the fashion mainly by France was determined. In the 80'shere a more elegant direction arose. The gentleman carried now one Juste outer corps (frz: closely at the body), a taillierten over skirt, which displaced the Kasak. The Hutkrempe was highly struck at three sides (Dreispitz). Closer were now also the knee federation trousers - Culottes mentioned - which was covered by the Gewickel of the socks, in the seam range of the knee, a small piece. Socks were in this time (around 1700) colored in all colors, which fit opening in each case. One dressedTone on tone: e.g. with brown Juste outer coprs, brown trousers and brown socks. Otherwise one was limited mostly to two-coloredness. With Zierat one held back oneself now. Point used one discreetness. The Cravatte, Halstuch of the gentleman, at least partly existedfrom point. At the sleeves of its shirt was often likewise somewhat in-rippled/crinkled point. Who could afford it, arranged stressed magnificent Juste outer corps. For this one took noble materials, which were improved with gold or silver embroideries. The number was excessivethe buttons: Over thirty of such pieces of splendor were quite normal with one Juste outer corps. Who wished to set still one here drauf, everything let buttons provide its with jewels. Under Juste outer corps the gentleman carried the “Veste”. Here the buttons were smaller- but they stood all the closer, particularly since also the Veste in all rule up to hand width ended above the knee. Juste outer corps was in the back slit and the sword stood out. The seam of the Cavalier skirt put sumptuously in folds was laterally slit. Here the grasp of the sword looked out. All these three slots were provided with numerous buttons. Besides numerous buttons were at the seals and sewn on bags.
The lady dressed around 1700 according to the cause: It wentout, it constricted itself strongly, in order to show a narrow waist. Under the actual dress it carried a rigid and somewhat far slip, which was approximately and stressed far low-cut in the Dekolleté range. There silk was in a narrowStrip approximately around in-rippled/crinkled, or it was sewn on a strip of point - which out-looked then from the over dress discreetness. The slip was likewise in the elbow in-rippled/crinkled, where point or silk saw out plentifully from the sleeve of the over dress. Forthe completely large robe carried the lady over the over dress a further over dress: the Manteau. This Manteau is angerafft in the Hüftbereich, in order to then fall as Schleppe far to the rear. Of it at least a half meter behind the lady schleifteon the soil - around itself thereby to move, it wedged itself this Schleppe simply under the arm.
In German landing likes was also the simple, in-colored English fashion - of it Portraits of some princesses witness. The dresses in front often were ofCutout up to the hip slit and held together of precious clip buttons. Many were slit even from the shoulder to to the elbows. These dresses without Manteau were of simple elegance. The hair-style was relative to simply carried: in front into thoseForehead toupiert, in the back highly been, in order to then hang frequently into two long spirals untwisted on a curl staff on the shoulder. To the Manteau against it a aufwändige hair-style was usual. It arranged with wire and often belonged to it a Fontagne, usually one with point verzierte linen hood. At the neck the lady did usually without decoration, but Perlenketten were trained into the hair-style. The gentleman carried a Perücke with riders around 1700. This was nature hair colors and plentifully shoulder-long.
In Polanddeveloped in the baroque time the Sarmatentum, which found its expression also in the clothes. The Polish aristocrat carried according to the osmanischen fashion a long, richly embroidered coat, which it umgürtete with a Kontusch. In addition it carried usually redor yellow leather boots and a cap from bear skin, which a pheasant feather/spring decorated. Typical was also the long upper lip beard.
see article baroque music.
- Maurice Ashley: The age of the baroque. Europe between 1598 and 1715. Dtv, Munich 1983. ISBN 3-423-05941-9
- Hermann farmer: Baroque. Art of one epoch. Reimer, Berlin 1992. ISBN 3-496-01095-9
- Gilles Deleuze: The fold. Leibniz and the baroque. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 2000. ISBN 3-518-29084-3
- Michel Foucault: The order of the things. An archaeology of the human sciences. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 2003. ISBN 3-518-06734-6
- Peter Her: Leisure and Verschwendung. European society and culture in the baroque age.2 volumes. Herder, Freiburg 2006, ISBN 3-451-28908-3
- Ernst Hubala: Art of the baroque and Rococo. Painting, plastics, architecture. Belser, Stuttgart 1991. ISBN 3-7630-1879-4
- Erwin Panofsky: What is baroque? Philo & Philo Fine kind, Hamburg 2005. ISBN 3-86572-410-8
- Erich Trunz: Conception of the worldand seal in the German baroque. Six studies. Beck, Munich 1992. ISBN 3-406-35833-0