|surface:||142,900 km ²|
|inhabitants:||4.078.807 (1. January 2005)|
|population density:||29 inhabitants for each km ²|
|Kfz characteristics:|| |
Baschkortostan (baschkirisch Башҡортостан/ Baschqortostan, soot. Башкортостан/ Baschkortostan, tatar. Башкортостан/Başqortostan; officially Republic of Baschkortostan, baschkir. БашҡортостанРеспубликаһы/ Baschqortostan Respublikahy, soot. РеспубликаБашкортостан/ Respublika Baschkortostan, tatar. Başqortostan Respublikası) or (more rarely) Baschkirien is also a republic in the eastern part European Russia.
Table of contents
Baschkortostan is because of the outermost east edge of Europe west the Urals mountains in the federation circle Volga. The country, in the east up to 1638 m highly, drops westward. The most important rivers are the Belaja, a tributary of the Kama, and the Ufa. Baschqortostan belongs after Troll in the northwest part to the climate zone of the subkontinentalen climates, in the south to the wintery cold Feuchtsteppenklimaten. In the Urals a continental Borealklimat prevails forwards. The temperatures lie in the summer on the average with for instance 20°C (max. 40°C), in the winter with approximately -13°C (min. -40°C). The average yearly precipitation amounts to approx. 430mm, in the Urals are it for instance 800mm.
name-giving nation are the Baschkiren, a Turkvolk. These are however only one minority in the own republic. The population amounted to during the census 2002 4.104.336 persons. Of it were 1.490.715 (= 36.32%) Russians, 1.221.302 (= 29.76%) Baschkiren and 990,702 (= 24.14%) act arene. Further large groups of peoples are the 117,317 (= 2.86%) Tschuwa, 105,829 (= 2.58%) Mari and the 55,249 (= 1.35%) Ukrainer. Office languages are Russian and Baschkirisch. The majority of the population professes itself to the Islam, besides are orthodox and Evangelist Christians.
information about the Baschkiren at the southern Urals date back on 10. Century. Thus Ibn Fadlan mentions the people of the “Basqort” in its report on a journey. Around 1220 Dschingis Khan subjected the baschkirischen trunks, and they remained under the rule of the Mongols to center 16. Century.
After Russia had explained 1552 the war to the Kasaner Khanat, the baschkirischen peoples turned gradually to the neighbour realm in the west, above all because they saw a large threat in around-pulling Nomadenvölkern, which fell again and again from the east over the country, before whom it the military great power Russia protect could. Thus followed in the years of 1554 - 1557 all baschkirischen trunks gradually Russia. At the freiwilligen connection reminds today a monument in the capital Ufa, the Monument Druschby. Ufa was created 1574 as fortress and at that time the easternmost attachment of Russia.
Russia granted large autonomy, freedom of religion and a possession right to basis of the succession to the Baschkiren. Also innerbaschkirische feudale disputes between different leaning gentlemen were fast eliminated thereby. In response the Baschkiren wanted to make its kämpferischen abilities available Russia and placed these as uncommonly resistant and daring fighters in different wars under proof - as fellow combatants in the campaign of Kusma Minitsch Minin and Dmitri Mihailowitsch Poscharski released it 1612 Moscow from Poland, under Peter the large one stormed it 1697 the city Asow in the fight against the Osmanen. Their services were very valuable also in the large Nordi war against Sweden and in the seven-year-old war against Prussia and strengthened the friendship and fraternization between Russians and Baschkiren in military kind. In the wars of liberation they helped the Russian army to strike back Napoleon. Of it also today still another special intending writing witnesses for the baschkirischen regiments at the people battle monument in Leipzig.
the relations between Russians and Baschkiren changed however. Basis for it was the decree of the 11. February 1736, which it the Russian aristocracy permitted to acquire baschkirisches country. Already since beginning 17. Century the aristocrats had begun to establish itself here to establish castles and enterprises. When the taxes and the range of the industrial conscriptions grew by the Russians and in addition still one tried, the Baschkiriens to christianisieren, the displeasure under the population grew Muslims. This asked in several asking writings the central administration for assistance, and as these, came it was missing several times to smaller rebellions, was struck down - so 1616, 1645, 1662 - 1664, 1681 - 1684, 1704 - 1711.
Cause for the large rebellion the repression measures of Russia gave against the Jaizki (the Urals) Kosaken to 1772. All peoples Baschkiriens supported this rebellion, and so this flowed to 1775 under the guidance of the Don Kostaken Jemeljan Iwanowitsch Pugatschow into the large Russian farmer rebellion 1773 -. The hero Baschkiriens became in this rebellion of the Baschkire Salawat Julajew, which fought at the page Pugatschows and to the liberty Baschkiriens and to the friendship between Baschkiren and called Russians. Its name and its life history were condemned by the Russian authority after its capture. Today a large city is designated in Baschqortostan after it, and its rider figure ziert both the state State of Baschqortostans and the city Ufa in form of a large monument.
The Zarenreich, frightened of the dimensions of the rebellion, changed its politics regarding the autonomy of the baschkirischen farmers a little, but it remained generally with the suppression. In the course of Landreformen the areas of the Gouvernements Russia were again divided, and the Baschkiren lost a majority of its Ländereien at neighbour regions and to the Russian aristocracy and the orthodox church. Beginning 20. Century possessed they only 20% of their original areas. A communist manifesto, of 19. February 3. March 1861 dates and the fortress rights, which had cut the citizen rights since more jeher, waived, became a milestone in the social development Baschkiriens. The restaurant nature began now slowly to take capitalistic forms.
In confusions after the October Revolution at the end of of 1917 explained itself Baschkortostan under Zeki Velidi Togan for independent. 1922 became Baschkirien an autonomous socialist Soviet republic (ASSR) within the Russian SFSR.
„Nature was charmful, closely wooded mountains, here six hundred rivers and brooks, thousand lakes. Countless Getier, all only erdenklichen kinds of Vierbeinern, swarms of speedy birds, clouds of emsiger bees. Until chemistry came. Baschkirien was transformed to a Übunsgplatz of chemistry, into a center of the chemical industry of the USSR at that time. Smoke clouds covered the sky, air were geschwängert with dust, the rivers stanken after phenol. “ (Lit.: Kapuściński, S. 216)
also in Baschkirien a section of the Turkish community the Volga Urals was formed for 1988, which for the independence of the country and a federation with Tatarstan and Tschuwaschien occurred. 1990 were adjusted the activities of the community, but the organization was not dissolved, but remained existing.
since the end of the Soviet Union Baschkortostan of Murtasa Rachimow and its clan is controlled. From free, independent and democratic elections and can so far no speech could be. Even after the then valid condition of Baschkortostan the president would have had after its second term of office transfer. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro criticized this several times.
The nationalistic policy of the baschkirischen elite is problematic. A Politikum are e.g. Falsifications with the official censuses in favor of the Baschkiren. Non-governmental organization speak of a much smaller portion of approximately 15% of the total population. Many spend themselves act arene with censuses as Baschkiren, in order to have no vocational disadvantages. In the villages superiors exert pressure, so that members of other Ethnien than Baschkiren let themselves be registered. Particularly between Baschkiren and act arene a far ditch opens itself, which pulls itself in in the meantime into the Muslim community, in which a baschkirischer Imam with the “totalRussian” Imam competed.
A public discussion over the political situation under equal participation of all groups of societies does not take place.
The relationship to Moscow was very strained into the 1990er years, because Baschkortostan do not boom-end taxes from to oil business to the centre government exhausted.
To the strange things of the baschkirischen autonomy efforts belongs the exhibition of own baschkirischen passports, which are not recognized anywhere (even not in Russia).
Baschkortostan belongs to the richest republics of Russia, which is particularly because of the well developed infrastructure. The area has own oil deposits and petrochemical industry. In Neftekamsk, approximately 270 km north of Ufa, is the second largest bus manufacturer of Russia, the company NefAZ.
the Republic of Baschkortostan is partitioned into 21 urban areas and in 54 Rajons (districts).
Cities and urban settlements (conditions: 1. January 2005)
- Ryszard Kapuściński: Imperium. Soviet excursions. Calibration fount publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1993, ISBN 3-8128-4436-1
Web on the left of