baseball is a crew kind of sport and ball of US-American origin. It is considered there as the most steeped in tradition kind of sport. Baseball operated in over 100 countries, among them also in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
play principle and fundamental rules
here is only a summary of thePlay principle and the most important rules. More details finds one in the article baseball rules.
German fuel ball is a highly simplified variant of baseball and can as starting point for the understanding of the baseball serve.
Baseball becomes from two teams to evernine players easily. The goal of the play is it, more run (points) to obtain than the opponent. Several times alternating a team has the impact right (Offense), while the other one must defend the field (Defense). A run becomesobtained, if a player of the Offense meets the ball with a racquet and reihum can run off all four Bases. The Defense tries to prevent this, by serving balls which can be struck only with difficulty to the Schlagmann and the struck ball underControl brings.
the playing field consists of two parts and by a fence is usually limited. Fair the Territory in such a way specified has normally for instance the form of a quarter circle, its straight edges as side from lines(Foullines) between 90 and 120 meters are long. The Americans call the field because of the form fair of the Territory also gladly dia. moon. The range outside of the Foullines is called Foul Territory (in the accompanying design bluerepresented).
Most actions find edge length , whose corners are marked by the three Bases and the Home Plate to a square in the point of the quarter circle of 90 foot (about 27 m) in the Infield instead of ( in the design brown). The remainderthe Territories is called fair Outfield (represented in the design green).
Innings and Spieldauer
a play section are called Inning; it consists of two helped Innings (Top & Bottom). The Auswärtsmannschaft is always first Offense. In the second Halbinningis then the home crew at the impact. Both crews may strike thereby in their offensive Halbinning so long in each case to three of their players are “out”. So it can occur the fact that the Batting order is again begun if many run obtainsand therefore the players, who completed their run, will be able to come recently to the impact.
A play consists as a rule of nine such Innings. The home crew at the end of the respected Innings leads, and obtains the guests in its partninth no more run, then without the second Halbinning one does and the play is decided.
In German leagues partly also doubles headers are played, thus two plays one behind the other (2×5, 2×7, 1×7 and 1×9 Innings are usual in Germany).Thus the number of the plays per season is to be increased. An undecided does not give it. If it stands after the fixed number of Innings undecided, then so long in each case by a further Inning is extended (extra Inning) to oneCrew wins.
duel Pitcher against Batter
in the center of the play stands the duel between a Batter of the Offense and the Pitcher of the field crew. The players of the Offense step in a before specified order (Batting order or also Lineup mentioned) individually against the Pitcher on. This tries to throw the ball in such a way by the Strike zone to its Catcher that the Batter cannot strike it with its racquet or only weakly. The Strike zone is the range over that Home Plate, which is limited by chest and knee height of the Batters above and down, broad approximately 40 cm. The Pitcher succeeds in throwing three times into the Strike zone without the Batter the ball, is out the Batter meets (Strike Out “strike three, he's out. ”).
For a Strike the ball must be however not completely missed. If the Batter the ball straight still evenly - usually from downside - easily meets and thesethen far to the rear in the Foul Territory (into the grandstand) away-jumps, then also this is a Strike. So however no Strikeout can be obtained. The third Strike must be always full missing of the ball by the Batter.
Meetsthe Pitcher into the Strike zone, then is not this a ball (English discussion). However if the Batter struck after such a ball and this did not meet, then goes as Strike to its disadvantage, although the Strike zonewas missed. If the Batter sees meanwhile still punctual that the ball will be too highly or otherwise no Strike, and holds with the momentum (Checked Swing), then the throw remains a ball.
The art of the Pitchersconsists on the other hand in large measure to give to the balls a Effet e.g. they turn in such a way or surprisingly downward fly to let (Slider, Sinking ball, Changeup etc.) that the estimate of the Batters goes wrongly. Thus one experiences itfrequently that the Batter stops its flapping, in order by the arbitrator (Umpire) to be then instructed that it let a Strike happen.
Occur to the Pitcher against a Batter four of ball, then this may advance on the first cousin. Thatone calls generally mills (rule-correctly: Cousin on of ball), because the Batter in this case cannot risked to be ejected and in all peace to the first cousin „walk “. If a Runner should stand on this cousin, then this may advance on the second cousin, since on each cousin only in each case one player may stand. If all Bases is occupied, then mills at the same time one point (run), since all Runner a cousin moves, the player on third costsCousin thus the Home Plate reached and thus a run obtains.
That mill pretty often also consciously (see strategy) one uses, if one against one as hochklassig well-known Batter - with high hit average (Batting AVERAGE) and perhaps dozensalready Home of run struck from in the season - rather do not pitchen would like; this only quite then if Bases are occupied already and it could come to several run. On indications of its manager the Catcher places itself then a meterbeside the Home Plate and catches there with stretched arm four of the Pitcher consciously to the Homeplate past thrown balls.
the most interesting situationsdevelop if the Batter meets and back in the field strikes the ball. Thus will it to the Runner (runner) and must to the first cousin run.
Becomes direct its struck ball (Fly ball) of a field player from airimprisoned, the Schlagmann is immediately out (Fly Out). Other Runner on the field, which had already left its cousin before the Fly Out, must return and be allowed to do to this these only leave and to the next cousin run,as soon as the ball in the glove of the field player landed. If they reach then still the next cousin, one calls (caught) the Flugball Sacrifice Fly, because by the “loss” of the Schlagmanns of the fellow players forward came and perhaps even a run to obtain could.
Out can be also obtained, if the ball only touched with the racquet flies steeply highly and then behind the Auslinie (foul pop). The ball is not then in the Foul Territory and any Runner may keeps running, the defense - usually the Catcher - may the ball however there catch and thus the Out make. Some player, who wanted to make himself completely long, already is over the barrier at the edge of playing field the spectators before the feetfallen.
The new Runner is likewise out, if a field player takes up and to first Baseman throws the ball of the soil - while this affects first cousin - before the Batter/Runner arrives there (Force Out). With scarcePlay courses decides the field arbitrator (Field Umpire) between safe or out. Each Runner, which is out, must the playing field leave and to the player bank place take, until he comes again again as Batter to the row.
EveryoneRunner, which is affected straight no cousin also out, if he is affected by a field player with the ball or with the glove, in which the ball is (day Out). Throwing the Runners off is however does not permit. The Batter is out, if it struck the ball, starts and on the way to the first cousin in fair the Territory of the thrown ball is met. In this special case the arbitrator (Umpire must ) assume the current Batter ran intentionally on the left of the Foul LINE (although it MUST run right of it), over a good throw of a field player and/or. catching the ball for the allusive field player by blocking the viewto make impossible. If a Runner of a struck ball in fair the Territory is met, which no field player took up before, he is out.
A Runner is safe, if he reaches a cousin, before the field crew the ball thereto bring can. He can at any time try to run also two or three Bases at one time further it may however at the most a Runner on each cousin be.
If it creates the Batter by its own impact on first cousin, hasit a single obtains. If it creates it to the second or third cousin, it obtains according to a double and/or tripolarizes. A Runner remains at a cousin, whom he reached safe, until a new Batter to the duel against the Pitcherstart. By its impact all Runner can advance then further or obtain even a run, in which they arrive again reliably at the Home Plate. If a Batter strikes the ball over the outer fence away, then one calls a Home run. The Batter and all possibly itself straight Runner find-finite on the Bases may run off the Bases in all peace and ever a run obtain. Therefore a Schlagmann can book with a Home run maximally four points for its crew,indeed for the Runner on first, second and third cousin and for itself. This maximum yield has the name Grand Slam Homerun.
A Home run is possible also if the ball does not leave the field (a so-called. inside the park homerun). This case is however very rarely besides, because for it on the one hand a Batter of the läuferischen top class (also the exzellenter Kurzstreckler would be) and a hit is necessary, with that itself the ball extremely heavily under controlto bring leaves. Usually this balls are into the really rear corner of the field, not least such, those only after breaking open in the Foul Territory roll and thus according to the rule alive, thus still in the play and not foul,are. Often in it also special circumstances, about a jumping of the ball into not a direction, which can be expected unfortunate for the defense, participate.
However each ball, which lands in the field, thus is not already a hit, even ifthe Batter the first cousin reaches. If the impact for the defense would have been easy to intercept, then one speaks of an error (easier errors), about if a particularly hard struck ball does not zufliegt directly on a defender (Fielder) andthis it nevertheless does not catch. Whether an error - thus no hit - is present, by the way decides none the arbitrator (Umpire), but a play writer ordered for it (Official Scorer). Are pretty often already players quite unfortunately alsoto its decision been its, errors go nevertheless debited to its impact statistics (Batting AVERAGE).
Reaches the Batter the first cousin, because a field player decided due to tactical consideration, another Runner out to throw (because there straight outis more important), instead of throwing to the roofridge Baseman, then it concerns a Fielder's Choice (decision of the field player). One speaks thus only of a hit, if the Batter reaches the first cousin and neither an error nor Fielder's Choice is present. On the play has this no direct influence, probably however on the play and/or. Player statistics.
a Runner can try at any time, which next cousin too „steal “to thus erlaufen it even if thatBall was not struck at all by the Batter. A typical opportunity is, if the Pitcher began its Wurfbewegung. This may not be interrupted. The Runner tries, rather next cousin to arrive as the ball, that from the Pitcher to the Catcher,and from there from to the cousin started accordingly one throws.
Not least therefore a good Catcher for a successful Defense is of great importance, because he must recognize and decide possible play courses in advance, where the ball at the best one to be played should, if several opponents on the Bases are. It must recognize, where most easily a Out is however to be made or where this straight is most urgently needed. Naturally it must the ball then also fast and preciselythere throw. If it fulfills its task, then it is quite possible to make several Runner out in a play course (double Play or, very rarely, tripolarizes Play). Not without reason there are Glove for Catcher, the so-called goldAward (golden glove), which is lent to the best player of the American professional leagues at the end of the yearly. [Side remark: The gold Glove Award is separately lent to professional for both leagues American League and national League and for each position individually. Speak, iteach year gives a golden glove for the best Pitcher, to Catcher etc.]Gold Glove Award
as tactical means is cousin Stealing particularly with a limited Spielstand, particularly with resembling and, interesting. Usually into the late Innings, because so quitePlay to be won can be able to provide, about if the stronger part of the own Batting order still follows and one may hope, a Batter for a good hit. If it creates the Runner so for instance on the third cousin, then can a following long single are quite sufficient, in order to win the play.
positions of the defensive
the defending crew consists of 9 players, everyone with an own position on the playing field and partial different tasks. ThosePosition is not firm thereby - apart from Pitcher (thrower ) and Catcher (Fänger) -, then for example the 3rd Baseman stands in the proximity of the third cousin, it arrives however on the current game situation and the present Batter (Schlagmann) whetherit now further in the Infield or direction Outfield is oriented, and/or. rather right of the cousin stands. The positions and their tasks in detail:
- P: Pitcher (item number 1). Its major task consists of bringing the ball in the play. Ittries the ball at the Schlagmann to his Catcher to past throw. In addition it is responsible to take up and pass flat on of balls to the center of the Infields. It must run in addition to the first cousin and take these off, should the 1st Basemanleave its position due to a high ball. The achievement of a good Pitchers consists above all of it bringing its throws (pitch) so skillfully on the way that they are to be calculated for the Batter as with difficulty as possible, about as it, give in that it changes of the direction or the flight altitude describe a flight path (Sinking ball, Slider, Changeup etc.). Often it is also the pure speed, which makes to strike the ball with difficulty (nearly ball).
- C: Catcher (2). It carries special protective clothing, there its task therein exists the balls of the Pitchers, which the Schlagmann meets or after which he does not strike, to catch just as the balls, those more or less uncontrolled from the racquet of the Battersreflect. The moreover he is Baseman of the Home Plate, he prevented thus that runners obtain one point. It does not concern completely last simply that the Catcher on the Home Plate simply with its body if possiblebroad obstacle against the attacking Runner forms (“ton block home plate”); this certainly without „barriers without ball “, as one would say in the football. In addition the Catcher indicates to the Pitcher (by often strange working gestures), which for a throwit the Schlagmann to throw is to keep and must the happening behind the Pitcher in the eye, then it must fast react, should a Runner try a cousin to steal. Here it is not to be possessed surely by disadvantage a strong throw.The great importance of a good Catchers for a successful defense may not be underestimated therefore.
- 1B: Roofridge Baseman (3). It actual like all players - responsible for, balls which to its direction fly to catch and pass on. Furtherit takes off the first cousin, i.e. it must try to make runners on the way out too „for its “ cousin. If a Runner on the first cousin should be, the 1st Baseman stands usually much near the cousinor even on in order preventing that the second cousin is stolen.
- 2B: Second Baseman (4). It takes up balls, which come and try into its direction, if necessary, to introduce a double Play thus equivalent two opposing players uponce out to make. If the ball comes on the Shortstop, the 2nd Baseman stands usually on the second cousin, gets the ball thrown by the Shortstop, constitutes thus the Runner of the first cousin, throws to the 1st Baseman,in order to make the Batter there out. The double Play is complete. Usually the 2nd Baseman of far direction of first cousin is oriented.
- 3B: Third Baseman (5). The third cousin is considered as „the Hot Corner “, there here most ballsarrive from right-handed Schlagmännern. Since these balls achieve pretty often high speeds, a good response time is a condition. It has the furthest way to the 1st Baseman from the Infieldern, why it needs in addition a strong and precise throw.
- SS: Shortstop (6). It has in principle the same tasks as the 2nd Baseman, thus balls in its direction to intercept, at the second cousin to make and possibly doubles the Plays out introduce. It is however under normal conditions further from thatit removes first cousin why he needs a better Wurfarm.
- LF: Left Fielder (7), CF: Center Fielder (8), RF: Right Fielder (9). The three Outfielder must follow to each ball, which flies to the Outfield, and these - if possible- directly from air catch and, if necessary, fast and precisely for a fellow player at a cousin throw the ball. If the way should become too long, also a player from the Infield can come to meet and pass the ball on (Relay Throw).
The number, which is assigned to each position, serves mainly the statistic collection of the play courses. For this two examples:
- Out meant that the 3rd Baseman ( 5) takes up the ball, to the 1st Baseman ( 3) and this throws 5-3 a that Batter „out makes “).
- A Play it means 4-6-3 doubles that the 2nd Baseman (4) takes up the ball, which stands for Shortstop (6) on the second cousin, the ball catches, thus the Runner of the first cousin out makes and afterwards the ballto the 1st Baseman (3) throws, who takes again the Batter from the play.
a play is usually led by two to four or even six (even in the American professional haven very rarely ) arbitrators. They become Umpire or also briefly Ump (about like the Schiri) or Blue called. The latter is to be due to the traditionally blue shirts of the Umpire. The main arbitrator (Plate Umpire) always stands behind the Home Plate, where he decides whether thatPitcher a Strike or a ball threw. Although the Plate Umpire in the case of doubt has the final say, he makes sure also among with his colleagues, before he falls its decision. This applies for z. B. with the question whether thatBatter with a badly served throw of the Pitchers only to the impact set (Checked Swing) or the racquet to before the Home Plate one led. In addition it must decide whether a Runner reaches the Home cousin reliably (Safe RK Home obtained), thus a run. That or the others work in the field. If there are only or two field arbitrators, these must run in each case into the proximity that cousin, where knappe out „safe or “- decision lines up.
Due to the many fact decisions which can be met on the one hand and the very extensive set of rules with innumerable special arrangements on the other hand are entangled Umpire frequently in discussions. This is also with many other kinds of sport at the agenda, however one can (naturally only inlower leagues) with the baseball every now and then strange driving experience. While one dismisses the protests of the players and coaches for example with the football in principle against alleged wrong decisions with the fact that the man will not withdraw his decision into black anyway, can do it withBaseball completely differently come. With protests it can happen that the coaches of the teams as well as the Umpiren and possibly. also the Scorer for several minutes, possibly also with help of the rule book, over the past game situation „negotiate “and at the end of the Umpirein Chief (or also crew Chief) another than the original decision is met.
a Scorer or also a Scorekeeper at the edge of playing field logs all actions and play courses on a prefabricated form, the Scoresheet. The filled out Scoresheetdoes not only serve as play report. On the basis of the Scoring recordings extensive statistics are provided, which give information over play strength of crews and single players.
playing equipments, equipment
the ball has a diameter ofabout 7.4 cm, the extent at least 22.8 cm (9 inches) and may at the most 23.5 cm (9 1/4 inches) must amount to. The weight should not be less than 141.7 g (5 ounces) and no more than 148.8 g (5 of 1/4 ounces).It is thus somewhat larger than a tennis ball. The baseball is coated of two pieces white leather, which are together-sewn with red threads, the so-called seam. It is not inflated with air, its inside consists of a cork core and extremelyclosely around it wound thread. Thus the ball becomes very hard, why the Schlagmänner (Batter) carry for a long time protective helmets and the Catcher and Plate Umpires sturdy protective masks.
Sometimes not least because of the hardness of the ball it comesoften palpable - controversies, if a ball thrown from the Pitcher meets the Batter at the body or at neck or head (Brushoff pitch). Since one thinks so much precision to each Pitcher capable of the fact that he can avoid this subordinates thoseOpponent in such cases fast intention (about revenge because of an unfair behavior of the Batters seen by the Pitcher).
The balls are considered as desired pieces of collecting with fans in the whole world.
a baseball bat consists of wood, aluminum or aluminum alloys. Rare also racquets from ceramic(s) or graphite are to be found. In professional leagues and in the German first and second federal league also racquets from other materials may be used permitted excluding Holzschläger, in most other amateur leagues are. Inaluminum racquets are prescribed for the US-American colleges.
for each player of the field crew carries a large leather glove, which makes the easy and pain-free catching possible of the ball. The catch glove roofridge Baseman is larger than those of the other field players. That Catcher carries a particularly padded glove around the balls thrown by the Pitcher to catch.
The Schlagmann usually carries a pair thin leather gloves, in order to avoid blisters at the fingers and to have a better grasp. Some Schlagmänner use also onlyor no impact glove.
Batter and Runner wear plastic helmets over against head hits with the ball to be protected. On that the Pitcher these also the ear cover turned side.
of the Catcheradditional protection equipment carries, since it sits behind the Batter and forwards not met or abgefälschten balls must be protected. Its equipment consists of a still larger and strongly padded, fingerless catch glove, a Gesichtsmaske, a helmet, a chest protection, a genital protection andKneeling and Schienbeinschützern. Helmet and Gesichtsmaske can be easily thrown off, about if the Catcher must catch a Fly ball and for it free view needs.
The Plate Umpire sitting behind it in the squat is similarly protected, carries however no glove.In addition the protective clothing is carried by the Plate Umpire under the clothes.
soft ball is a variant of baseball. The ball is thrown by the Pitcher not from above, but with a circulation from downside. Some rules differentiate, the play principle is however identical of the baseball. Sometimes baseball is called for the distinction by the soft ball also hard ball.
The playing field with the soft ball is approximately 1/3 smaller than with the baseball, equally the Bases is only 60 foot (about 18 m) from each otherremoved. The racquets are mostly somewhat thinner and easier.
The name of the play is misleading: The ball is larger than a baseball, is however just as hard. It cannot only because of its size completely so hard thrown and struckbecome.
In the USA leisuremoderately by adults soft ball is predominantly played, baseball against it by professionals and at schools. In Germany Mr. Baseball and Damen soft ball play.
There are two versions of soft ball, nearly pitch soft ball and Slowpitch soft ball.
Nearly pitch soft ball
with the nearly pitch soft ball can be thrown the ball arbitrarily hard. This variant is usually played in schools, universities and ambitionierten amateur leagues. Ladies nearly pitch soft ball is since 1996 olympic discipline. Beside the USA (olympia winners 1996, 2000, to 2004) Japan and Australia belong to the best national teams of the world.
Slowpitch soft ball
Slowpitch soft ball is „the leisure variant “soft ball, with which the ball thrown by the Pitcher must describe a clear elbow. Cousin Stealing and someother variations are not permitted soft ball with the Slowpitch.
characteristics of the baseball haven
of baseball plays do not have a Zeitbegrenzung. A fixed number of play sections (Innings) is played. An undecided is not possible, thereResembling and after completing the 9 and/or. For 7 Innings so long individual extra Innings to be played to a winner stands firmly. It is not possible in the baseball to save by special play way a guidance „over the time “.
One likes this certainlyfor keep not very meaningful, because it will quite often be not particularly attractive for the spectators to serve two or three Extrainnings in order then about to only see, as with trouble from a one to one at the end 12.Innings is made two one; this particularly, if it actually concerns not much, approximately in April or May, if the season is still far still young and the final fight for the point of the final table away. In thatJapanese professional league this was therefore changed; here a play can end undecided.
As long as one counts the number of the plays (won/lost) in the USA for the table of far only, it may have a certain sense look for always a decision. Neverthelessit occurred already several times however that there was to the season end resembling and between two clubs and then still another One Game Playoff (deciding match) to be delivered had.
With the statistics enormously complex led in the US baseball (hit, run, Home of run, Stolen Basesand/or. with the Pitching Strikeouts and Walks to call around only one part) a resembling and in the conclusion table would appear completely inconceivable, became one all this worth; particularly with the number of approximately 160 plays per season, almost astronomical for European conditions.Also so seen there is no really good reason, plays to always decide to have (exceptions of it to place naturally the championship round and the universe star Game ).
In Germany there are „grace rules “(Mercy Rules), after those during clear projection/leada crew the play to be prematurely terminated knows. Also can limit the regional organizations in the leagues below the federation league the Spieldauer - in addition, in this case playing a winner must be certain with.
connection of crew andIndividual kind of sport
baseball is generally considered as crew sport. With the duel against the Pitcher a Batter start individually. Its fellow players cannot affect its achievement or the success of its employment. From this perspective baseball leaves itself also as combination of crew andIndividual sport understand.
strategy, repetition of the starting situation
the play principle of baseball develops on the duel between Pitcher and Batter. The output and boundary conditions for this duel (z. B. Left or Rechtshänder, which Bases is occupied, like manyStrikes, like many ball, like many Outs) repeat themselves in the course of a play many marks. The meaning of strategic means increases compared with kinds of sport, in which due to variable situations rather intuitively to tactical one acts.
Typical means of theseKind are about a changes of another Pitchers, if a certain Batter comes to the impact - z. B. the exchange of a left-handed Pitchers against a left-handed Batter - or in the offensive a changes of a substitute as Batter (Pinch Hitter). Also another (faster) runner (Pinch Runner) is often desired, approximately with a limited Spielstand, in order to make the crucial run.
This way also conscious throwing of four of ball belongs by the Pitcher (so-called Intentional mill, there the Runner unhindered on first cousin to run may), in order not to have to pitchen against well-known power a Hitter; this above all, if Bases are occupied by opposing players already and a good hit more thana run bring in and/or. to cost can.
A very popular means of classical play tactics is also the multicolored. This actual nearly only - „a way pushing “of the ball, whereby the Batter gives very fast the typical impact attitude up and the racquet into onediagonal attitude which can be described with difficulty brings, in order the ball nearly only „drips off “to leave. The ball remains thereby usually in the Infield.
To the topic tactics belongs it on the other hand also the fact that the opponents in such situations, which after a multicolored - „smells attempt “,to the Infield move up usually very closely, in order to have for the ball throw short ways.
A goal of the multicolored as play course is it to obtain in scarce situations (for instance resembling and in the respected or ninth Inning) with all means a run orto prepare at least substantially. With the multicolored it concerns above all to carry the ball to a place where it lasts enough for the opponents straight for a long time to accept and pass it on if necessary, so that/the own Runner can move up a cousin.
Thereby the Sacrifice multicolored, because the Batter tries as usual to reach the first cousin is very frequent what it with evenly typically the ball briefly put on often does not succeed, there this comes nevertheless quite fast there andso there to be made out can. If one occupied its fellow player meanwhile as Runner the next cousin, the purpose of the Sacrifice is reached. The Batter sacrificed itself thus for the better position of its crew comrades „“.
In some cases becomesthe Suicide Squeeze applied. This means that the runner of the third cousin with the pitch movement starts toward Homeplate - thus before the ball left the throw hand of the Pitchers. The Batter must try now by all force,to carry the ball in the field, so that the run counts. The Batter in most cases tries the ball to multicolored. The Batter the ball in the field, one does not succeed to carry in one „suicide action “to a certain extent its Runner sacrificed,since the Catcher must affect now simply the Runner with the ball, before this reaches the Homeplate.
From this also the possibility results of applying statistic means to the evaluation of the efficiency of a player or a crew. The impact average (Batting AVERAGE) corresponds to the number of the successful impacts (cousin hit) divided by the number of the shock tests (RK Bats). It applies at sufficiently large number of measurements as halfway meaningful parameter for the ability of a Batters. Beside these, the modern thinking school of the Sabermetrics tries to justify traditional, rather intuitive statistics more strongly for victory or defeat meaningful statistics by mathematical analyses.
no punishments with few exceptions in the baseball no punishments. In case of against the rules actionsa player let the Umpires usually the play from the situation again take up, which would have been caused without against the rules actions. Fouls are actually unknown in the baseball. Nontheless it comes into meetings pretty often to discussions, with those individual playersone accuses to have unsportlich behaved. Although baseball is in principle a bodyless sport, situations, in which opponents obstruct themselves rempeln or, give cause for arguments.
For this two typical scenarios:
- Theoretically that the Runner has right of way, it applies thusthe shortest distance to its run between two Bases to take may also take and up to a small deviation must. If a field player stands to it thereby in the way, he may umrennen him.
- Theoretically the entire body of the Runners applies (inclusive of theHead, which ideal-proves in the appropriate situation still by a helmet is protected) as attack region to the day gene - thus affecting the opponent with the glove or the hand, in which the ball is.
One can introduce oneself easily,that with both situations the behavior of the players is not to be judged always simply between fair and exaggerated employment or even conscious attacking.
With roughly against the rules behavior a player can be placed by the field (Ejection). The Umpire can also refer Pitcher of the field, which threw off either in their opinion intentionally or in the course of the play of frequent Batter.
points without ball
baseball is one of the few kinds of ball haven, in which it is not important, the ballto bring to a certain place, in order to obtain points. So for example the ball must in the gate, with the basketball into the basket, with the Volleyball on the soil etc. with the football. With the baseball the points are obtained by runners, thoserule-fairly once affected all four Bases. Compared with other kinds of sport the fact is likewise worth mentioning that in the baseball - differently than z. B. in the American football - which brings defending crew the ball in the play. The ball is the instrument of the defense, in order to prevent points of the opponent.
The ball is at the same time in addition, the means of the offensive, in order to obtain run, by trying, this within fair the Territory so far or as inaccessible as possible awayto strike that the defense has a maximum measure of trouble to carry this back - if necessary by passing on among the defenders (Relay Throw) - toward Infield around the aggressors so as much as possible time for execution of the Bases toogive.
general to the terminology
baseball has, like every other kind of sport, its own terminology. Practically all technical terms originate from the country of origin the USA and in German-language countries are invariably used. Individual attempts to in-German technical terms failed all together. Today the strong Anglifizierung is thatBaseball language in Germany in principle accepts. In other countries like the Netherlands or France terms in the national language replaced the English to a large extent.
influence on the American language
in its country of origin the USA has baseball by its history thoseEnglish everyday life language coined/shaped, so that today some technical terms in other context are used.tons touch cousin meant as much as short contact take up, tons throw someone A curve ball meant someone on the wrong foot get, and tonsgo ton asked is called itself begins, something moves (also ton go tons asked for someone: help someone; for it use themselves).
In California there is a legislation under the slogan for well ten years „three strikes, you're out “,those the judges with each straight author the imposition of imprisonment, become culpable the third time, compellingly prescribes.
Baseball had a so high popularity in the USA into the 1970er years opposite American football and basketball that alsothe generic terms Ballplayer, Ballgame and ball park also today still another baseball player, a baseball play and/or. a baseball stadium is designated.
play enterprise in Germany
today scarcely 30,000 players are active in Germany.
- 1.Bundesliga (2 groups of north/south)
- 2.Bundesliga (2 groups of north/south)
- regional league (4 groups)
- federation league (ever 1 per Land of the Federal Republic, except in East Germany - Saxonia,Saxonia-Anhalt and Thuringia have a common federation league)
- national league
- district league
soft ball ladies:
- 1.Bundesliga (2 groups of north/south)
- federation league (ever 1 per Land of the Federal Republic)
- national league
in Europe is played with that in this country ascending and descending generally usual in the sport enterprise, during this into thatIs practically unknown to the USA.
In addition new generation leagues come in the age groups of children (4-8 years), pupils (9-12 years), juniors (16-18 years) and youth (12-15 years).
Parallel to the league enterprise the enterprise of the DBV cup takes place . In this in the K.O. - Becomes system delivered competitionthe Cup winner determines. Qualified are in each case the winners of the cup competitions of the regional organizations.
- list of the German masters in the baseball (all age groups).
- List of the German Cup winners (DBV cup).
- List of the German masters in the soft ball (ladies).
- Listthe German baseball crews
- list of the German Sofballmannschaften
- baseball federal league
- soft ball federal league
play enterprise in Austria
today scarcely 3,000 players are active in Austria.
- ABL (Austrian baseball League)
- BBL (baseball federal league)
- regional league (east/west)
- national league (east, upper Austria, Tirol, Vorarlberg)
soft ball ladies:
- ASL (Austrian soft ball League)
- SBL (soft ball federal league)
in addition come still various new generation leagues in the age groups youth (12-15 years), pupil (9-12 years) and children (4-8Years), as well as the Austrian new generation championships (youth, pupil, children).
play enterprise internationally
baseball applies not only in the USA as National sport, but also in many Central American and East Asian countries such as Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican republic, Venezuela, Japan and Taiwan. Within Europe it is in Italy and the Netherlands particularly likes.
baseballin the USA today
in the USA that once after the Second World War gradually ever more spectator at American football and in the last decades also at basketball lost all controlling baseball. By repeated strikes extreme fought forPlayer salaries as well as obscure Deals and league restructuring of the owners of club harmed the reputation of the baseball into the 1990er years very much. The sport has however still a large and faithful fan basis and a deep anchorage in the US-American culture. The commonBaseball plays or - look applies far away still as the father son experience absolutely.
An advantage of the baseball is that the number of plays of a baseball crew per season is very much higher than in other kinds of sport (162 plays in the regular season), so thatthe admission fees to be usually lower set to be able and also fans from the lower income classes from time to time into the stadium to come be able.
The most well-known professional leagues in the USA are organized by major League baseball, briefly MLB. Below these leaguesis the Minor Leagues, likewise professional leagues, whose teams are closely associated usually with one major League team each and serve them as talent pool. Besides there are still independent leagues, in which professionally baseball is played. Mostly play there professionals, thosein a MLB team no more contract gotten or from the Minor Leagues to dismiss became. Most US players in Germany come likewise from this pool.
Similarly as with other kinds of sport in the USA amateur baseball is operated mainly by schools and universities.The universities play a much smaller role than into that once „elitären “kinds of sport football and basketball in the traditional „worker haven “baseball however since the First World War. Often the best High School players are obligated directly by the professional teams, which the quality thatCollege leagues impairs. During the last years however a contrary trend is to be observed. Led about the Oakland Athletics and the bad clay/tone talk Sox turn into ever more associations to prefer to college player the High School players. Main points of criticism at the college level are that onefrom cost reasons with aluminum racquets and it plays a uniform rule to favour of the Designated Hitters gives.
The youth range is covered by several organizations, the most well-known is the Little League. Here boys and girls play between 5 and 18 yearsin six age groups soft ball and baseball. Frequently with adapted rules, so for instance on smaller fields and with less body contact is played.
baseball with Olympia
since 1992 is baseball also olympic. However the world-best players takenot at the olympic tournaments part, since the professional leagues are so far not ready to interrupt for it their play enterprise. Unfortunately in spring and in the autumn an ending season beginning without summer break is with the baseball contrary to most other kinds of team havenusually, so that Olympia inserts itself only badly. Dopingskandale with the US professional baseball and one as all too lax felt attitude of the Ligabosse to this problem harmed besides the international reputation of the kind of sport.
Thus the IOC decided to 8. July 2005 that baseballand also soft ball further in accordance with article 46 of the olympic Charter „olympic kind of sport “remain not being delivered, but 2012 in London. Thus baseball and soft ball are the first kinds of sport painted from the program since 1936, when Polo was painted.
This decision was above all meant for creating over place for new kinds of sport (and. A.Rugby, Golf, Karate und Squash waren angedacht), allerdings fand dann keine dieser Sportarten die nötige Mehrheit. 2008 in Peking become it however stillan olympic baseball tournament and a soft ball tournament give, and with that IOC meeting 2009 is decided whether it will give 2016 again an olympia participation.
baseball world championship
internationally the baseball Association (IBA) works with the MLB on it, in the future a genuine world championshipto organize for national teams after the model of the soccer world championship, to which really the best players of each country are to then come. This is to take place for the first time 2006 or 2007 and afterwards at least every four years, to take in each case about two weeksand national teams of all continents cover. In order not to have to interrupt the league enterprise, it is to take place in each case in March in already a world area sufficiently warm at this season. The first tournament is to be held in the USA, whereby then onlyin stages one played, which lay either in the southern part of the USA or are considered.
this is only a summary of the historical development baseball. A detailed description is in the article history baseball.
baseball in the USA
in England are a play under the name “cousin ball”, which probably developed from forerunners of the today's cricket, for the first time 1744occupied. The widespread thesis, it developed from the English play Rounders, is meanwhile disproved. The first which can be documented created association in the USA were the New York of break hereditary ocher of 1845. The first professional team, the Cincinnati talk Stockings (the today's Cincinnati Reds), became at the 1. June 1869 based. National the League was created 1876 by teams from Cincinnati, Chicago, bad clay/tone, pc. Louis, Hartford, Louisville, New York and Philadelphia in New York. In the first years of the professional enterprise gaveit still another whole number of other, short-lived leagues.1901 were then created the American League, first as contention mode. Both leagues apply until today as major Leagues. The largest heroes major Leagues become in the baseball resound to OFFame honoured, which is in Cooperstown , New York. Since 1903 the two leagues cooperated and deliver annually as final the World Series .
historical development of Germany
the first baseball play on German soil foundwith the olympic plays 1936 in Berlin instead of. At that time the largest and up to now not even more pursued approximately reached record background of more than 100,000 spectators a demonstration play between two US teams in the citizen of Berlin olympia stadium.
Favoured by the presence of US-American troopsin Germany a German baseball municipality developed into the 1950er years. In the years after 1968 the baseball haven came into Germany practically to succumbing, only starting from 1982 developed the sport rapidly.
development of Switzerland
baseball is played in Switzerland since 1980. In the summer 1980 one began itselfTo meet group of Gleichgesinnten regularly to the baseball on the inhabitants of zurich common land. Was trained on the plant of the hammer throwers, their net served directly as baking stop. A Dodge Challenger, mobile support of a member, lent the name Challengers to the group. In Novemberarranged itself the Challengers with a group, which called itself White Sox, in Luzern to the first baseball play in Switzerland. The play had to be broken off however prematurely. Not because of using snow about. The balls went out.
To 5. December 1980with the Challengers baseball club was created officially the first baseball association in Zurich. Its exponents were in the following year also involved in the establishment Swiss baseball and soft ball of the federation (SBSV). The Challengers won on the occasion of the premiere of the national Championats1982 Swiss Meistertitel.
portal: Baseball, soft ball, baseball federal league, Home run, Inning, Pitcher, Catcher, Batter, major League baseball, national League, American League, baseball bat, Scoring (baseball), baseball in Japan
|Commons: Baseball - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Bernhard Schmeilzl, Bill Church: Baseball training. Publishing house Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 1995. ISBN 3-89124-236-0
- H.A. Dorfman, Karl cool: The mentally Game OF baseball. Dia. moon Communications, South Bend, IN, the USA.ISBN 0-912083-32-8
- Jim Bouton: Ball Four. Macmillan Books, New York, NY, the USA, 1981. ISBN 0-02-030665-2
Web on the left of
- major League baseball (Website of the American professional leagues)
- DBV - German baseball and soft ballFederation (Website German baseball of the federation)
- ABF - Austrian baseball Federation (Website of the Austrian baseball Federation)
- SBSV - Swiss baseball and soft ball federation (Website of the Swiss baseball and soft ball federation)
- baseball encyclopedia, rules & historical review
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