Basketball

of these articles concerns itself generally with the term basketball. Basketball associations, - to players, and further approximately around this sport, see portal basketball.
Basketball, size 7
basketball play, three point throw

basketball is a kind of ball haven for two crews with twelve players each. Upthe playing field are active for each team of five players. The play is led by at least two arbitrators. It is one of the most popular and most common kinds of sport of the world. Basketball becomes on all continents of women and men of all age groups, also in the wheelchair,played.

Table of contents

belongs to 13 Web on the left of

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Eugene “Killer” Edgerson von den Harlem Globetrotters bei einem Korbleger
work on] history Eugene “killer” Edgerson of the Harlem of globetrotter

with one to the few kinds of sport, which were proper invented. Contrary to football, whose rules developed during a long period spielerisch,basketball was sketched by a man: The Canadian James Naismith developed the ball play 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts, the USA as resounding haven for the school. James Naismith had recognized that the combat stressingness in other kinds of ball haven results from the fact that itself thatplays whole play happenings in the same level (compares for example American football). It looked for a less kämpferischen sport with smaller injury risk, which should divert the 18 students in the class in the winter. For this purpose it shifted the baskets into oneother level than the players. The caretaker Pop Stabbins fastened at that time the peach baskets to the balconies of the YMCA training School in Springfield on a height of 3.05 meters (that are 10 foot). It was the first basket height and is alsotoday still the official. In order to prevent that spectators can affect basket throws from the gallery it was installed, behind the basket a board. On the idea in addition it, when it saw workers of a factory, came along those in its lunch timea ball played, which they tried to throw by a fruit crate hung up at the wall. The school secretary Lyons helped Naismith with the production of the 13 rules.

Basketball was played at that time still with a football.

The first official basketball play found to 20. January 1892 instead of. Within fewer decades Naismiths became generally accepted invention in completely America and finally world-wide. Since 1936 basketball - as the first crew kind of sport at all - is part of the olympic summer games. Woman basketball became 1976 part of the olympic summer games.The basketball made a precipitous progress in the world-wide perception 1992, when with the olympic plays in Barcelona professionals became certified for the first time and team “its legendary triumphant advance began the American “Dream.

The Streetball in such a way specified is oneModification of the basketball. It enjoys as leisure kind of sport of ever larger popularity. In contrast to the classical basketball three against three on only one basket is played and it mostly takes place here in the free one, whereby itself the rules additionally still of“normal” basketball differentiate between.

federations

the world basketball federation is the FIBA (Fédération international one de Basketball). The FIBA became 1932 of eight countries (Argentina, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia) with seat in Geneva based; between 1956 and 2002 the FIBA had its seat in Munich. The seat of the European FIBA zone is further Munich. Seat German basketball of the federation (National Union of Civil Servants) is Hagen (Westphalia). The individual Lands of the Federal Republicare organized in an own regional organization in each case. President National Union of Civil Servants is since 1994 Roland Geggus (Pfinztal).

Wheelchair basketball is played in more than fifty countries. Internationally the Wheelchair basketball Federation is the international roof federation. Wheelchair basketball is since the paralympicses 1960 in Rome paralympische kind of sport. The German Rollstuhlbasketballer is organized in the German wheelchair sport federation (DRS).

rules

basketball field

a goal of the play is it, that about 600 - 650 g (size 7) (ladies: 540 g, size 6) heavy ballto as often as possible throw into the opposing basket, which hangs at a value of 3.05 meters. The ball must fall from above into the basket. The ball can be played also over the board. By a basket throw or a oneBasket-casually in principle two points are obtained. A basket throw outside of the three point zone counts three points, a free throw one point. Winner is that crew, which obtained at expiration of the play time more points. With a resembling and an extension is played. This becomesrepeats until a winner is certain.

Spielfläche

for the official main competitions of the FIBA must amount to the dimension of the playing field 28 to 15 meters.

crews

on the field play two crews with five field players each.The initial at the beginning of a crew becomes also as Starting Five (German: First five) designates. These do not have to be always the five highest performance and best players of the team. However it is considered as absolutely necessary, over a strong and balanced occupied bankto order. Bank players Routiniers or role players, which are to ensure in critical situations for the necessary - needed and in this moment, are frequent - impulses in the play. This knows z. B. by three point throws, fast play, ball safety device, special tasks of defense or simplya strong Reboundpräsenz to be reached.

arbitrator

a play is led fundamental by two arbitrators. Into the NBA, the NCAA and many “higher” national and international leagues and competitions however three arbitrators are used. All arbitrators are equally and have only different observation ranges and Verantwortungen, which change however permanently. Relevant is here the position of the ball on the playing field. With the two-arbitrator technology is an impartial front arbitrator. Its position is behind the baseline of the defending crew.Its colleague takes about three meters of the ball as the following arbitrators a position behind the attack removes, whereby he should be within the range of the left Auslinie to for instance to the playing field center.

timing

with the basketball givesit four quarters. In the federations, which belong to the FIBA, each quarter has one duration of ten minutes. In the NBA (the American professional league) per quarter of 12 minutes one plays. If it stands at the end of the fourth quarter undecided, it givesExtensions to ever five minutes (“overtime”), until a winner is certain. (Originally one played two half times à twenty minutes. The new timing is an assumption from the NBA, in that already longer four quarters to be played.) different than z. B.with the football only the pure play time is counted here, since with play interruptions one stops. That means concretely that each whistle of the arbitrator (Foul…) or Ausball for stopping the time leads. The actual duration of a play amounts to inthe rule 80 to 100 minutes.

Dimensions of the board

point giving

for a successful throw are computed two points. A throw, which was thrown behind the three-line in such a way specified, brings three points. (Three-line: 6.25 m of the center of theBasket out measured (NBA: 7.24 m)). With a Foul during a basket throw attempt the gefoulte player gets the same number of free throws, as points with a successful throw would have been possible. The free throw is implemented from a distance of 4.80 meters.Against it if the player meets despite the Fouls with his throw attempt, these points are regularly counted, and it keeps a bonus free throw additional. Thus it has the possibility, 3 (and/or. 4) To obtain points. A successful free throw always counts one point.

rule excesses

Fouls

one differentiate between “normal”, technical and unsportlichen (in former times intentional) Fouls.

There are technical Fouls for technical errors, like z. B. too many players on the field and lack of discipline of players and coaches (z.B. Meckern).

Unsportliche Fouls gives it, if the Foulende accepts an injury of the opponent or an obvious basket situation without prospect to play the ball prevented.

a Foul commits

Fouls of the defender of the defenders by pulling,Step, striking etc.

If the defended aggressor does not have a straight ball, quite is certain pushing and pulling permits. With two meters can go to large players already times violently to the thing.

If the defended aggressor has the ball, are thosePossibilities of the defender more reduced. It may not push the aggressor aside. It may not affect this in its direction of motion. The only possibility of preventing it from the Vorbeidribbeln is, to stand itself before or with its direction change in its way. The running of kind of rear wallstands thereby for standing directly. If the aggressor in such a situation meets the standing player, on Offensivfoul one recognizes.

The aggressor is finally in the basket movement, thus bspw. already in air, he may not not be concerned any more. This is the only situation in the play, which justifies it to speak of the basketball as bodyless play. Otherwise there are actually constantly permitted body contacts. Would be in this phase such as z. B. with the hand ball of body employments permitted, it would be very heavy a ball into carry a not substantially larger basket into 3.05 meters height.

a Foul commits

Fouls of the aggressor an aggressor with ball, if he umrennt himself a standing or defenders moving backwards. He continues to commit a Foul, ifit its elbows drives out too much or with the shoulder into the opponent runs in front too much

an aggressor without ball commits z. B. a Foul, if it sets a moved block. Contrary to the football (there one became thatas accumulating letting rate) is permitted a placing of a standing block in the basketball.

consequences of the Fouls

a this-qualifying Foul leads to the play exclusion. Two unsportliche Fouls lead likewise to the exclusion. Five Fouls lead to the exclusion. It pay attention thatit around a personal punishment acts. It thus in full occupation further-played (5 against 5), only that the Ausgefoulte any longer to play may.

In principle a Foul leads with the basket attempt to free throws (2 or 3, depending upon position of theGefoulten. Exception: The Gefoulte meets nevertheless. Then the points count, and there is a bonus free throw).

A Foul without basket attempt leads grds. not to free throws. Exception: The Foulgrenze is reached (per quarter it gives with that 5 with. Foul and everyonefurther two free throws; in former times there was 1 + 1 free throws, D in this situation. h., only if first in it were, gave it second).

time infringements

24-Sekunden-Uhr

each attack may do maximally 24 seconds (and.A. in Germany, the USA; 30 or 45 seconds are in few countries the exception) last, which are down-counted on a clock. The time is again started thereby if the arbitrator whistles a Foul or a play with the foot.In addition the time starts after each ring contact again. Finally also a ball change (defender gets himself the ball and becomes the aggressor) leads to the restart of the 24-Sekunden-Uhr. However a Ausentscheidung, if the ball possession does not change, leads not to the restart. Toothe following characteristic leads spectacular scenes: A basket counts, if a player throws the ball off before expiration of the 24SekundenUhr. The signal sounds then, while the ball is in air. (Also a ball thrown off in the last second of the playcounts, although it only at expiration of the play time reaches the basket.)

8 (and/or. 10) Second rule

gets a crew the ball or gave it a Einwurf, then it must within eight (at 24 seconds) or ten seconds (with 30Seconds attack time) the ball into the opposing half bring. If a player is once in half, in which the attack takes place (apron), it may not cross thereafter, if it has the ball, the center line again and into the other onePlaying field half (back field) change. An offence against it is punished with a Einwurf of the opposing crew from the collateral line; this next the place, in which the player affects the ball in the back field.

One shank with ball is in the opposingHalf commits it a replay. if it does not bring ball into the own half (back field). The opponent gets Einwurf at the center line.

3-Sekunden-Regel

during an attack may not do itself the players of the attacking crew longer thanthree seconds at the piece in the opposing zone (in the Freiwurfraum) stop; no matter whether the respective player is in the ball possession or not; important it is only that the own crew is in the apron in the ball possession. Here it is to be marked however that no arbitratorwith the clock stops the three seconds. It is decided after feeling. For example no arbitrator lets four passports in the zone go through. Altogether on hochklassigem level by this rule use is made rather rarely.

5-Sekunden-Regel

a playermay with in and with the free throw the ball only five seconds record, before it implements the throw. In the play it must make a basket throw after five seconds, begins to dribble or the ball deliver, if it is near guarded.

Should one of these rules to be hurt, then the opposing crew receives the ball.

If two opposing players and get none can hold the ball at the same time it under exclusive control, becomes abgepfiffen, and it comes to a jump ball situation. In the NBAtakes place jump ball in circle, which is appropriate for the place, in which the two players are, next. Into the BBL and all other leagues comes it to the changing ball possession to FIBA rules, that with a directional marker at the combat courtone indicates.

other rule infringements

Goal tending

Goal tending is the name for a rule excess.

It is only permitted to catch a ball from air, thrown by the opponent purposefully at the basket, or too Block, as long as it is for the moment the upward motion. If it already exceeded the apex of its flight and is in descending flight, the ball must affect the basket, before it is freely playable again. For something else applies only, ifthe ball obviously beside-goes. At first there was not this rule, and so players grown very largely turned into to place themselves under the own basket and intercept all throws.

A further form of the Goal tending lies in it, the ballto block, after it affected the board. If a ball affects the board with a basket throw, it is not free, except it is obvious that it beside-goes. It is no matter contrary to the throw without board whether it itselfstill in the upward or already in the downward movement rules.

Also one can designate a reaching into the net or striking to the board by a defender, who prevents thereby a basket, in the broader sense than Goal tending.

Follow a Goal tendingit is that the attacking crew the basket attempt is rated as basket success.

defense (Defense)

zone and man defense

related to the system of the defense one differentiates in principle the zone from the man defense. During the zone defense actsit itself around a space covering. Simplified thereby each defender said a certain area (z. B. to defend in front right). Advantage is a very compact center. It becomes therefore for the opponent more with difficulty, points in the proximity of the basket tooobtain. Disadvantage detention is the defense of remote throws (z. B. Three). In addition the opponent can try by skillful overlaying to cause aimed on a side a majority situation.

During the man defense a defender is assigned to each aggressor (like the Vorstopper in the football). Accordinglybecomes more difficult a free throw from outside. However the center is not full defender (large defender), which makes the course simpler the basket.

Finally there are still combinations, which are practiced however rather rarely. So one could bspw. with fourMan a zone play, while man defends the opposing structure player to man. That offers itself, if the opponent possesses a projecting player.

attack (Offense)

in the attack gives it numerous variants. Often so-called systems are played.It concerns a brought in play course, in which each aggressor has a certain Laufweg. A goal is it by placing block etc. to make possible a player a free throw.

Against a zone defense the attacking one shank will tryto create a majority situation on a side. Or it tries to lure many defenders on a side, in order to receive a free player on the other side.

Against man defense one can try itself as aggressors if possible from the ball-prominentTo keep away player. Thus one binds its own defender and makes for the ball-prominent possible a 1 against 1 situation.

Playing field boards, on which the coach notes Laufwege for play courses into tracing, are much like.

positions

Basketball positions
POINT Guard
Shooting Guard
Small forward
power forward
center

a basketball crew consists of five field players and up to seven substitutes. In the course of the development of the sport for the five players special fields crystallized. Beside the physically largest participant, the center, in principle two Forwards ( wing players) and two Guards ( structure players) act. The positions are consecutively numbered, from the smallest to the largest, as #1 (POINT Guard) to #5 (center).

Usually basketball crews with in each case 2 Guards and Forwards play as well as a center.In addition, different other variations are possible, for z. B. the use of three Guards (the so-called. “Small ball”, there Guards the überlicherweise smallest players are), as he frequently of Detroit Pistons under Chuck Daly were practiced or howeverplaying with two centers, how the Houston Rockets in the middle of the 1980er did it and trace still do the San Antonio.

variants

see also: Beachbasketball, a wheel basketball, woman Mrs., basket ball, Korfball, mini basketball, Netball, Wheelchair basketball, show basketball, Streetball, water basketball, Streetbasketball

development of the basketball rules

fundamental is played world-wide according to the valid in each case FIBA rules. In the NBA are valid own rules, likewise historically developed and upthe special US-American requirements of the professional sport (z. B. Interruptions of the play for TV-chain breaks) are aligned. With international Tunieren (z. B. Olympic plays), which are aligned under control of the FIBA, must all NBA professionals itself then if necessary. change over to the FIBA rules.

  • 1895: The Freiwurf-Linie was set officially on 4,6 m by the basket. Before it the Freiwurf-Linie was often set on 6,1 m by the basket.
  • 1896: A hit was reduced of three on two points. Free throws became from three on onePoint reduced.
  • 1911: Players were this-qualified after their fourth Foul.
  • 1914: The lower surface of the net was opened, thus the ball could fall through.
  • 1922: Running with the ball (travelling) led to the fact that the opposing crew the ballgets.
  • 1924: The gefoulte player had to throw even the free throw. Before the fact was it like that that each crew had a player, who threw the free throws.
  • 1931: The size of the basketball was reduced of 813 to 787 mm (extent).
  • 1935: The size of the basketball was times reduced a further (between 749 and 768 mm).
  • 1936: The offensive player could not stand immediately longer than three seconds (with and without ball) before the Freiwurf-Linie.
  • 1945: Five personalFouls lead to the disqualification of the player. Unlimited using of the substitutes was introduced.
  • 1949: The Coaches it was permitted to talk also during the Timeouts with the players.
  • 1956: Introduction of the 30-Sekunden-Regel by the FIBA.
  • 1957:The Freiwurf-Linie was set officially on 3.7 meters by the basket.
  • 1984: The FIBA introduces the three point line (distance 6.25 m).
  • 1985 - 1986: The NCAA set the attack time on 45 seconds.
  • 1993 - 1994: The attack time becamefrom 45 to 30 seconds reduces.
  • 1994: Abolishment of the 1-und-1-Regel with Mannschaftsfouls. Always two free throws are awarded.
  • 2000: The attack time was reduced of 30 to 24 seconds.
  • 2002: The changing ball possession was introduced in place of jump balls.

basketball in other countries

literature

  • Peter Kränzle, Margit Brinke: Basketball Basics, Stuttgart2000.ISBN 361350359X
  • Robert W. Peterson: Cages ton of Jump Shots: Per Basketball's Early Years, Omaha 2002. ISBN 0803287720
  • German basketball federation (Hrsg.): Official basketball rules for men and women (decided of the FIBA starting from September 2004), Hagen, 2004.
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See also

Wiktionary: basketball - word origin, synonyms and translations
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