Tree

of these articles treats the vegetable way of life Type. For further meanings, see tree (term clarifying).
The giant giant tree (Sequoiadendron giganteum) becomes usually 60 - 80 m highly. The highest admits become copy measured 135 M.

As a treeinto the Botanik a persistent (of several years) plant one designates, which possesses a clearly recognizable upright trunk felled trees, which climbs branches , which train again branches, sheets and blooms from a root and, is at that aboveground. The branchesil durch verlängern Austreiben von Endknospen di Jahr dei jedes del sich, verholzen il und di dabei nehmen il kontinuierlich uno zu di Umfang del und di Dicke. The special characteristic of the tree is that its holziger trunk only in a certain height a crown consisting of leaf-rising up branches developed.

To table of contents

groups of plants, at which trunks seem

to Baobab - character tree of the semiarid savannahs of Africa

Baumförmige ways of life comein five different groups of plants forwards: Genuine trees are the deciduous trees (from the Bedecktsamern) as well as the coniferous trees (from the resinous wood plants). Both groups of plants have felled trees trunks.

Besides three smaller groups of plants occur, which train tree-like structures: the palms, those Palmfarne and the tree ferns. These three groups do not possess genuine wood with thickness growth. Therefore the master diameter (from bottom to top) is also relatively even. The trunk develops from the Blattansätzen. By definition of tree palms are, Palmfarne andTree ferns no genuine trees, but baumförmige ways of life.

The tree form is mainly in approximately 50 higher plant families. On the other hand the tree form is missing with algae, Moosen, lily plants, Iridaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Orchideen, Chenopodiaceae, Primelgewächsen and usually alsowith the Lamiales, Convolvulaceae, Enziangewächsen, bellflower plants, Cucurbitaceae, Doldengewächsen, Saxifragaceae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae or Caryophyllaceae….

the special characteristics of the trees

with blooms of the elm trees are reduced the bloom cladding sheets, therefore existessentially from the stamp and the Staubblättern, small and inconspicuously [
work on]

the sheets are

shape conditions of the sheets are important characteristics, in order to recognize the tree by its leaves. It knows a tree either Laubblätter of more different,carry for usually characteristic form or needle sheets. To the distinction in the winter condition the buds of the tree are not less useful. Some trees are besides equipped with thorns. These are either short branches, which end with thorny point as with the white thorn andbei den wilden Formen derObstbäume, oder es sind stachelartig ausgebildete Nebenblätter wie etwa bei der Gewöhnlichen Robinie.

Die Blüten

Die Blüten der Bäume aus gemäßigten Breiten sind manchmal verhältnismäßig unscheinbar, bei einigen Taxa individual petal circles are reduced. Some tree species of moderate widths have in-sexual blooms. The blooms of both sexes sit either on the same tree (in striking victory) (as with the oak, beech, Hainbuche, Birke, Erle and with the nut tree) or updifferent (two-striking victory), so that one has to differentiate between male and female trees (for example with pastures and Pappeln). Other trees have hermaphrodite blooms, and these possess often colored petals, like the fruit trees, the Rosskastanie and many trees of the warmer climates.A European deciduous tree possesses on the average 30,000 sheets

Eicheln, die Früchte der Eiche
acorns, the fruits of the oak

fruit and seed formation

the fruit - and seed formation shows less peculiarnesses. With most the ripe one falls in the summer or autumn of the same yearly; onlywith the pine species the seeds attain and them containing taps only in the second autumn after the bloom complete training. The fruits are mostly nut-like with a only one trained seed, or they disintegrate into several einsamige nut-like parts, asthe maples. Juicy Steinfrüchte, likewise with or few seeds, are with the fruit trees, caps with numerous seeds with the pastures and Pappeln.

trunk: Morphology of baumförmiger ways of life

Mächtiger Buchenstamm
powerful beech trunk
detail admission of a trunk

Baumförmige ways of lifehave a different morphology (internal structure), and with it is connected partially also the characteristic appearance. Usually the structure from crown of tree, trunk and tree roots is associated. But the stature forms are much drop tigers.

With the tree-like ferns and most A simple trunk, which ends with a only one large summit bud, is palms and therefore forms no branches and is occupied with its standing giantful, usually pinnated sheets at the end closely one above the other. There is not thereby by Definion genuine trees.

With the genuine trees the branch of the germ seedling grows near for the beginning of the future trunk. With stature conditions of the trunks one however usually already notices from the first Lebensjahren to numerous differences. Either the branch forms onto the point by its continue to keep lasting summit bud continuing regularly and becomes the straight trunk, as for example with the spruce, going through up to the highest point , fir and larch, at which itself then laterally the numerous horizontal going offBranches set, whereby the crown receives the pyramid-shaped shape, which becomes slimmer, even if the branches address themselves steeply to the trunk upward, as with the Italian Pappel.

Or the trunk shows also longer time this behavior, but follow laterit or several of its branches in soon more schrägerer, soon steeper direction both in the elevator stature and in the Erstarkung after or overhaul it or take over after complete suppression of the main trunk alone the advanced training, so that thus the trunk not tointo the summit is enough, but divides in its crown into several strong main branches, as with the Kiefer, the Pappel, the oak, the apple tree and many other trees. Or it already loses the main branch in the first Lebensjahren the cell division abilitythe Endknospe. The side buds take over main growth and it form Seitenäste. Since this happens annually, here the trunk from so many individual apart come out branches of different degree constructs itself, how it is old years, and appears then inadult condition just as regularly and straight as those trunks, which are formed by constant extension of a centerline. This master formation is characteristic of the elm tree, beech, Hainbuche, lime tree.

Regarding the internal building of the trunk yield toothe Einkeimblättrigen baumförmigen ways of life belonging to, i.e. the palms, of the genuine trees substantially off. With first the gefässbündel stand in the basic fabric absent-minded, why there is also no Kambiumring, no wood cylinder and thus also no continuing thickness growth of the trunk.With the trees belonging to to the Dikotyledonen the trunk already possesses in the earliest youth as thin Stängel a circle of guidance bundles, which was under the crust, which from inside lying Mark separates the crust range. This guidance bundle ring places in itsinside, that Marks of lying close half the wood and in the outside part the phloem bordering on the crust; between both the Kambiumring pulles through itself. This is formed and increased from tender, juice-rich, constantly dividing cells by its currentCell cellprocesscell process on both sides it lying close fabrics. Thus annually on the exterior of the wood ring a new zone wood fabric is set, whereby the Jahresringe of in this way erstarkenden wood body develop, which one notices as concentric lines at the master cross section. On the other hand receives howeveralso that far outside lying phloem at its inside an annual, although far smaller increase. In this way the continuing Verdickung of the trunk and everything of its branches as well as the roots come off.

the root

alsoin the root formation the trees differ. Some keep the Hauptwurzel, which develops at the germ seedling, their whole life through. The Hauptwurzel grows then as straight, thick stake root deeply into the soil down there, which particularly is characteristic of the oak.In other cases the stake root stays promptly; from the stick several side roots develop, and these grow either also to considerable depth into slate direction into the soil, like for example with the lime tree, or they holdonly superficially and spread thereby often far in the periphery, as with the Pappelarten. Besides a always loose and deep soil produces deeper root training. If the ground condition is more bindiger and more flachgrundiger against it, it comes to a more superficialRoot training. With some tree species these flat roots train new impulses, root brood so mentioned. The einkeimblättrigen baumförmigen ways of life have never a stake root; their trunk ends close under the floor space and is lateral with Nebenwurzeln coming out from it in the soilfastened.

the age, the master extent and the height of the trees

the trees can achieve an extraordinary age with unimpaired vegetation and under favorable conditions. With that high age, which can amount to often several centuries, is in thatRule an unusual thickness of the trunk, but not always an appropriate height links.

particular standing or together standing trees

Einzeln stehende Kiefer
particular standing Kiefer

of large influence on the stature form is with all trees the circumstance whether they stand freely or grew up closely with other trees together. So for example a crown can develop at small distance of the soil with the red beech, if it stands freely, by hereare formed pretty often few over man height the first, horizontal deleting branches at the trunk. In the closed red beech forest against it the säulenförmigen trunks carry only in very considerable height pointed bend-like rising branches, on those only then the leaves roof over the highSäulenhallen spreads. Similar conditions also mostly show the other trees with free and with closed conditions. Besides also “mourning trees so mentioned” are with some Varietäten, with which all branches down-grow to the earth. The most well-known “mourning” Varietät is the mourning ash;but one knows the mourning beech or similar forms also with many other trees of “mourning trees , so for example with the Birken, elm trees, lime trees, pastures, etc.

the most sumptuous tree stature

is trees in different Klimaten in the Tropics; besides are it louder peculiar tree species, which form the jungles there. They preferably belong to the families of the palms, wolf milk plants (Euphorbiaceae), Brennnesselgewächse (Urticaceae), soap tree plants (Sapindaceae), Bombacaceae, Byttneriaceae, Mahagonigewächse (Meliaceae), Hülsenfrüchtler (Fabaceae) and Sapotaceae .

In the subtropical zone one findsTrees under the evergreen Myrtengewächsen (Myrtaceae) and laurel plants (Lauraceae) as well as silver tree plants (Proteaceae), which in the warmer moderate zone other evergreen trees follow, so the evergreen oaks, garnet trees, oranges and lemons, oil trees, figs as well as Myrte and Laurel. On the other hand the leaves-changing trees are prevailing in the colder moderate zone. Oaks - and beech forests, lime trees, elm trees, ashes, Pappeln, pastures are here characteristic.

And although also here already resinous woods in connected woodlands arise,become these nevertheless only in the subarctic zone actually prevailing, where the deciduous trees of one disappear after the other one. At all the trees become, the more one the polar circles approach, smaller at number and smaller. Oaks, lime trees, ashes, Maples and beeches hear in Sweden already on this side of 64. Degree northern latitude up. Jenseits dieser Breite besteht die Baumvegetation hauptsächlich aus Fichten und Tannen, die in zusammenhängenden Waldungen nordöstlich noch über den 60. Degrees extend, as well as from Birken, those in connected woodlands itself nearly up to 71. Degrees northern latitude extend, and partially from Ellern and pastures.

Also the height over the sea level has on the propagation and height the tree, naturally in relation toDistance of the equator and to the climate, important influence. In the Anden substantial trees still are to 94 m under the snow line; to 2825 m to height still wax palms , several Cinchonen and Eskallonien prosper. Under 30 degrees more northTo width, where the snow border is with 4048-4080 m, on the Himalaja, north of India, still in 3766 m groups of trees seem to height, which consist of oaks and spruces. Likewise are in Mexico, under 25-28 degrees northern latitude,the mountains to 3766 m with spruces and to 2825 m highly with Mexican oaks covers. In the alps the wood stature hears middle Europe with a height of 1570 m, in the giant mountains at 1193 m and on breaking intoat 1005 m up. Oaks and firs still stand on the Pyreneeses up to a height of 1883 m; on the other hand the spruce on the Sulitelma grows in honing-lapping country, with 68 degrees northern latitude, hardly at a value of 188m, the Birke hardly in one of 376 M.

damage to trees

Windbruch von Fichten
wind break of spruces

by this falls above all insect damages, wind break (tree parts break off), wind throw (the tree is levered with the roots from the soil), snow break (tree partsunder heavy snow loads break off), lightning damage (coming hurry blown off), frost (drying damage by transpiration with frozen soil, master tears) and with young trees excessively game-verb-eat. One calls the different diseases, from which trees will strike can, fire, cancer, Grind or Schorf,Tree-scratch, rust, flour rope, red or core rot, jaundice, resin flow, rubber river, Darrsucht, water craze as well as a jumping up of the crust.

Among deformations at trees one ranks maser-bends, the witch brooms or weather shrubs as well as the Gallen.

use

of trunks of White firs from Gersbach (south Black Forest) support 2000 by the Expo the largest cantilever timber roof of the world

as a climbing tree for children serve it the following generation as experience world. The older generation than habitat for recovery in forests. Mankind for production of thefor it so important inhaled gas oxygen or as regenerating raw material for buildings and for power production (energy conversion).

Tree culture for the purpose of the production of wood, branches, crusts, leaves, blooms, fruits, seeds or individual chemical components (turpentine, sugar, india rubber, Balsame, alkaloids etc.) forms a subrange of forestry, the landscape and utilizable market garden. This cultivation also today frequently still takes place in the form of Plantagen. Decreased/went back against it the use of strewing fruit meadows, those in former times in many areas of Central Europewere landscape-coining/shaping.

With the theory of the trees (wood), which in a certain country in the free one prospers, concerns itself the Dendrologie. Cultivations of trees in systematic or plant-geographical arrangement, the Arboreten, serve her for observation and experimental purposes. Treescan be increased vegetativy, i.e. by plant parts, or generativ by sowing. During planting of wood in garden and landscape planting rules should be kept.

the tree as „chemical factory “

Eine 80jährige Buche hat etwa 800.000 Blätter
a 80jährige beech has about 800.000Sheets

by the example of a 80jährigen red beech it becomes clear why a tree can be called „chemical factory “:

In this age the tree is 25 m high and its crown of tree with a diameter of 15 m beschattet a space occupied of 160m ². In their 2,700 m ³ 800,000 sheets with an entire sheet surface of 1.600 m are volume ², whose cell walls amount to together 160,000 m ² surface.

Per hour this beech uses 2.352 kg carbon dioxide, 0.96 kg water and 25,435 joules,in the same period it manufactures 1.6 kg grape sugar and covers with 1,712 kg oxygen the consumption of 10 humans. In 80 years it processed thus 40.000.000 m ³ air.

The 15 m ³ wood of the tree weigh drying 12,000 kg,however 6,000 kg of it are carbon.

in Central Europe domestic and frequent tree species

to the deciduous trees domestic in Central Europe count the maples, Birken, beeches, oaks, Erlen, ashes, lime trees, flour berries, Pappeln, elm trees, pastures, whale nut tree and many fruit trees.

Typical coniferous trees are the Eiben, spruces, Kiefern, larches, firs and Zypressen.

The tree most frequently occurring in Central Europe, that in this area originally not, is the usual Robinie is resident. It ranks just like for example the late grape/cluster cherry among the Neophyten.

A more detailed list offers the list of trees and bushes in Central Europe.

extremes of trees

  • the highestTree of the world is a coastal giant tree Sequoia sempervirens with 112,8 m from California
  • the highest tree of Germany with 60,51 m (conditions: 2006) are according to data of the land surveying office over 100 years an old douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The treewith the designation “douglas fir No. " Emmendingen is located to 3 with Freiburg in mash gau in a forest north the Tennenbacher of valley in the circle ([1]). The past record owner is likewise a douglas fir, those in the city forest of Eberbach (bathe) on a heightof approx. 60.1 m up-rises up ([2]).
  • The lowest trees are Bonsai, which are kept artificially small by human interferences.
  • The oldest trees are 4700 years old Grannenkiefern (Pinus longaeva, Bristlecone Pines) in the White Mountainsin California. The coworkers of the champion Tree of project clones in the USA old trees.
  • The thickest tree is the Ahuehuete - tree in Santa Maria de Tule in the Mexican State of Oaxaca, a Sumpfzypressenart (Taxodium mucronatum). Its diameterin the thickest place 11.42 M. amount to.
  • The winter-hardest trees are the Dahuri larch (Larix gmelinii) and the East Asian Zwerg-Kiefer (Pinus pumila): They resist temperatures up to -70° C.
  • The Dahuri larch is also that tree,that furthest in the north to survive can: 72° 30 ' N, 102° 27 ' O.
  • The tree, which breathes thinnest air, is the Schuppenrindige fir Abies squamata: it grows on 4600m sea-height at the east himalaya in itself SCN.
  • The easiestHolz ist jenes desBalsabaumes
  • Bäume, die bis dahin kahle Flächen besiedeln können, so genannte Pionierbäume sind zum Beispiel bestimmte Birken- und Pappelarten.

trees and humans

no other creature is with the fate of mankindlinks so variously, as closely as the Type.

the historian Alexander Demandt wrote and to the tree also over all treetops - the tree in culture history an extensive work dedicated. For it culture history begins that with the fire,lightning into the trees struck and with the tool, for the wood at all times was indispensable.

Caspar David Friedrich; Trees in the moonlight, oil on canvas, around 1824, Cologne, Wallraf Richartz museum

customs

of this meaningaccordingly also various customs are linked with the tree. That is enough from the tree, that for the birth of a child to plant is over the May tree, that in some regions still at the night for the first May of the dearest ones one admires, the Kirmesbaum and the Christmas tree, under one celebrates and to the Richtbaum, that for the celebration of a again established house on the roof framing one touches down up to the tree, which is planted on the grave. Nations and peoples become determined,for it characteristic trees assigned.Oak and lime tree are considered as typically „German “trees. The Birke symbolizes Russia and the Baobab is considered as the typical tree of the African savannah.

Under the court lime tree right was spoken and celebrated under the dance lime tree. Celt, Slawen, Teutons and Balten admired once in Götterhainen trees and cases of such Götzenbäume are the material of numerous legends, which of the measurement ionization of north and Central Europe report.

mythology and religion

in the mythology placethe world tree the world axle, around which the cosmos is grouped.

In the most old cultures and religions trees or Haine were admired as seat of the Gods or other supernatural natures. Thus the tree in the mythology plays also asLebensbaum (e.g. the Sykomore with the Egyptians or the tree of the life in the Jewish mythology), as a tree of the immortality (the Pfirischbaum in China) or as symbol of awaking in the Buddhismus ( the Bodhibaum) a role.

inthe Bible

also in the Bible trees are mentioned again and again. Old persons like the new will call different tree species like for example the Olivenbaum or the fig tree, with its relatively large sheets the first pair of people Adam and Eva after its case of sin its bare one covered. In the 1. Book Mose, which genesis, reported in chapter 1 in the verses 11 and 12 that God brought the trees and in particular the fruit-basic trees out in its creation of the world.Two trees however play a crucial role in the Bible: the tree of the life as well as the tree of the realization of property and bad. So the tree has a special meaning also in the Christian iconography. The tree as symbolthe sin case, around its trunk a queue winds itself faces frequently the wooden cross as symbol of the release. A dry and a becoming green tree symbolize the old person and the new federation in the Dogmenallegorien of the reformation time. In that Different tree species have plant symbolism like also its sheets, branches and fruits a special meaning. Thus the acacia refers to the immortality of the human soul, the oil tree the peace and is an old marianisches symbol for the Verkündigung onMaria. The tap of the Pinie points to life-PEND-ends grace and Kraft of God, the Stechpalme, from their branches after the legend the thorn crown was manufactured to the passion Christi.


see also

literature (selection)

regulation books

  • Ulrich Hecker: BLV manual of trees and bushes, BLV publishing house Munich, 1995, ISBN 3-405-14738-7
  • Peter pour, Hans Joachim Schuck, BerndTune, et al.:Encyclopedia of the tree and kinds of bush. The standard work of the Forstbotanik - morphology * pathology * ecology * systematics. Nikol, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-933203-53-8
  • Alan Mitchell, John Wilkinson and Peter pour: Pareys book of the trees. Needle andDeciduous trees in Europe north the Mediterranean (OT: The Trees OF Britain and Northern Europe). Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-490-19518-3
  • Peter pour, Hans Joachim Schuck and Bernd tune: Encyclopedia of the Forstbotanik. Morphology, pathology, ecology and systematicsimportant tree species. ecomed, Landsberg 1992, ISBN 3-609-65800-2
  • Angelika Lüttig & Juliane box: Hagebutte & CO - blooms, fruits and propagation of European plants, fauna publishing house, Nottuln, 2003, ISBN 3-9359980-90-6

culture history

  • Alexander Demandt: Over all treetops- The tree in culture history. Böhlau, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-412-3501-1
  • Federico preventing man (Hrsg.): “Sag' ich's you, loved trees…”. Texts from the world literature. One-eat, Zurich 1984, ISBN 3-7175-1672-8
  • Doris Laudert: Myth tree - which trees us mean humans:History, customs, 30 of tree haven advice. BLV, Munich, 2001, ISBN 3-405-15350-6
  • Graeme Matthews and David Bellamy: Trees. A voyage round the world in fascinating photos (OT: Trees OF the World). BLV, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-405-14479-5
  • Romano Guardini, Karl-Heinz Raach and Maria Pelz: Meditation under trees/Contemplazione sotto gli Alberi. Green forest and Morcelliana, Mainz and Brescia 2002, ISBN 3-7867-2364-8
  • Lenzing, Anette, court lime trees and Thingplätze in Germany, ISBN 3-7845-4520-3

Web on the left of

bent tree in Vermont, U.S.A. Photo: Nile Fretwurst
Wiktionary: Tree - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Trees - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Trees - quotations


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