Bavaria

of these articles treats the German Land of the Federal Republic Bavaria, further meanings under Bavaria (term clarifying)
Free State of Bavaria
national flag Landeswappen
Streifenflagge des Freistaates Bayern or Rautenflagge des Freistaates Bayern Großes Staatswappen des Freistaates Bayern
(detail) (detail)
base data
capital: Munich
surface: 70.549, 44 km ² (1.)
Inhabitants: 12.464.997 (2.) </br> (30. September 2005)
Population density: 177 inhabitants for each km ² (11.)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
- total
- portion GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Germany
2005 (estimated)
$385 billion
17%
Landeshymne: God with you you country that Bavaria!
Debts: 1.851 € per inhabitant (At the end of of 2005)
debts entirely: 21.24 billion € (2004)
Telephone preselections: 06…, 08…, 09…
ISO 3166-2: DE-BY
official Website: www.bayern.de
politics
Prime Minister: Edmund Stoiber (CSU)
(since 28. May 1993)
A governing party: CSU
last choice: 21. September 2003
next choice: 2008
parliamentary agency
voices in the Upper House of Parliament:
The surface-moderately
Bundesland Bayern in Deutschland

largest Land of the Federal Republic is appropriate for 6 map the Free State of Bavaria in the south and southeast of the Federal Republic of Germany and is. To Bavaria, but not to the German territory, also the hall forests belong in Austria.

In the Free State three different German races live: Franconias, the Swabia and the Baiern (“old Bavaria “).To these three trunks the Sudeten Germans came, those the largest part after 1945 into Bavaria of the become residentRefugees of homeland constitute. Over it has to 6. June 1954 the Free State the patronage taken over. “The Bavarian state government regards the Sudeten German group of peoples as a trunk under the races Bayerns,” is called it in the charter of the 5.November 1962. “New Bavaria” carried out onesubstantial contribution in the reconstruction Bayerns after the Second World War.

Table of contents

list of the mountains

and

landscapes in Bavaria

Bavaria

is appropriate for 12 Web on the left of

[work on ] Geografie [ work on]

landscapes chapel in South Germany and covers:

The lowest place from Bavaria is with 107 m in bald at the Main (Lower Franconia), the highest on the summit of the course point (2,962 mand. NN), the highest mountain of Germany in the weather stone mountains (district mixing part churches).

waters

list of the rivers and lakes in Bavaria

main river is the Danube, which crosses with Passau to Austria. Their larger tributaries are (of the west):

The 4 first rise in the alps and are more water-rich. The Innleads (because of the long upper run) when his delta in Passau usually somewhat more waters than the Danube. Also the Lech exceeds occasionally the Danube.

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 from: start till: end width: 20 color: drabgreen text: Die_17_wasserreichsten_Flüsse_in_Bayern fontsize: 12 align: center
 from: starttill: 1490 text:Danube _1490 m ³ /s_ (Passau) from: start till: 740 text:Inn _740_m ³ /s_ (Passau) from: start till: 250 text:Salt oh _250_m ³ /s_ (castle-live) from: start till: 190 text:Lech _190_m ³ /s_ (Augsburg) from: start till: 175 text:Isar _175_m ³ /s_ (Plattling) from: start till: 164 text:Main _164_m ³ /s_ (small hay brook) from: start till: 77 text:Vils _77_m ³ /s_ (Vils) from: start till: 75 text:Iller _75_m ³ /s_ (send)from: start till: 52 text:Alz _52_m ³ /s_ (sea-bridge) from: start till: 51 text:Regnitz _51_m ³ /s_ (Bamberg) from: start till: 50 text:Naab _50_m ³ /s_ (Heitzenhofen) from: start till: 45 text:Amper _45_m ³ /s_ (Inc. furnace) from: start till: 40 text:Rain _40_m ³ /s_ (Regensburg) from: start till: 39 text:Hall oh _39_m ³ /s_ (Siezenheim) from: start till: 37 text:Loisach _37_m ³ /s_ (wolf-advice-live) from: start till: 32 text:Value oh _32_m ³ /s_ (Augsburg)from: start till: 25 text:Altmühl _25_m ³ /s_ (Kelheim)

< /timeline>

climate

the climate changes from the northwest (relatively balanced) to the east into the continental climate . On approximately 100 days the temperatures under zero are, the west hoist bring on the average 70 cm rains, inNorth back-up of the alps locally to 180 cm. The middle duration of sunshine amounts to about 1600 to 1900 hours.

borders

Bavaria borders, beginning in the west, in the clockwise direction:

Baden-Wuerttemberg 829 km
Hessen 262 km
Thuringia 381 km
Saxonia 41 km
Czech Republic of 357 km
Austria
(upper Austria, Salzburg, Tirol, Vorarlberg)
816 km
Bodensee 19 km

the national border is altogether 2705 km long.

to history

see the major items prehistory Bayerns, history Bayerns and Kingdom of Bavaria

the way of writing of the national name with “y” goes on an arrangement from king Ludwig I., king from Bavaria of 20. October 1825 back, with which the original way of writing “Baiern” was replaced. He “imported” Y from the Greek alphabet,since its second son, Otto I., became king of Greece and for his part knows and blue as Greek national colors established the Bavarian colors.

to politics

Sitzverteilung im Landtag

see the major item political system Bayerns

in the Bavarian federal state parliament are three parties representing at present.After the elections of 21. September 2003 resulted the following allocation of seats (insges. 180 seats):

the results of the election of the federal parliament 2003 looked as follows:

state State of

basis of the federal state policy is to 2. December 1946 decided condition of the Free State of Bavaria. Bavaria is therefore Free State (republic) and republic (democracy). Since that 1. January 2000 exists after the abolishment of the senate a parliamentary a chamber system. The legislative force is with the Bavarian federal state parliament, its delegates every five years (until 1998:every four years) to be selected. Until at the end of of 1999 existed with the senate a second chamber, with which representatives of social and economical syndicates should create a political counterweight to the federal state parliament. In a popular vote became to 8. February 1998 the abolishment of theseChamber decided. Boss of the state government is the Bavarian one Prime Minister, who leads its business, which determines guidelines of the policy, Bavaria outward represents and the Ministers of State and - secretaries appoints. The highest Bavarian court is the Bavarian constitutional court yard. The moreover givesit still various upper national courts (Bavarian. Highest national court, Bavarian. Administrative court, national work, national social court) as well as the remaining Judikative. To 20. October 2004 decided the Bavarian federal state parliament the dissolution of the Bavarian highest national court with effect to the 1. July 2006. Except of the federal state parliament can in Bavaria laws and constitutional amendments also by referenda and popular vote to be decided. In addition a popular vote is necessary for each change of the Bavarian condition, even if the constitutional amendment were decided by the federal state parliament.

See also: Bavarian Prime Minister, legislative procedure in Bavaria

Bavarian state government

since 1962 the CSU the absolute majority in Bavaria any more did not deliver.

Acting Prime Minister is since that 17. June 1993 Edmund Stoiber (CSU).

To 7. October 2003 became Edmund Stoiber as an Prime Minister of the federal state parliament againselected, to 14. October the new cabinet by him appointed and by the federal state parliament confirms.

At present the following members belong to the Bavarian state government:

  • Edmund Stoiber (CSU), Prime Minister of the Free State of Bavaria
  • Günther Beckstein (CSU), deputy of the Prime Minister and Minister of State of the Interior
  • Eberhard Sinner (CSU) briefly, directors/conductors
  • of the state chancellery Emilia Mueller (CSU), Departments of State for federation and
  • European affairs Beate notice (CSU), Departments of State
  • of the law Thomas Goppel (CSU), Ministers of State for science, research and
  • art Siegfried cutter (CSU), Ministers of State for instruction and
  • Kultus Faltlhauser (CSU),Minister of State of finances
  • Erwin Huber (CSU), Ministers of State for economics, infrastructure, traffic and technology
  • Werner snatch on (CSU), Ministers of State for environment, health and consumer protection
  • Josef Miller (CSU), Minister of State for agriculture and forests
  • Christa Stewens (CSU), Departments of State for work and social order, family andMrs.
  • Georg forge (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State internal
  • Karl of the Freller (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State for instruction and Kultus
  • Franz Meyer (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State of finances
  • Hans Spitzner (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State for economics, infrastructure, traffic and technology
  • Otmar Bernhard (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State for environment, health and consumer protection
  • Jürgen Heike (CSU), undersecretary of state in the Department of State for work and social order, family and Mrs

seeing also: Election results and state governments in Bavaria since 1945

right to vote

inComparison to elections on federal level exhibits the Bavarian right to vote several characteristics: Direct candidates, who won the choice in their electoral district, can draw only into the federal state parliament, even if their party reached the hurdle of 5 per cent.

Beyond thatthe allocation of seats in the federal state parliament results from the sum of the first and secondary voices. In other Lands of the Federal Republic and with elections to the Bundestag the Erststimme decides on the choice of the direct candidate in the electoral district and alone the secondary voice determines the number of the seats in the parliament,which leads usually to the fact that Erststimmen are given more frequently to the large parties with promising direct candidates. Who moves after Bavaria and a smaller party selects, should thus with elections of the federal parliament think to give you also the Erststimme those in the Bavarian systemthus “are not lost” can.

A further characteristic is in the local election right. On the one hand each voter possesses exactly the same many voices such as seats to assign is; are thus in the local council and/or. City or Kreistag z. B. 45 seats to occupied,so each voter has 45 voices. The moreover one the possibility of cumulating (“Häufeln”, several voices can be delivered on a candidate) and the Panaschierens (voices to be able on candidates of different lists to be distributed) exists. To 21. September 2003 became by popular votethe age limit for the passive right to vote of 21 to 18 lowered.

Besides there are numerous directdemocratic elements in Bavaria. Apart from referenda and popular vote on regional level became at the 1. October 1995 by a popular vote the direct democracy on local level imported.The Bavarian constitutional court intensified the regulations 1997 (among other things by introduction of a tuning quorum), but those initiate Bavaria of annually approximately 100 citizen decisions nevertheless. Bavaria has the regulations in the Federal Republic, citizen-friendliest with distance.

state State of, flag andHymn

major item: Bavarian state State of

the Bavarian state coat of arms consists of six heraldischen components: The golden lion, originally connected with the wittelsbachischen Pfalz on the Rhine, stands today for the Upper Palatinate, „the Frankish rake “for the three Frankish districts, the blue Panther forold Bavaria and the three black lions for Swabia. White-blue Herzschild suggests the total state Bavaria, the people crown designation after the omission of the king crown the people sovereignty.

The Free State of Bavaria possesses two state flags on an equal footing: once the white-blue gerautete flag, toother one the flag with horizontal strips in the colors white and blue. The lozenge flag has always seen from the viewer on the left of above (heraldisch right, upper corner) a begun to cut, white lozenge (also in the coat of arms) and at least 21 (begun to cut) lozenges.

Großes Staatswappen Kleines Staatswappen Rautenflagge Streifenflagge
Large state coat of arms Small state State of state State of (lozenge flag) to state State of (strip flag)

to the hymn see: Bayernhymne

administrative arrangement

a detailed representation of the administrative arrangement since 1808 is to be found in the article administrative arrangement Bayerns.

governmental districts

below the governmental districts with official municipality key (AGS) andAbbreviation of the Bavarian Department of State of the inside:

Die bayerischen Regierungsbezirke
The Bavarian governmental districts
Governmental district AGS ABC
Upper Bavaria 091 WHETHER
Lower Bavaria 092 NB
Upper Palatinate 093 Opf.
Upper Franconia 094 Ofr.
Middle Franconia 095 Mfr.
Lower Franconia 096 Ufr.
Swabia 097 Schw.


Governmental district capital surface inhabitant (September 2005)
Upper Bavaria Munich 17,529, 63 km ² 4.232.962
Lower Bavaria land hat 10,329, 91 km ² 1.197.631
Upper Palatinate Regensburg 9,691, 03 km ² 1.090.318
Upper Franconia Bayreuth 7,231, 00 km ² 1.103.239
middle Franconia Ansbach 7,244, 85 km ² 1.708.841
Lower Franconia peppering castle 8,530, 99 km ² 1.342.308
Swabia Augsburg 9,992, 03 km ² 1.789.698


congruent with the governmental districts in Bavariaare the districts of same name. These are local regional administrative bodies of the public right. The district is in Bavaria the third local level over the municipalities (1. Even one) and districts (2. Even one). The districts are autonomy bodies and have therefore also a parliament,the district day, which is selected directly every 5 years by the voters of the district. They can have coats of arms and flags like a municipality or a district, which a national governmental district does not have.

districts and circle-free cities

The 7 governmental districts are divided into 71 districts and 25 circle-free cities:

Districts in Bavaria


the 71 districts of the Free State of Bavaria:
  1. Aichach Friedberg (AIC)
  2. Altötting (AÖ)
  3. Amberg Sulzbach (AS)
  4. Ansbach (ON)
  5. Aschaffenburg (OFF)
  6. Augsburg (A)
  7. bath gravel singing (kg)
  8. bath Tölz Wolfratshausen (TÖL)
  9. Bamberg (BA)
  10. Bayreuth (BT)
  11. Berchtesgadener country (BGL)
  12. Cham (CHA)
  13. Coburg (CO)
  14. DAK-strike (DAH)
  15. to Deggendorf (DEG)
  16. Dillingen a.d.Donau (DLG)
  17. Dingolfing Landau (DGF)
  18. Danube Ries (DON)
  19. Ebersberg (EBE)
  20. calibrate-corroded (EGG)
  21. Erding (OD)
  22. attaining high city (ERH)

  1. Forchheim (FO)
  2. freesing (telex)
  3. Freyung Grafenau (FRG)
  4. prince-field-bridge (FFB)
  5. Fürth (FÜ)
  6. Mixing part churches (GAP)
  7. Günzburg (GZ)
  8. hate mountains (HAS)
  9. yard (HO)
  10. Kelheim (KEH)
  11. Kitzingen (KT)
  12. crown oh (KC)
  13. Kulmbach (KU)
  14. Landsberg at the Lech (LL)
  15. land hat (LA)
  16. light rock (RAN)
  17. Lindau (Bodensee) (left)
  18. Main Spessart (MSP)
  19. bad brook (MT)
  20. spleen mountain (MIL)
  21. Mühldorf a.Inn (MÜ)
  22. Munich (m)
  23. Neuburg Schrobenhausen (lp)
  24. New market i.d.OPf. (Nm)
  25. New city a.d.Aisch bath wind home (NEA)

  1. new city a.d.Waldnaab (NEW)
  2. new Ulm (NU)
  3. Nürnberger country (LAU)
  4. uppergeneral-outer (OAU)
  5. eastgeneral-outer (OAL)
  6. Passau (Pa)
  7. Pfaff yards a.d.Ilm (PAF)
  8. rain (MOVE)
  9. Regensburg (R)
  10. Rhön Grabfeld (NES)
  11. rose home (RO)
  12. Roth (RH)
  13. Rottal Inn (PAN)
  14. swan village (SAD)
  15. pig ford (SW)
  16. Star mountain (STA)
  17. Straubing elbow (SR)
  18. Tirschenreuth (ANIMAL)
  19. trusting stone (TS)
  20. Unterallgäu (MN)
  21. because home already gau (WM)
  22. Weissenburg Gunzenhausen (WUG)
  23. Wunsiedel i.Fichtelgebirge (WUN)
  24. peppering castle (WÜ)
the 25 circle-free cities in Bavaria:
  1. Amberg (TO)
  2. Ansbach (ON)
  3. Aschaffenburg (OFF)
  4. Augsburg (A)
  5. Bamberg (BA)
  6. Bayreuth (BT)
  7. Coburg (CO)
  8. attaining (IT)
  9. Fürth (FÜ)

  1. yard (HO)
  2. Ingolstadt (IN)
  3. Kaufbeuren (key-field)
  4. Kempten (general-outer) (KE)
  5. land hat (LA)
  6. Memmingen (mm)
  7. Munich (m)
  8. Nuremberg (N)

  1. Passau (Pa)
  2. Regensburg (R)
  3. rose home (RO)
  4. Schwabach (sports club)
  5. pig ford (SW)
  6. Straubing (SR)
  7. pastures i.d.OPf. (WHOM)
  8. peppering castle (WÜ)

Cities and municipalities

the Free State of Bavaria consists of 2.056 politically independent cities and municipalities as well as 215 municipality-free areas . The municipalities distribute themselves as follows: 25 circle-free cities, 27 large district towns, 262 other cities, 384 markets and 1.358 other municipalities (conditions 1. October 2004). From the 2,031 municipalities circle-belonging 991 member municipalities are in 314 central administrative bodies, 1,040 are unit municipalities (conditions 1. January 2005).

Changes since that 1. January 2005:

  • Collection of a municipality to the market to 17. September2005
  • collection of the city prince-field-bridge to the large district town at the 1. January 2006

see also: List of the places in Bavaria, Liste of the municipality-free areas in Bavaria

largest cities

(except new Ulm all circle-free cities)

city inhabitant to
31. December of 2000
inhabitants to
30. June 2005
Munich 1.210.223 1.254.300
Nuremberg 488,400 497,254
Augsburg 254,982 262,140
peppering castle 127,966 133,188
Regensburg 125,676 129,175
Ingolstadt 115,722 120,575
Fürth 110,477 113,076
attaining 100,778 102,745
Bayreuth 74,153 74,137
Bamberg 69,036 69,934
Aschaffenburg 67.592 68,798
Kempten (general-outer) 61,389 61,507
land hat 58,746 60,825
rose home 58,908 60,049
pig ford 54,325 54,351
new Ulm 50,188 51,461
Passau 50,536 50,506
yard 50,741 48,982

regions

economics

Bavaria is considered as very more economiceconomics and enriches State of, it hasin the last decades from the agrarian to the technology country develops. The unemployment ratio amounted to in July 2004 6.5%.

The Free State of Bavaria exhibits however also the largest economic differences of all Lands of the Federal Republic. Thus the resource distributes itself particularly on thoseRegions around Munich (with Upper Bavaria), on the region only-mountain-ford-ago-long, on the region Augsburg, on Lower Franconia between peppering castle and Aschaffenburg as well as the region Regensburg. In regions as in Upper Franconia or the northern Upper Palatinate the resource decreases/goes back strongly. These regions pointpartial numbers of unemployed of over 10 per cent up.

At three locations in Bavaria are nuclear power stations, in addition in Garching with Munich a research reactor is operated.

culture and objects of interest

Bavaria can on over 1000 years old cultureand history of ideas look back. According to kind. 3 of the condition of the Free State of Bavaria is Bavaria a culture state. The Free State promotes 2003 art and culture with annual in its household by means of 500 millions €, additionally substantial achievements of the Bavarian municipalities come and more privatelyCarrier in addition.

museums

Bavaria is also over 1.150 museums the museum-richest Land of the Federal Republic in Germany, to which also collections, locks, gardens and private collections belong. To the largest and most well-known belong:

German museumto the Isar

theatre, play and opera

Bavaria has four national and 18 local theatres with own ensembles as well as a multiplicityprivate stages and free groups. As last large reestablishment 2004 came out from the urban stages Nuremberg the national theatre Nuremberg . Altogether there are 35 firm play, opera and Operettenbühnen, 41 free light and festival enterprises and 17 doll theatres with more than14,000 conceptions and over 4.8 million spectators annually. Under these stages are so renowned houses how:

  • Main Franconia theatre peppering castle
  • city theatre Augsburg
  • city theatre Regensburg
  • southeastBavarian city theatre (land hat, Passau, Straubing)
  • as well as a large number of private and free stages, boulevard theatres, Kabaretts and experimentation stages.
Münchner Hoftheater
Resident of Munich yard theatre

music

smelling pool of broadcasting corporations daring he festival house in Bayreuth

Bavaria is not only the country of the traditional people music, the Jodler and Schuhplattler, but also the homeland of as well-known composers as

to the best classical orchestras resident in Bavaria count

under the music festivals outstanding are the smelling pool of broadcasting corporations daring he festivals in Bayreuth and the residents of Munich of opera festivals.

Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner

kitchen

by the next to each other of the two Bavarian trunks Altbaiern and Franconias, in addition cultural parts of Swabia,the Bavarian kitchen is very various. Even if the Bavarian kitchen offers clearly more than deftige and rustikale specialities, then there is nevertheless particularly these courts, which admits the far over Bavarian national borders away became:

religion, trunks and language

pointing church in South Bavaria

in Bavaria were reduced the portion of the catholics and Protestanten in the last years.This trend is to be observed also in other Lands of the Federal Republic.

There were Jewish municipalities up to 19. Century particularly in rural areas of Franconia and Swabia as well as the free realm cities such as z. B. Nuremberg and Regensburg. In wittelsbachischen old Bavaria gaveit as well as no Jews; since the Judenemanzipation increasingly in Bavarian cities. From nearly 200 Jewish municipalities exist today in Bavaria still and/or. again 12 municipalities.

The Bavarian people consists of four nationally recognized trunks: To thatthree old trunks, old Bavaria (Baiern), Franconia and Swabia, came after 1945 over two million refugees and refugee of homeland, above all Sudeten German. Also Sinti and Roma have a very long tradition in Bavaria. Besides Jeni are resident in Bavaria.

Several dialects from three large dialect families are spoken:

  • Bairisch in the majority of the country (north and center-LBA-Irish, at the edge to Tirol also Südbairisch)
  • Frankish from approximately 3 million in the northern and western region
  • Alemannisch of 2 million Swabia in the west

furthermorethere are smaller areas, in which southeastThuringian (district Coburg) as well as hessian dialects (area Aschaffenburg/spleen mountain) are spoken. Sudeten Germans dialects could keep themselves temporary only in individual municipalities, where Sudeten Germans were settled.

see: Dialects in Bavaria, ListeBavarian monasteries

other

as female symbol shape Bayerns applies the Bavaria.

The Bavarian police is the largest police federation of Germany.

Many bairische first names kept until today.

literature

  • max of Spindler (Hg.): Manual of the BavarianHistory, Munich, 1971-1975 (4 volumes)
  • max of Spindler (Hg.), Gertrud Diepolder: Bavarian historical Atlas, Munich, 1969
  • William people ore, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations farmer: Manual of the Bavarian offices, municipalities and courts: 1799-1980, Munich, 1983 ISBN 3-406-09669-7

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Bavaria - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikinews: Bavaria - current messages
Wikisource: Bavarian condition - source texts


 

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