conditioned developing or developing in dependence (zh. 縁起, SA. pratītyasamutpāda, pi. paṭiccasamuppāda, bo. rten cing `brel bar `byung ba) is considered as a law discovered of Buddha. It explains, how it comes to the wrongful chain of the Wiedergeburt and how is to be given it up. Since this conditioned developing possesses twelve members, it also the Zwölfgliedrige chain of conditioned developing is called (zh. 十二因縁, SA. dvādaśanidāna, dvādaśāṅgapratītyasamutpāda, bo. rten `brel yan lay bcu gnyis)
table of contents
the chain of conditioned developing after the sources in
- Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ hoti; imass `uppādā, idaṃ uppajjati; imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ well hoti; imassa nirodhā, idaṃ nirujjhati.
- If this is, then is that one. From the emergence of this that one develops. If this is not, then is not that one. That one is destroyed by the destruction of this.
In more detail this zwölfgliedrige chain of conditioned developing in the Vinayapiṭaka (Mahāvagga) is represented by Buddha themselves, after its perfect awaking:
- At that time the raised Buddha stayed with Uruvelā on the bank of the river Nerañjarā at the foot of the Bodhibaumes, for the first time perfectly illuminated. There the raised one sat seven days long at the foot of the Bodhibaumes with crossed legs, the luck of release enjoying (pi. vimutti sukha paṭisaṃvedī).
- And the raised one considered during the first night watch in its spirit forward (SA., pi. anuloma) and backwards (SA. pratiloma, pi. paṭiloma) the chain of conditioned developing:
- “From the ignorance the spirit moving, from the spirit moving consciousness, develop from consciousness name and form, from name and form the sixfold sense range, from the sixfold sense range the contact (consciousness impression), from the contact the feeling, from the feeling the thirst, from the thirst adhering (seize), from adhering (develop), from the birth, from the birth age, death, grief, mourning, mischief, measurement tendency and despair. Thus it behaves with the origin of this whole mass of wrong.
- By complete stopping and disappearing of the ignorance now the spirit moving stop, by stopping the spirit moving consciousness, by stopping consciousness name and form, by stopping name and form the sixfold sense range, by stopping the sixfold sense range the contact, by stopping the contact the feeling, by stopping the feeling the thirst, by stopping the thirst adhering, by stopping adhering the process, by stopping the process the birth, by stopping the birth age, death, grief, mourning, mischief, measurement tendency and despair. Thus it behaves with the stopping of this whole mass of suffering. “
- As now the raised one, fallow he recognized this circumstances at this time in the following inspired call out:
- “yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa, ath `assa kaṃkhā vapayanti sabbā yato pajānāti sahetu dhamman `ti.“
- “True, if the Dhammas comes up, an eager, looking holy one, then offense its doubt everything, because he sees the Dhamma with a cause. ”
analysis of the zwölfgliedrigen chain of conditioned developing
the zwölfgliedrige chain, with which the following develops always dependent on the preceding, here in their simplest and most frequent form:
- Ignorance (SA. avidyā, pi. avijjā). Ignorance means here the Nichtverstehen of the four noble truths, the Nichtgewahrsein of the Leidhaftigkeit of all life. From the ignorance the organizations
- ( SA develop. saṃskāra, pi. saṅkhāra). These organizations are called also karmische formation forces. These know welfare SAM (SA. kuśala, pi. kusala), not welfare SAM (SA. akuśala, pi. akusala) or neutrally its. From these organizations consciousness
- ( SA develops. vijñāna, pi. viññaṇa), which forms the basis for a new life. This consciousness is received in nut/mother lap, selects the conditions for a future life in accordance with the karmischen forces, the Saṃskāras. From consciousness then name
- and form ( pi develop., SA. nāmarūpa) - another name for the five groups of adhering (SA. pañcaskandha, pi. pañcakhanda) - is everything that forms the mental and physical one of a newborn child. From name and form
- the six ranges, that develop are the 5 senses and thinking (SA. ṣaḍāyatana, pi. saḷāyatana). By
- contact (SA. sparśa, pi. phassa) with the outside objects feeling
- ( SA develops., pi. vedanā). From the feeling the thirst
- ( SA develops. tṛṣṇā, pi. taṇhā). It is after the thirst its, after, after development. Due to this thirst seizing
- ( SA develops., pi. upādāna). Seizing leads to
- (SA., pi. bhava). This leads then to a new
- birth (SA., pi. jāti). Due to birth there is
- to age and death, pain and complaints, wrong, Betrübnis and despair (SA. jarāmaraṇaśokaparidevaduḥkhadaurmanasyopāyāsāḥ, pi. jamāranaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā).
One can analyze this zwölfgliedrige chain of conditioned developing under different aspects. The usual analysis is a temporal: The members 1-2 belong to the preceding life, while the members 3-10 represent the conditions (3-7) and fruits (8-10) in this life. 11-12 belongs to the future life. Each member is at the same time under the preceding and again conditions for the following members.
During in the initial times of the Buddhismus (becoming) the thirst as only reason for the itself involving in the cycle of the Wiedergeburten , is added later the ignorance than a cause applies. In the zwölfgliedrigen cause chain both last suffering causes in a concept are united.
The opinions of the Hīnayāna - and Mahāyāna Buddhismus cover themselves, which concerns the last reasons for suffering, not completely. While the Hīnayāna with the law of conditioned developing wants to have exhaustively represented the Nichtselbst of the Dharmas, the Mahāyāna tries to prove by this law the unreality of the feature world. The Mādhyamikas, “representative of the theory of the center”, sets this zwölfgliedrige chain of conditioned developing with emptyness (SA. śūnyatā) same.
The concept of conditioned developing belonged to oldest contents of buddhistischen philosophy and is, apart from the four noble truths, one of the central teachings. It is an attempt to explain the process of humans without having to fall back to the conception of a creator or an even. After frühbuddhistischen teachings the insight into this regularity awaking (SA means., pi. bodhi), release (SA. vimukti, pi. vimutti).
- Erich Frauwallner: History of Indian philosophy. I. II. (S. 197f.), Salzburg 1953, 1956.
- Erich Frauwallner, Erich: Philosophy of the Buddhismus, 4. Edition, academy publishing house, Berlin 1994
- PER ANNUM. Payutto: Dependency Origination - to The Buddhist Law OF Conditionality, Buddhadamma Foundation, Bangkok 1994-1999, ISBN 9748914828
- http://www.theravadanetz.de/txt_bedingtesEntstehen.htm U Thittila