the Beichte is the verbal confession of a culpable misdemeanour, usually during a discussion in private with a Beichtvater. The Beichte can be put down into different forms with many religions and also in the everyday life. It acts thereby around a kind of processingof loading past.
In Christian churches the Beichte (also Sakrament of the reconciliation) differs thereby from other Seelsorgegesprächen that she aims at a formal sin assigning, usually with the words your sins is you assigned or I speaks you loosely of your sins.
To table of contents
the Beichte developed apart from the public sin confession in the early churchwhen Privatbeichte, which often took place at a settlers or monks, who could deal very differentiated with the particular.
The second Vatikani council, of 11. October 1962 - 8. December 1965 in the Vatikan took place, and the Liturgiereform in the Roman-catholic church, accompanying with it, stressed again more the welfare effect of this Sakramentes and attached therefore importance to the fact that this Sakrament as “celebration of the reconciliation”one understands.
the orthodox church practices the regular Beichte and ranks it among the Sakramenten. Most orthodox ones regard a recently put down Beichte as a condition for the receipt of the Eucharistie; some the stricter churches give the Eucharistie expressly onlyat Gläubige out, which gebeichtet the previous evening.
The Beichte is put down after orthodox understanding at Christ God, in the presence of a priest; not in reverse. Beichtstühle are not usually, usually the Beichtende in a private area of its Beichtvaters Christ - icon will turn and like thatits Beichte placing, whereby the priest kneeling beside it is to help by prayers and questions.
Many orthodox ones prefer it to visit another priest than that their local municipality than Beichtvater; the Beichtvater is not to be changed however from Beichte to Beichte. If it a monasteryin the proximity gives, many also to a monk as Beichtvater will turn. Since most orthodox monks are not geweihten priests, the monk in this case becomes the conclusion him admitted priest in addition-gets, who carries out then the lot speaking.
The old-Christian form thatBeichte before the whole municipality is today practiced only rarely; however sometimes still in case of of adult baptism, if the Täufling wishes it.
in the catholic church one understands the sin confession by Beichte either as suchor the entire process of donating the Busssakramentes. For the valid Beichte five conditions must be given: Conscience research, regret, good resolution, confession and compensation.
- The conscience research aims before the actual Beichte off to become conscious the sins and their circumstances.
- The regret is thatmost important part of the Beichte. One differentiates between the perfect regret (from love for God) and the imperfect regret (from the desire to the sky or from fear before condemn-sneeze). In connection with the formal Beichte is everyone of the two kinds regret also alone sufficientA with condition for assigning the sins.
- The good resolution must consist of avoiding in the future all heavy sins.
- For a valid Beichte is the confession of all heavy sins (so-called. Death sins) necessarily, whose one remembers since the baptism and which not yet througha sakramentale Beichte assigned are. A sin is heavy if a requirement of God in an important thing, with clear consciousness were crossed and in free deciveness. It will also turn out, fewer heavy, to admit leave sins so mentioned.
- The compensation exists toone to settle committed injustice so far at all possible for example stealing must be returned. On the other hand the bus achievement in the prayer is to help to clear away the consequences the debt in solidarity with the church.
Thus Pönitenten cannot get lot speaking with the following criteria:
- Who no regret overits sins to feel wants.
- Who does not want to avoid the next sin, or which opportunities to the sin.
- Who does not forgive its enemies, strange honour not to restore or other injustice not settle wants, although it could do it.
substantial with the Beichte is thosesakramentale Absolution (lot speaking), those in the catholic church only by a geweihten priest in presence of the Pönitenten (i.e. the Beichtenden) to be given can (Telefonbeichte and Internet Beichte are not permitted). Some sins, which Exkommunikation reserved with the Apostoli chair is connected, can only after further inquiry(Appeal) of the Beichtvaters with the responsible hierarchical superior to be loose-spoken. In the case of the abortion all Beichtväter has the authority to the Absolution also of the associated Exkommunikation in accordance with resolution of the Austrian and German bishop conference. The lot speaking formula reads:God, the barmherzige father, has by death andthe Auferstehung of its son the world with itself reconciles and the holy spirit sent for assigning the sins. By the service of the church give he you pardon and peace. Thus I speak you loosely of your sins in the name of the father and the son andthe holy spirit. The Pönitent answers with “Amen”.
beside the sakramentalen Beichte knows the catholic church also the so-called Laienbeichte, which is expressly recommended approximately of Thomas's von Aquin. It replaced the sakramentale Beichte and does not lead not to oneAssigning the sins. In particular with heavy sins the sakramentale Beichte is necessary. The effect of the Laienbeichte exists for example in an extended conscience research, it can the regret over sins increase and a sakramentale Beichte prepare. It can be a meaningful addition, is however little well-known andtherefore hardly one practices.
Martin Luther turned energetically against each personal achievement to the sin assigning (all sins beichten, drain, etc.), endorsed however the personal Beichte. It beichtete even regularly, in difficult times even daily.
- at present Luther were thosesubstantial components of the Busssakramentes:
- Realization of the debt
- true regret = contritio cordis
- confession of the debt = confessio oris (= Ohrenbeichte)
- compensation = satisfactio operum
- Zuspruch of assigning = absolutio
- the point of issue at present Luther was the point “compensation”, “satisfactio operum”
- Luther answered in the negative the possibilitya compensation and Jesu” refers with which it its “sola gratia” justified to “deputy death.
- The refusal “satisfactio operum” is one of the reasons for Luther's resistance against the catholic church and against the drain trade.
- This drain trade had actually developed, because in thatBeichtpraxis to the place of the compensation an indemnification was demanded, which could exist then also in the purchase of drain notes and in practice as purchase of assigning one interpreted.
- This satisfactio operum had originally its sense in the fact that she represented an indication of genuine regret: ThatBeichtende was intended to clarify somehow that its regret was perhaps serious (as we this very day with a reconciliation a bouquet or also a valuable gift bring along, in order to show the concerning, as wrong does us our act, but therefore not to believe, we would have oursDebt “paid”)
in many Evangelist churches is a sin confession with Zuspruch of göttlichen assigning part of the Abendmahlsliturgie - the Einzelbeichte is an important seelsorgerliches offer, which is taken in more recent time increasingly in requirement. In particular in the Krankenseelsorge, and here particularly in the company psychologicallyill, the Beichte proved humans as valuable design element of seelsorglicher company.
In the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church the Beichte is held in the context of the Lutheri fair either after the entrance song or as separate Beichtgottesdienst before the Lutheri fair. Likewise become in the Einzelbeichte or alsoPrivatbeichte before the minister sins admits and in the name of God assigned. The expiration resembles that in the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church, the general Beichte in the context of a Lutheri fair. In the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church only a ordinierter minister may remove the Beichte.
In place of the Beichte alsoHand presenting stepped the preparation prayer in the lutherischen regional churches. In many Evangelist churches a sin confession with Zuspruch of göttlichen assigning is part of the Abendmahlsliturgie. Strictly taken it concerns with a preparation prayer however not around a Beichtvorgang, but a request at God thoseTo assign sins. The Zuspruch of the sin assigning is missing.
Also in evangelikalen groups there is often a kind Beichte in form of a sin confession before a Seelsorger, which awards assigning, sometimes on the occasion of the Bekehrung, at some places also as regular mirror-image-ritual practice. This Seelsorger must however noneReligious one its. (Laienbeichte)
in all churches one knows the Beichtgeheimnis: the Beichtvater is obligated to strictest discretion over everything that came into the Beichte to the language; also in relation to all national and church places. It may do also nobody on an earlierBeichte address. If it experiences in the Beichte of a heavy crime, it will normally request the Beichtenden to place itself and this even possible to a condition for the lot speaking to make; the decision remains however with the Beichtenden. In most states is the Beichtgeheimnisalso on the part of the state fully recognition, so that for example a wire-tapping is strictly forbidden on a Beichtstuhl.
|Wikiquote: Beichte - quotations|
- Jes P. Asmussen/Isnard W. Franc/Ernst Bezzel/Helmut Obst/Manfred Mezger: Kind. Beichte I. Religion-historically II. The Middle Ages III. Reformation time IV. Modern times V. Practical-theologically. In: Theological material encyclopedia 5 (1980), S. 411-439 (comprehensive overview)