Beirut is the economical and cultural centerthe region with many publishing houses and universities, among other things the American University of Beirut.
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exact number of inhabitants of the city is unknown, since the last census is past for a long time. 1991 amounted to the number of roughly 1.5 million, 2001: 2,1 million inhabitant.
Beirut is the konfessionell most varied city of the Near East. In ihrlive Christians (Maroniten, Greek-orthodox, Armenian-orthodox, Armenian-catholic, Roman-catholic and Protestanten) Muslims (Sunniten and Shiites) as well as glands. Most Jews left Beirut since 1975. About 52% are Christians, 30% of itMaroniten, followed of Greek Ortodoxen with 16%. 48% Muslims, 27% of it Shiites.
the oldest mention of the city dates 2 on the center. Millenium before our time. The city was already underthe Phöniziern an important city state, their antique phönizischer name Be'erot reads (dt. “Wells”). The Greeks called the city Berytos.
The Roman rule began 64 v. in the year. Chr.. During this time was the city, which now as colony thatName Berytus , very much meaning and brought out well-known lawyers carried, among other things for Aemilius Papinianus and Domitius Ulpianus. The right school of Beirut was to in 6. Century outstandingly and importantly. At least to in late 4. Century, probably however stillclearly longer, the dominating language was in the city latin; thus main header one itself strongly from the surrounding countryside.
When in the year 551 an earthquake and a following Flutwelle destroyed the city strongly, gloss and prosperity of the antique city wentlost.
In the year 635 the city was conquered by the Arabs. The Arabs called the still strongly destroyed city Bayrut. The settlement was developed again and the trade began to flourish again. Was from 1110 to 1291 itthen in the hand of cross driver - princes. After back conquest by the Muslims the city was usually controlled by the glands, even if it belonged starting from 1516 to the Osmani realm. 1888 became Beirut a Vilayet Syria, that the Sandschaks Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, acre and Bekaa covered.
After the collapse of the Osmani realm after that 1. World war came the city as part of a people federation mandate at France. After Lebanon after that 2. World war its independence attained, becameBeirut the capital of Lebanon. International investors and Finanziers were tightened by the “Lebanese free trade policy”. Beirut developed to a financial center.
During the Lebanese civil war (1975 - 1990) the city was in the Muslim west and a ChristianThe east divided. In July 1982 Israel penetrated into Lebanon. The west of Beirut was long besieged and bombarded 10 weeks. With a bomb attack to 8. March 1985, which applied for the Shiite religious leader sheikh Muhammad Husain Fadlallah, 80 becameHumans killed and 256 hurts. In October 1990 the civil war ended. Beirut was again again developed over far distances.
during the town development to approx. 1840 were limited to a relatively small area, found under spätosmanischer rulean expansion on the ranges outside of the Stadtmauern instead of. Those first very loose land development consolidated itself in the course of the time, particularly along the important arterial roads after Tripoli in the north, Damascus in the east and Sidon in the south. Within the Stadtmauernunder spätosmanischer rule two durchgangsstrassen were created.
During the mandate time one removed these flight corridors with the implementation of a sternenförmigen Hausmann road pattern, so that medieval Beirut was nearly completely over-formed. The city increased due to Zuwanderungsbewegungen fast andit came apart from the expansion to the south to a compression in the accomodation next to the town centre.
The civil war (1975 - 1990) led the one intensified religious segregation of the city apart from the destruction of the built volumes to extensive driving out processes, along the “GreenLINE " to the consequence had.
For the reconstruction of the city centre into the 1990er years the private, as corporation organized reconstruction company more solid one was created.
the outstanding American University OF Beirut
- , institutes and cultural mechanisms Beirut (short AUB),in the year 1866 by Protestant mission arene one based.
Beirut is besides seat of further universities, e.g.:
- Lebanese University OF Beirut
- Université Saint Joseph
- Lebanese American University (LAU)
- Near East School OF Theology
it exist numerous German-language institutions: beside the local
- Goethe Instituteexist
- the German-language municipality to Beirut and
- the Orient institute of the German Morgenländi society. Besides there are Dependancen of the Friedrich Ebert donation and the Heinrich Boell donation in the city.
- Piccadilly theatre in the quarter Hamra. Here those of musical of the famous brothers became Mansour and AssiRahbani, with the superstar Fairuz specified in the main roles.
sons and daughters of the city
- Rabih Abou Khalil, Lebanese Oud - players and jazz musicians
- John Dolmayan, US-American Schlagzeuger of Armenian origin
- Bachir Gemayel, Lebanese president
- Naji Hakim,Organist und Komponist
- Mona Hatoum, britische Künstlerin
- Nicolas Hayek, Unternehmer (Swatch), Physiker und Mathematiker
- Samir Kassir, libanesischer Journalist
- Elias Khoury, libanesischer Schriftsteller
- Prosper L'Orange, deutscher Ingenieur und Erfinder
- Tigran Manssurjan, armenischer Komponist
- Gazebo,Italian musician
- Sayid Hassan Nasrallah, leader of the Hisbollah
- Keanu Reeves, Canadian actor
- Christoph Rihs, Swiss artist
- Serj Tankian, Armenian-American singer
- Suleman Taufiq, Syrian writer
- Ernst von Wildenbruch, German writer and diplomat
- Gabriel Yared,Lebanese composer
- Baba Saad, German RWSby
see also: List of the cities in Lebanon
highly over Beirut
Web on the left of
- Beirut Blog: Photo, audio, text and video
- Website Goethe of the institute Beirut
- city maps of Beirut (1964 - 1968)
- FabianWürtz: Destruction and reconstruction of Beirut. A Maturarbeit.
- facing reality Beirut: lebanese DAILY would run stories. Documentation on the situation in Lebanon
- - Website of the American University OF Beirut
- - Website of the Lebanese American University
- - Website Université Saint Joseph
- -Website of the Near East School OF Theology
coordinates: 33° 53 ' N, 35° 30 ' O