Belgrade

ГрадБеоград
degree of Beograd
city Belgrade
flag large coat of arms
base data
state: Serbia and Montenegro
surface city: 3,223 km ² central area: 359 km ²
inhabitant 1.373.651 and/or. 1.795.124 in the population centre (2005)
population density 556 Einwohner/km ²
postal zip code 11000
preselection +381 (0) 11
geographical situation
of coordinates: 44° 49 ′ n. Break, 20° 28 ′ o. L.
44° 49 ′ n. Break, 20° 28 ′ o. L.
Height of 117 m over NN
arrangement of 17 districts
Kfz characteristic BG
web page http://www.beograd.co.yu/
E-Mail address
politics
mayor Nenad Bogdanović
strongest parliamentary group DS
layer
Lage Belgrads in Serbien-Montenegro

Belgrade listen to ( Serbian Beograd, Tondokument Београд ? / License, German Belgrade or becomes outdated (Greek) - white castle, Hungarian Belgrád or becomes outdated to Nándorfehérvár, Latin Singidunum) is the administrative centre of the community of states Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Serbia and lies in closer Serbia. At the same time the city with its three quarters forms for one of the 30 Serbian districts. The city is because of the confluence of the save and the Danube in the southeast of the Pannoni lowlandses and northwest the Balkan Peninsula. Belgrade has 1.7 millions Inhabitant (conditions 2002). Belgrade is seat of an Serbian-orthodox Patriarchen and a Roman-catholic archbishop. The historical landmark of the city is the fortress Kalemegdan removed steadily since the Middle Ages. The name of the city consists of two parts: Beo comes of belo and means white, degrees is slawisch for city.

Belgrade has several universities and different other universities, theatres, museums and cultural facilities.

The city Belgrade forms the political, cultural and economical metropolis of the confederation of states Serbia and Montenegro. It is one of the oldest cities of Europe and beside Athens the largest urbane unit on the Balkans. The oldest archaeological finds in its area are enough in 5. Millenium v. Chr. back. Celtic trunks created Singidun in the 3. Century v. Chr. The city is for the first time mentioned 878 with the name Belgrade.

Due to its size Belgrade and environment forms the Serbian district Belgrade, in over 2 the million Humans live.

Table of contents

Geografie

geographical layer

Belgrade lies in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. The city lies quite central in Serbia and is in the north surrounded by the autonomous province Vojvodina. In Belgrade the delta of the save ( Sava) is into the Danube (Dunav). The old part of town with the osmanischen fortress Kalemegdan is on a rock projection/lead between Danube and save directly because of the delta and was protected thereby by three sides. With this situation Belgrade carried with good reason the name “gate” of the Balkans and “gate” of Central Europe.

Belgrads Kern befindet sich am rechten Donau- und rechten Save-Ufer. On the left Danube bank the Banat begins with the Pannoni lowlandses, at the right between Danube and save Syrmien, and south of Belgrade the forest-rich Šumadija lies. In the angle between Danube and save the new city Novi Beograd and a piece Danube upward of Zemun ( German also Semlin ) lies, at present the Turk wars a habsburgischer Vorposten and today suburb of Belgrade.

The main traffic vein of the city runs with the hill of the fortress Kalemegdan to the Knez Mihailova road over the Terazije up to the Slavija.

Topografie von Serbien und Umgebung
Topografie of Serbia and environment

of Belgrade environment is coined/shaped by two landscapes: the Pannoni lowlandses with their large grain - and corn fields in the north and the Šumadija with their fruit - and wine gardens and the enormous forests in the south at the save and Danube. The largest collections in the proximity of Belgrade are the mountain Kosmaj (628 m) and the Avala (511 m). The Geländeoberfläche of Belgrade von Süden regarded arouses the impression, as if spread the city over many hills. Some hills in Belgrade and environment are Banovo brdo, Lekino brdo, Topčidersko brdo, Kanarevo brdo, Julino brdo, Petlovo brdo, Zvezdara, Vračar and Dedinje. North the save and Danube extend the alluvialen levels and the Löss plateau (Bežanijska kosa), which 30 m a high steep rock slope separates. On the left save bank, underneath the Löss plateau, the quarters Novi Beograd extends and at the left the quarters Zemun.

The most highly convenient building in the central area of the city is on Torlak (Voždovac) the Dreifaltigkeitskirche with 303,1 m, while Ada Huja with 70,15 m exhibits the tiefstgelegenen point. The Kosmaj mountains (Mladenovac) are with 628 m the highest collection in the broader city. For the average height of Belgrade the absolute height of the weather station with 132 m is taken.

The exact geographical situation of the Belgrader of city centre of the Knez Mihailova (main street in the center) is 44°49'14 of " northern degree of latitude and 20°27'44 " of southern degree of latitude. Belgrade extends to 3,6% of the Serbian territory.

city arrangement

Belgrader Bezirke
Belgrader of districts

the city of Belgrade expands on a surface of 322.268 hectars ( the central area of the city amounts to 35,996 hectars) and is arranged into 17 districts. The largest Belgrader urban district is Palilula (44,662 hectars) and the smallest Vračar (292 hectars).

  1. Barajevo
  2. Voždovac
  3. Vračar
  4. Grocka
  5. Zvezdara
  6. Zemun
  7. Lazarevac
  8. Mladenovac
  9. Novi Beograd
  10. Obrenovac
  11. Palilula
  12. Rakovica
  13. Savski Venac
  14. Sopot
  15. Stari degree
  16. of Surčin
  17. Čukarica

of urban districts:
Čukarica,Novi Beograd,Palilula,Rakovica,Savski venac,Stari degree,Voždovac,Vračar,Zemun, Zvezdara

of suburb districts:
Barajevo,Grocka,Lazarevac,Mladenovac,Obrenovac,Sopot,Surčin

climate

Klimadiagramm von Belgrad
climatic diagram of Belgrade

in Belgrade prevails a moderate continental climate with the four seasons usual for Europe. The autumn is a typical old woman summer and has longer sun days and warmer time periods than spring.

The winter has altogether 21 days in the year with temperatures under the freezing point. But from the northeast of Belgrade blows a very cold wind, the Košava, which makes the longer stay in the free one partly almost impossible, even if the thermometer indicates only few degrees under the freezing point. But this wind is characteristic of of Belgrade climate. It blows only 2 to 3 days long with average speeds of 25-43 km/h, but it can reach also speeds up to 130 km/h. Its good side is that it is the largest air cleaner of Belgrade.

January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 0,40°C. Spring is short and rainy. The transition to the summer takes place suddenly.

The summer is usually very hot against it, with constant temperatures over thirty degrees. The months are most beautiful May, September and October in Belgrade. But straight therefore seems to be in love the Belgrader with its city and holds these because of their different variations to the most beautiful world. Who prefers however the warmth, June up to at the beginning of of Septembers in Belgrade is well waived in the summer months.

In the period of 1961 to 1990 annual average temperature was measured by 11,90°C. The warmest months are according to statistics the months July with 21,70°C and August with 21,30°C.

The extreme values in Belgrade, measured so far, are 10. January 1893 (- 26,20°C) as well as the 12. August 1921 and 9. September 1946 (+42°C). Only twelve days with temperatures over 40°C were registered from 1888 to 2003. The number of the days also over 30°C amounts to on average 31, days with summer temperatures over 25°C amounted to on the average 95 in the year.

The precipitation exhibits 685 mm in Belgrade and its environment in the annual average. The largest amounts of precipitation are registered in May and June. The sun days amount to on average 2,096 hours. The largest sun exposure amounts to about 10 hours daily in the months July and August, while in December and January the cloudy appearance is strongest, if the sun shines 2.3 hours daily on average 2 to. On average it snows 27 days, the Schneedecke holds themselves 40 to 44 days and is thick between 14 and 25 cm.

nature

by Belgrade flows the Danube in a length from 60 km von Stari Banovci to Grocka, and the save in a length from 30 km river upward from Obrenovac to the delta. Belgrade has river bank of 200 km length with 16 Flussinseln, of it is the most well-known Ada Ciganlija, Veliko ratno ostrvo (large war island) and Gročanska ada (Grocka island).

The city is equipped with numerous forests. Among the largest and most beautiful on Kosmaj, Avala, and Trešnja, in addition, the forests the Lipovačka ranks šuma, on Topčider, Obrenovački zabran and the Bojčin forest.

history

Belgrade in 16 Jh.
Eroberung Belgrads 1521 durch Süleymann den Prächtigen
Conquest of Belgrade 1521 by Süleymann the magnificent
historical map (around 1760)
historical map (around 1888)
delta of the save into the Danube, rh. War island (see map)
Belgrader city center
Beograđanka (black house)

Belgrade is a city with a long and moved past.

With Starčevo and Vinča, which belong to the suburbs of Belgrade, old Belgrade ranks with well 7,000 years among the oldest constantly populated localities of Europe. In the historical age the city was however more fifty times destroyed than , and alone in 20. Century was three times heavily damaged it. It explains also why Belgrade possesses few buildings, which are than hundred years old more. Objects of interest from old times are RSR, and who nevertheless without them to do would not like, is dependent on the many museums of the city. A further reason for the small existence of old buildings is that the structure concerning town construction of Belgrade corresponded to an unplanned dye 1867 ago the Balkans style so by single-storey land development in mentioned. Thus in planning by Emilijan Josimović (1867) building alignments were then straightened and established in the following town development a multiplicity of neoklassizistischer buildings in their place, which coin/shape the picture of the city centre until today.

The establishment of Singidun is attributed to the celtic trunk of the Skordisker. Around 279 v. Chr. Singidun the first time was mentioned in writing. The name meant round fortress or rounds city. Singidun became by the Romans around 86 v. Chr. conquered. These built the Roman Singidunum as fortress further out, but should it long time in the shade of Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica in the Vojvodina at the border to closer Serbia), that even the capital of one of the 4. Prefectures of the Roman realm was. Since 488 Singidunum belonged to the eastRoman realm. The Byzantiner settled the Heruler for the protection against the Gepiden.

End 6. Century conquered for the first time the Slawen Singidunum allied with the Awaren. The Slawen called Singidunum white fortress or white city: Beograd, Belgrade, Beligrad, Biograd. Around 878 this designation in a papal bull was mentioned for the first time in writing. Since that time Belgrade was called also Greek white castle, Alba Graeca, Nándorfehérvár or Castelbianco. In Belgrade alternated Bulgaren, Byzantiner and Hungary .

The first Serbian king, who governed the city, was Stefan Dragutin, which had as Hungarian Vasall in the time of 1282 to 1316 a rule in the north of Serbia. After its death again Hungary over Belgrade prevailed. Stefan Uroš IV. Dušan (1331 - 1355), the most powerful king medieval Serbia, should attach Belgrade at short notice its rule. But should become only under Stefan Lazarević (1389 - 1427) Belgrade for the first time Serbian capital. Stefan Lazarević removed the city generously, and allegedly the city counted at that time to the 10,000 inhabitants. Konstantin the philosopher, one of the last universal scholars of the Byzantine Balkans, should compare Belgrade as the new Jerusalem and Konstantinopel.

1427 dropped back Belgrade at Hungary, which became the most important Hungarian base against the rising Osmani realm. Finally the Osmanen under Süleyman I. conquered. Belgrade after long FE storage time 1521. Belgrade served also the Osmanen as the most important base for their campaigns against the west. 1688 succeeded to cure prince Maximilian II. Emanuel of Bavaria back conquest, it could hold the city however only to 1690. 1717 defeated prince Eugen von Savoyen the Osmanen with Peter Peter-be-being your and took Belgrade. Quotation of the prince before conquest: “it strikes a bridging that one konnt' over there jerks with d'r army probably for the city “. And thus city belonged and Comendatur of the Kingdom of Servien to the having citizen from 1718 to 1739. The Belgrader fortress Kalemegdan received its current form from the having citizens. Later only easy changes were made.

1804 decided the Serbs to the rebellion against the Osmanen. To her leader they selected Karađorđe, black George. Belgrade was conquered of the insurgent 1806 and made immediately their capital. The rebellion was struck down 1813, but already 1815 dared the Serbs under Miloš Obrenović a second rebellion. The Serbs got an autonomous principality, and Belgrade became Serbian. However a osmanisches regiment remained in the Belgrader fortress. 1867 forced prince Mihailo Obrenović the last osmanischen regiments, the principality too abandoned, and Belgrade was geweiht solemnly to the free Serbian capital. 1882 were explained the Principality of Serbia as the kingdom and to Belgrade thereby as the royal capital.

In the First World War Belgrade was heavily destroyed. After completion of the war Belgrade was again developed to the capital again created Yugoslavia, the city. To 6. The Axis powers without preliminary warning or declaration of war Yugoslavia attacked April 1941, and Bombardements caused heavy damage to the city, and. A. the national library was destroyed by a fire and to cultural property in inestimable value went lost. To 20. October 1944 was finally released, supported Belgrade from the Yugoslav army by the Red Army.

Belgrade became the capital of communist Yugoslavia and the partial republic Serbia. New Belgrade (Novi Beograd), a modern settlement at the delta of the Danube and save opposite the old part of town, was removed. 1991 come it to the decay of Yugoslavia, and Belgrade becomes capital of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and since that 4. February 2003 of the state State of Serbia and Montenegro.

1965 were established TV tower, which was destroyed with the air raids 1999 on the mountain Avala also for tourists more accessible, 203 meters more highly. (1999 became Belgrade in the context of the Kosovo war a goal of attacks of NATO). In its process numerous government buildings were destroyed like the Ministry of Defense and police headquarters. In addition, buildings of television stations or Radiosendern. In many places the townscape is still coined/shaped by impressing war ruins, which were cleared away nor rebuilt neither.

Altogether the urban infrastructure (roads, public means of transport etc.) suffers still from national investments lacking. As well as these are among other things consequence of the unstable political situation of Serbia, those the river of foreign investments restrain the distrust of the Serbian population into the political guidance. Since has itself a flourishing shadow economy developed 1995, whose profit at the treasury is smuggled through.

religions

Kathedrala hl. Sava beside the library of Serbia

in accordance with the census of 1991 belonged to 87% the Belgrader of the Christian-orthodox denomination, approximately 2% of the Roman-catholic and about. 0.2% of the Evangelist. About 2% professed themselves to the Islam and 0.03% were Jews. 6% professed themselves to unknown denominations and 4% explained themselves as Nichtgläubige. Since that time no current collection were made.
Belgrade is seat of an orthodox Patriarchen (Serbian-orthodox church), Roman-catholic archbishop and different Evangelist regional churches.

city protection cartridge celebration - Ascension Day

since the the poet Stefan Lazarević Belgrade 1403 the status of a capital lent, selected the city in honours of the renewal and the progress Christi Ascension Day - the Ascension Day - to their protection cartridge celebration.

How much meaning the Serbs give to this holiday, also the fact testifies that the largest historical legal document of the Serbian medieval State of, the famous law book Dušans (Dušanov zakonik) was published, at the Ascension Day 1349 and supplemented in the same way at the Ascension Day 1354. On the Ascension Day celebration 1939 Belgrade the largest war honor was lent to the city - Karađorđes star with swords of fourth degree. It is worth mentioning that the 1863 retained delighted Ascension Day church, the original flag of the city administration of Belgrade. The flag from red Brokat illustrated on side the icon of Christi Ascension Day and the inscription gestickte with gold threads: Municipality of the city Belgrade 1938 and on the other side the icon of the Hl. Parascheva and the message: Who the protection cartridge celebration celebrates - God assists. From this church, which retains the city protection cartridge celebration, 1992 applied the Prozession again, at the point with its holyness, Patriarch Pavle.

Interesting it is also that the city in the same way a protection lady, which has all-holy of nut/mother God. Their the the poet Stefan Lazarević Belgrade geweiht.

politics

Belgrade are the administrative centre and the seat of the government of the state State of Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Serbia. Mayor of Belgrade is Nenad Bogdanović of the democratic party DS.

again

culture and objects of interest

part of the arsenal in the military museum
Belgrader military museum
  • fortress Kalemegdan (and. A. Military museum, Roman well, Belgrader zoo)
  • Konak (residence) of the princess Ljubica (a particularly beautiful example of the Balkans style nearby the Kalemegdan)
  • Knez Mihailova ulica (prince Michael road, pedestrian precinct)
  • the old Bohèmeviertel Skadarlija (admits for its restaurants)
  • cathedral Hl. Sava (one of the largest orthodox churches of the world)
  • Erzengel Michael cathedral, Markuskirche
  • national museum, museum for arts and crafts
  • Nikola Tesla - museum (with the urn Nikola width unit-read)
  • place of the Republic of, Terazije place
  • the white lock and lock on Dedinje (ehem. royal locks)
  • art nouveau officer department store
  • Kuća cveća, the house of the flowers, Titos Mausoleum and museum
  • park Topčider (and. A. Museum of the Serbian rebellions)
  • mountain Košutnjak, mountain Avala etc.
  • numerous restaurants, taverns, clubs and coffee houses on firm houseboats on the right Danube bank at height of the hotel Yugoslavia
  • the beautiful Belgrader Mrs.

Kalemegdan

the historical landmark of the city is the fortress Kalemegdan removed steadily since the Middle Ages. The tensionful development of the city reflects itself here most clearly.

other buildings

in more recent time were added numerous repräsentatitve buildings. By their dimensions they point a slope to the imperial style (cathedral Hl. Sava, Ministry of Defense, parliament, palace of the federation, basketball arena, Sava congress center, quarter again Belgrade, Metrostation Vuk Stefanović Karadžić). Belgrade was understood about the respective ruling powers as local center of power and should support the alleged requirement as metropolis of the Balkan Peninsula. Therein resembled themselves the clients of the buildings, which were established by the respective ruling powers of the monarchy, communist and post office-communist period. By their Gigantomanie, in addition, under the destruction of the city in the Second World War, led this too partial lengthy delays of the completion (sports association. Sava 1934-2004, new main station 1971-2008, basketball arena 1989-2004).

regular meetings

  • CELEBRATION (Belgrader Filmfestival)
  • BITEF (Belgrader of theatre festivals)
  • BEMUS (Belgrader of music festivals)

economics and infrastructure

Belgrade is as capital of Serbia an important administrative and service center.

At industry there is to machine, vehicle, shipbuilding, textile and industrial exhibition, in addition the city is an important inland port and an important stopover for the traffic of Central Europe toward Istanbul, Skopje, Athens and Tirana. In Belgrade many banks and insurance are in the service range. The service sector is above all Serbia an important transit country is importantly there. In the future an oil pipeline is built last from Constanţa to Pančevo after Osijek and after Triest.

traffic

of the ÖPNV is angewickelt in the city by the Belgrader transporting enterprise GSP. This operation among other things streetcar and the Metro in the city.

(SCG)

By Belgrade 3 motorways run:

air traffic

Belgrade has an airport of 12 km west far away from the city centre lies. Direct connection to the airport exists Zagreb (E-70) over the motorway Beograd -.

river traffic

Belgrade extends at the crossing of the ways of east and Western Europe, which over the Morava and Vardar - valley and the Nišava - and Mariza - level to the coast of the Ägäis, to small Asia and into the Near East lead. Belgrade is located to the navigation way, which the countries of west and Central Europe with the countries southeast at the Danube , - and Eastern Europe connects. By the establishment of the artificial lake and the hydro-electric power plant iron gate at the Danube Belgrade developed also to a river and a sea port. Here ships go out of the black sea before anchors and with the start-up of the Rhine Main Danube channel are it in the center of the most important navigation road in Europe: North Sea - Atlantic - black sea.

The fact that the navigation was always an important commercial emphasis shows already the Belgrader coat of arms.

train service

the main station from Belgrade is near the city centre. In the proximity the bus station of Belgrade is alike. Daily the course operates the distance Belgrade - Podgorica - bar. Also international has it goals such as Istanbul, Kiew, Budapest, Sofia, Vienna, Zurich, Athens.

personalities

 Der Sieger, Bronzestatue Ivan Mestrovićs
of the winners, bronze statue Ivan Mestrovićs

see also: Other [

work on] coat of arms

of Belgrade

coat of arms of Belgrade

the first mention

 Wappen Belgrads
of the Belgrader

of coat of arms the year 1403 dates Serbian personalities [work on ] as Belgrade for the first time as the capital of the Serbian realm was explained. But one did not determine up to the today's day with security, how it looked. The following coat of arms mentioned “Fugerspiegel of the honour” originates from the year 1555 during the Hungarian rule. The tradition of the Belgrader of coat of arms was interrupted under the Turk rule, since the coat of arms was connected with the agreement of the Serbs and thus one forbade. But as Austria Hungary Belgrade in 18. Century took, this tradition one continued. In the year 1725 on suggestion of the imperial governor Alexander von Württemberg a new victory coat of arms was brought out. Still three further coats of arms followed. But there was main coat of arms, which zugedacht a not-Serbian authority Belgrade and thus by the people were never accepted.

1931 led of Belgrade mayor Milan Nešić, an action for the definition of the coat of arms. A committee from artists, Heraldikern, university professors, generals and Councils of State was educated. It was decided:

  1. The coat of arms must exhibit the form of a sign, which ends downward into a gentle point.
  2. The national colors, the river (as symbol Kraft Belgrade) must, a Roman ship (Triere) (as symbol of the antiquity) and white walls with a tower and an open gate (symbol for the city and free traffic).
  3. The earth, between the rivers should be red, as symbol for that century for a long time suffering the city. The rivers and the walls should be white after heraldischen laws as symbol of the “white city”. And the sky should be blue as symbol of hope and the faith in a better future.

During an advertisement the sketch of the Belgrader of painter Ðorđe Andrejević Kun came out convincingly as a winner. On suggestion of the jury at the sketch slight changes were made. The price-crowned and officially accepted sketch of the coat of arms in color became in the “Belgrader general newspaper” No. 1/32 publish.

Because of the changed social circumstances after the Second World War the city began to forget slowly their coat of arms. Statutari solutions move between the complete absence of a regulation concerning the coat of arms, over which use of the term “emblem”, without indication of the Blasons (description) of the coat of arms, up to the regulation, which lends a representative version to the Blason, for which no appropriate documents were present.

days of Belgrade

the Belgrader parliament decided to 26. December 2002, the period between the most important events in the long history of this city of 16. and 19. To appoint April as “days of Belgrade”. The slawische name Belgrade becomes for the first time to 16. April 878 in the letter of the Pope Johannes VIII., to the Bulgarian prince Boris mentions. To 19. April 1867 became Belgrade again a free Serbian city, when the last osmanische commander Ali Risa pasha transferred the keys to the prince Mihailo Obrenović in the fortress Kalemegdan symbolically.

sport objects in Belgrade

  • Belgrade arena - the largest sport-resounds in Europe
  • Crvena Zvezda (stadium) - - Partizan sport-resounds - football stadium
  • of the fiber plastic Partizan Belgrade sports center
  • Tašmajdan resounds to football stadium of the fiber plastic red star
  • Belgrade pioneer - sport and leisure center

honors of Belgrade

Orden der Ehrenlegion
medal of the Ehrenlegion
  • Medal of the people hero: Handed over to 10. October 1974. This medal is an honor for persons, who acquired the title of a people hero.


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