Benediktiner

the Benediktiner (lat. Ordo Sancti Benedicti, OSB) are a kontemplativ aligned medal within the Roman-catholic church.

Table of contents

history

Benedikt of Nursia, founder of the Benediktiner

of the medals goes on Benedikt of Nursia (* around 480; † 547) back, 529 in the monastery with Montecassino the thoseafter it designated Regula Benedicti (Benediktsregel) wrote, be based on the Regula magic stringer of an unknown author. Substantial attitudes, which the rule requires of the monks, are obedience, silentness, stability and humility. The largest part of the daily is the common andpersonal prayer dedicated or in silence, with Meditation and mental reading one spends. Besides work relating to crafts, on which the monks should live, created necessary reconciliation. The routine of the day of the monks arranged by the service (Opus Dei), thataccording to the rule nothing to be preferred may. How Psalmen became usual in the Mönchtum gebetet, according to the rule all 150 within one week.

Benedikt created still no medal in the today's sense. It wrote its rule only for the monastery Montecassino.When the monastery 577 was destroyed by the Langobarden, the monks of the monastery came to Rome. Over Rome the rule arrived to Western Europe and spread rapidly. Most monasteries lived those in the early Middle Ages according to their ever own rules,however against the Benediktsregel leaned (mixing rule). The monasteries, which lived after the Benediktsregel, did not form a medal in the today's sense but.

The influence of the Benediktinermönche did not only extend to the Christianisierung Europe, approximately by Bonifatius (* 673; † 754), but also on the culture (fruit-growing, viticulture, schools, books). It is to be owed to a large extent the Benediktinern that the cultural inheritance of the antique ones in Western Europe remained.

Benediktinerklöster became strong in the Middle Ages into thoseRealm administration integrated, since monks could read and write, what at this time except clerics hardly someone could do.Abbotts lived like princes and lost their actual role as religious leaders of their community. Abbeys lost their independence and been subordinate the king orregional princes.

Eingang zur Abtei Cluny (Zeichnung 18. Jahrhundert oder früher)
Entrance to the abbey Cluny (design 18. Century or in former times)

the way of life of the monks of Cluny excited also criticism. Into the Benediktsregel planned equilibrium of prayer and manual work in favor of the prayer one aufgeweicht. The abbey lived on measuring scholarshipsand prayer donations. In their bloom time in Cluny daily over 200 Psalmen were gebetet. In the high Middle Ages a high estimation of Askese arose. The way of life of Cluny was not any longer rule-faithfully criticized as.

The Benediktinermönch Robert von Molesme created a reform abbey inMolesme, in which the monks faithfully after the Benediksregel and their maintenance by manual work instead of by measuring scholarships and donations earn should live. This attempt failed. A second attempt however glückte. In Cîteaux Robert developed a reform monastery, which he asAbbott led and among its successors the Alberich of Cîteaux and Stephan Harding to the nut/mother monastery of the Cistercian medal became.

In the high Middle Ages the Benediktiner was the most important medal, lost this position however, on the one hand to the Cistercians on the other hand in addition, to thosein 13. Century again developing begging medal. The Benediktiner was integrated in the Feudalsystem and the material assets economy and in its work aligned to agriculture and. The again arising cities and the developing money economy knew the Benediktiner only slowly intheir way of life integrate. And obtained the Benediktiner in local monastery schools enjoyed education. In 12. Century again arising universities, the studying implied of the instruction an non-established life and, were strange to the Benediktinern.

A first step for the formation of Kongregationen1336 Pope Benedikt XII did., that in its Summa magic stringer of unions from abbeys to provinces and the installation of province chapters ordered.

In 16. /17. Century developed from reforms within the Cistercian medal of the medals of the Trappisten, so that it from now on onefurther medal gave, which came out by reforms from the Benediktinertum.

In the course of the secularization 19 became in Germany at the beginning. Century nearly all Benediktinerklöster dissolved. In the course of the following restoration it came to reestablishments.

Today it gives in Germany34 man and 27 woman monasteries, in Austria of 15 man and 4 woman monasteries and in Switzerland of 9 man and 12 woman monasteries of the Benediktiner. The Austrian Benediktinerkongregation maintains besides the Kolleg pc. Benedikt in Salzburg, the study house for the German-languageNew generation.

Benediktinerabteien are independent in each case communities; a spreading medal organization in the actual sense does not give it. Most monasteries are united in Kongregationen, the Kongregationen again to the Benediktini Konföderation, which the Abtprimas manages. This has however no line function, but onlyrepresentative tasks.

Spiritualität

substantial characteristic, which must have after monk the Benediktsregel, is the search for God. The life in the monastery is to create for it the suitable framework. Benedikt calls the monastery school for thatService of the gentleman. Obediently in the sense projecting seed of the Hinhörens on God and humans is called as the further important characteristic of a monk in the Benediktusregel. Worth the Benediktiner puts a keeping of the right measure, the wise life on discretio,in the right center without too much or too little.

The monastery life of the Benediktiner was coined/shaped by the prayer. In the center was located not the prayer of the particular, but the prayer in the community, which et also by the slogan Oralabora (lat. Pray and work) the Benediktiner is characterized. The work stepped that apart from the service and a large part of the daily is dedicated joint choir prayer and reading. The work offers necessary reconciliation, there after Benedikt “the nothing doingthe enemy of the soul is “and secures at the same time living costs of the community. Thus the routine of the day of the monks is arranged by the service (Opus Dei), to which according to the rule nothing may be preferred, but all activities must adjustedwill, in order to hurry to the service. Apart from the daily fair the hour prayer for the Benediktiner is substantial. The rule writes eight prayer times (Vigil, Laudes, prime, third, Sext, Non, Vesper and Komplet)forwards. Within one week all 150 Psalmen of the old person of will are to be gebetet or sung. In the Middle Ages the Psalmengebet of the Benediktiner continued to extend ever. In Cluny z. B. became in the 11. Century over 200 Psalmen daily gebetet. Since thatNew meditation in the adjustment of the medal communities in the course of the second Vatikani council the prayer times were limited to seven; the prime one abolished. Today the Psalmengebet of the Benediktiner is in such a way arranged that the 150 Psalmen either within one week with sevenPrayer times daily or within two weeks (third, Sext and Non are combined into day shores) with five prayer times daily to be gebetet to be able.

schools the abbey

Ettal a well-known

human

Die Abtei Ettal betreibt ein bekanntes humanistisches Gymnsasium mit Internat
Gymnsasium operates activities of the Benediktiner [work on]with boarding school

the training activity of the Benediktinerklöster has a long tradition. Already during lifetimes of the holy Benedikt children were accepted to the monastery, in order to arrange for them education.

In the course of the centuries the Benediktinerklöster became to centers of the culture and education andpretty often the children from aristocracy houses educated likewise like the simple people. From this tradition schools with modern curricula developed. Also today many Benediktinerklöster still maintain schools and boardings school. One the most well-known Benediktinerschulen in Germany maintains thoseAbbey Ettal with a training and a boarding school tradition, which decrease/go back into the baroque time.

youth work and adult education

the monastery Disentis is very active in the area of the youth and adult education.

Beside these mechanisms put on for the durable attendanceinvite different youth meeting houses and youth education formations of the Benediktinerklöster to the attendance of their open offers. The work of many Benediktinerklöster extends today in addition, to the area of the adult education, for example even seminars for managers and entrepreneurs is organized.

fruit-growing,Welfare plants, herb gardens

a Obstgarten as well as a herb garden were important components of benediktischer monasteries.

Of it a poem already witnesses to 9 over the land life of wall Albert von Prüm from that. Century, in that the monk of the abbey Prüm the care of fruit treesdescribes.

Another Benediktinerabt, which wrote a garden book , „Hortulus “mentioned, on the Reichenau residents Walahfried Strabo (809-849 ), in which it described 23 welfare plants in verse form.

the abbott Ansegis of pc. provided 812. Wall groove on behalf emperors Karls the large one oneList of 73 useful plants as well as 16 fruit trees, which should be cultivated in each Landgut. This list stands in 70. Chapters of the Capitulare de much-read vel curtis imperialibus.

In 12. Century wrote the Benediktinerin Hildegard of being gene (1098-1179) books overWelfare plants. With it it comes to a fusion of antique knowledge, Christian faith and Germanic conception of the world. Although their books are written in Latin language, them use the popular names of their homeland for the welfare plants. Thus their books become among other thingsto a certification of the people medicine of their time.

mission

ore abbey pc. Ottilien, nut/mother monastery of the Missionsbenediktiner

in addition the Benediktinerorden operates particularly in Africa and Asia numerous mission stations, like for example Peramiho in Tanzania. The Missionsbenediktinerthe Benediktinerkongregation of pc. Ottilien (ore abbey pc. Ottilien, abbey Schweiklberg, abbey cathedral blackoh) became in 19. Century with the goal of the mission based. That a kontemplativ aligned medal operated aimed mission, was at that time a new fact.

Admitted Benediktiner

literature

  • Christian contactor, Philippa Rath (Hrsg.): The Benediktinerorden: God look for in prayer and work. Mainz: Matthias Green forest publishing house, 3. Aufl. 2003. ISBN 3-786-78506-6
  • the Benediktusregel (lat. - dt.), hrsg. on behalf the salt citizens conference of abbott. Beuron: Beuroner fine-art publishing house,1992.ISBN 3-870-71061-6

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Benediktiner - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Benediktinerklöster - pictures, videos and/or audio files



see also: Benedikt medal


 

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