|of these articles treats the Italian dictator. To further persons with the surname Mussolini see Mussolini (term clarifying).|
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Here the concrete reason, why this article on the QA sides was registered: The Biografie should be subdivided for the sake of the clarity. A critical evaluation of the person is missing. Altogether would be desirable more substance. --188.8.131.52 17:42, 17. April2006 (CEST)
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (* 29. July 1883 in Dovia di Predappio with Forlì in the Emilia Romagna; † 28. April 1945 in Giulino di Mezzegra with Dongo at the Comer lake-) fascist dictator of Italy was shot from 1922 to 1943. Mussolini was during the entire time Prime Minister and Capo del Governo, in addition occasionally among other things also Ministers of the Interior and outside. As leaders of the fascist movement and/or. the fascist regime ledit the title Duce del Fascismo.
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Mussolinis father was conscious a politically left-wing oriented Demagoge in the Italian Romagna, that his son thatFirst names of the Mexican revolution acre to Benito Juárez gave. According to developed itself Mussolini, which was by occupation a people school teacher. First it engaged starting from 1901 with the socialist Partito Socialista Italiano (psi) and ascended themselves there until 1912 into the executive committee. He became editor-in-chiefthe left-wing oriented daily paper „Avanti “(German: „Forward “). Because of desertion, calls to general strikes (e.g. against the Italian invasion in Libya 1911) and Mussolini several short detentions served similar actions.
Although Mussolini signed 1914 the anti-war communist manifesto of the psi, he based brieflywhereupon the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria (FAR - federations of the revolutionary action), which occurred for the war entrance of Italy. Thereupon Mussolini was excluded from the psi.
After the First World War, from which he returned heavily wounded, Mussolini took part inMarch 1919 in Milan at the establishment of the Fasci di Combattimento („combat federations “- Squadristen), who an authoritarian order and the revision of the Versailler contracts in favor of Italy demanded, particularly France and Great Britain some their made promises any longer not to keep wanted andso the legend „of the mutilated victory “(“Vittoria mutilata “) country-wide the round made. „The Squadren “, the paramilitärischen federations „of the Fasci “, exercised terror under Mussolinis supreme command for many years against trade unionists, left parties and unpleasant politicians in north and central Italy.
during economical zuspitzenden themselves,to social and political crisis after the First World War Mussolini with fascist militias, above all however into so-called „punitive expeditions “in rural areas and with factory occupations, went to the Squadristen, in road fights, against the trade unions, the socialists and the moderate partiesforwards. The Squadren financed itself among other things by orders for work protection of the industry. The Italian state let by the majority of medium-size conditions coming, in addition, the Fasci consisting of many students and former soldiers grant from fear of a proletarian revolution after Russian model.The numbers of members of the Fasci rose from 20.000 in the year 1920 to almost 200,000 in the year 1921. Due to unrests several governments withdrew in short consequence.
Thereupon organized Mussolini 1922 with 26.000 fascists a protest march (later for propaganda reasons „MarciaCSU Roma “- march on Rome , so also mentioned the title of the diary of Italo Balbo), to 28. Oktober nach zwei vor给的Tagen Hauptstadt eintraf。 Mussolini traveled later in the sleeping car from Milan. Probably outFear around its throne refused king Viktor Emanuel III., the state of siege to proclaim, and Mussolini appointed the Prime Minister.
Still in the parliamentary framework, then however the opposition began to provoke the first two years governed Mussolini and try itsto extend own power, which it very soon with a row of special laws and with the help of or at least the tacit approval of the king Viktor Emanuel III. also succeeded.
1924 were kidnapped and shot the socialist opposition politician Matteotti. Indicationsit points on the fact that Mussolini probably gave the order for this murder. In the consequence the opposition parties, whose influence was already limited in July 1923 by a new electoral law, took off demonstratively from the parliament. Mussolini used thoseMatteotti crisis, in order to develop the supremacy of the PNF further. At the 3. He explained his political responsibility for the assassination attempt to January 1925 in a parliament speech. Generally with this date the actual beginning of the fascist dictatorship is connected. 1926 became the opposition partiesforbidden, to the elections 1928 only certified candidates began from the PNF. Special laws created the institutional framework, among other things the Gran Consiglio del Fascismo ( the fascist grand council), who functioned as a mixed party and state organ. Thus was thoseRestructuring of the Italian state to an a party state and thus to a dictatorship abgeschlossen.1932 published Mussolini its principle writing:The spirit of fascism.
initial faced Mussolini Adolf Hitler very critically. In particular for Hitler's race theories it had mockery as an Italian only remaining - „if these theories would be correct, would have the rags the highest culture carriers to be “. In additionit felt as a guard of the independence of Austria and could 1934 after the murder of Federal Chancellor Dollfuss a division at the burner passport be deployed. Only its occupation Abessiniens and the Spanish civil war led it starting from 1936 to the approximation to National Socialist Germany.
In the same year Mussolini announced „the axle Rome Berlin “and communicated thereby an alliance contract with Adolf Hitler . 1937 joined Italy from the Völkerbund out and the Antikomintern pact between the German Reich and Japan . 1938 led Italy on suggestion thatGerman government anti-Semitic Rassengesetze. During the crisis around Czechoslovakia in the year 1938 he endeavored around switching, there it - rightfully - a war feared himself.
In April 1939 Mussolini in the hand caper occupied Albania, which the abilitiesits to a large extent badly trained and equipped armed forces already on the extreme strained. When the Germans set the prelude by their invasion in Poland to the Second World War, Mussolini behaved first cautiously. Only 1940, as German troops thoseAnd appeared safe to it the victory, explained it England and France the war reached channel coast - however the Italian advance remained already being despite repeated numerical superiority opposite the there French armed force after the conquest of some cities in the alps.Its invasion in Greece in the October of the same yearly failed pitifully because of dilettante planning, excessive self over-estimation and the decided resistance of the Greeks. The British intervened and carried support out, with whose assistance the Greek general Papagos struck back the invaders. Thousands Italian soldierscame into shank. The Italians were back-pushed always far to Albania nearly until Tirana. Only with the German invasion against Greece Mussolini could start a successful counter attack.
Since the British had to fight out an air battle around their country, Mussolini believed,that the weak colonial garrisons are fast run over in Africa and on no British support count could. But it succeeded also here to number-moderately far weaker armed forces of the Commonwealth, not only the invasion at Italian initial successes (occupation of British Somaliland)to repel to okkupieren but also all Italian possessions in East Africa. In North Africa the Italians started an attack on Egypt from Libya . But although they tried to fasten and remove their advanced position, they became with the British Gegenoffensiveto the retreat in a forced manner and in Libya destroying struck.
Already in the course of the yearly 1941 Mussolini lost the majority of its colonial territories. British airplanes a large part of the Italian Mediterranean fleet already sank and broke end of 1940 so the Italian naval supremacy. MussolinisConcept one „parallel war “had failed thereby. The therefore inevitably ever more closely becoming connection at Germany, the participation at the assault on the Soviet Union in June 1941 and the declaration of war to the USA in December sealed the military defeat of Italy and alsothe political fate „of the Duce “.
After the landing of the allied ones on Sicilies the fascist grand council Mussolini set to 25. July 1943 with simple majority decision off. Mussolini became, when he wanted to submit its resignation of the office of the Prime Minister, on instruction of King Viktor Emanuel III. arrested and at changing places interns. In the meantime marshal Pietro Badoglio negotiated with the Americans and closed with them an armistice, to 8. September 1943 was made public. German troops occupied thereupon Italy (“case axle“), Mussolini released from the Gran Sasso in the Abruzzen and would install under its guidance the puppet regime of the radical-fascist Italian social republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, also: Republic of Salò). The last mark saw he Hitler to 20. July 1944after the failed assassination attempt.
in the spring 1945 was offering no prospects the situation of Germany and its allied one. After failed negotiations with the partisans (see also: Resistenza) tried to flee Mussolini over Switzerland to Germany. It becamehowever in Dongo at the Comer lake to 27. April 1945 after a short fire fight with the German troops accompanying it by communist resistance fighters imprisoned taken and without legal proceedings as well as its loved Clara Petacci to 28. April 1945 in Giulinodi Mezzegra with Dongo shot. The corpses of Mussolini, its loving and other fascist poet acts were hung up thereafter at a gas station at the Piazzale Loreto in Milan head over, in order to prevent a mutilating up to the indiscernibility.
Until today exist in ItalyTheories, which mean the fact that Mussolini die and its companions „had “, because they carried a large part of the Italian public treasury with itself (in Italy usually as oro di Dongo designates). The largest part of the money is in the following years inthe reconstruction of the communist party of Italy (PCI) fluently. The largest part of the Italian like also the international science of history rejects this representation however, even if the financing of the communist party of Italy were doubtful in the post-war period.
Mussolini became short timelater buried, its body was kidnapped to the symbol of its power period and fascism however by fascist and buried only 1957 in the presence of its widow , Rachele Mussolini, in Predappio under the Liktorenbündel.
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations J.B. Bosworth:The Italian dictatorship. Problem of and of perspectives into the interpretation OF Mussolini and fascism, Arnold, London 1998, ISBN 0-340-67728-7
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations J. B. Bosworth: Mussolini, Arnold, London 2002, ISBN 0-340-73144-3
- Renzo De Felice: Mussolini. Edizinone multimedia in 4CD-ROM, a AUDI, Turin 2001, ISBN 88-0616-106-7
- Brunello Mantelli: Short history of Italian fascism, car brook, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-8031-2300-3
- Romano Mussolini, my father, the Duce.
- Ernst Nolte: Fascism in its epoch. Action the francaise, Italian fascism,the national socialism, Piper, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-492-20365-5
- “I know Hitler, an intolerable Schwätzer.” (After Hitler's attendance 1934)
- “if Hitler's race theories correctlywould be, the rags would have to be the highest culture carriers of Europe. “
- “The democracies are created to swallow toads.” (1938)
Web on the left of
|Commons: Benito Mussolini - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- www.dhm.de/ LeMO Biografie
- that standard RKs the Slovenes and Croats under Mussolini
- MussolinisMarch on Rome: A myth of the media (RealMedia audio of a transmission of the Bavarian broadcast, also to the Download - 18:39 min., 19.2 MT)
|NAME||Mussolini, Benito Amilcare Andrea|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Italian politicians, fascist dictator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||29. July 1883|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dovia di Predappio in the Emilia Romagna|
|DYING DATE||28. April 1945|
|DYING PLACE||Mezzegra at the Comer lake|