Mining industry

Schlägel und Eisen
pattern of a mining industry. a=Gänge, more b=Lager and seams, c=Stöcke, d=Stollen, e=Schacht, A=Nebengestein

than mining industry one designates the production of mineral raw materials from a rock body of the upper earth's crust. Frequently promoted raw materials e.g. are:

In principle also the promotion countsfrom oil and natural gas to the mining industry, although the promotion takes place not in mines, but via deep wells.

The materials which can be diminished are in stores, whose extent and situation are today usually examined by geophysical exploration. But are ofthe prehistory up to the Middle Ages many stores - z. B. Ore veins - also through would break off (visibility at the earth's surface) found.

In Germany the mining industry is in principle by the federal mountain law regulated, in other countries by appropriate regulations. The public place,that legal control is transferred, is called local mining authority, in Austria mountain captain shank.

To table of contents

dismounting technologies

it two basic techniques are differentiated:

  1. Over days: the raw materialsto open pits are promoted;see: Open mining
  2. Untertage: Promotion by lugs or pits in the so-called mountains (mining industry); see: Underground work

history

representation of the historical mining industry on the Annaberger mountain altar of 1522 (pc. Annenkirche to Anna mountain)
representation Georgius Agricolas from the year 1556

Frühste archaeological certifications of the mining industry point into the Jungsteinzeit. Copper became already around 5000 v. Chr. in the Sinai, copper, gold and door gravel around 3000 v. Chr. in Egypt diminished. Probably it gave against 3000 v. Chr. already metal pits in India and China. Around 2500 v. Chr.then also the copper promotion in Central Germany began. Iron ore became starting from approximately 800 v. Chr. in the alps diminished and hard coal is since that 9. Century in England admits.

Canary, as bspw. the Harzer, served scooters in former times as alarm installationwith oxygen deficiency.

mining industry in Germany

first written certifications on the metal dismantling in medieval Central Europe report from Böhmen in 8. Century, Goslar in 10. Century, the ore mountains in free mountain and Joachimsthal in 12. Century and inall cases predominantly in connection with silver and copper. In 15. and 16. Further erzgebirgische mountain cities developed century such as Anna mountain to centers of the German mining industry. Center 16. Century published Georgius Agricola several works crucial for the mining industry,like 1556 published De the RH metallica libri XII. Starting from the Middle Ages mountain orders can be proven, which regulated the mining industry comprehensively. Center 19. Century stepped to their place mountain laws.

Hard coal promotion in the Aachener hard coal district at Inde and wormin the Annales Rodenses of the monastery Roda (today Rolduc/NL) already for the year 1113 one testifies. Dead face of the workings was direct the basin mountain (black mountain) with the castle and settlement Rode (today Herzogenrath /D). The Eschweiler Kohl mountain is mentioned documentary 1394, that Eschweiler mine association 1838 based. In the Ruhr district hard coal becomes since that 14. Century promoted, in the middle 18. Century began to diminish one at the Saar hard coal, later also in Schlesien.

by the industrialization,particularly the 1769 steam engine were increased above all the dismantling invented by James Watt by coal and iron ore substantially and ensured so for the amassment of industry for example in the Ruhr district and in Upper Silesia. Z was used. B. Hard coalfor heating purposes, also in the form of briquette (in Germany since 1861) or as fuel for locomotives and stationary steam engines to the drive of machines in industrial companies. Later the char-beaconed steam power plants represented the backbone of the current supply, and this is also todaystill so. After raw materials could be introduced ever more favorably by the foreign country, the domestic iron and metal ore stores at meaning particularly lost, since these were to be won only with difficulty and thus expensively. Also the hard coal production is geologically conditionally difficult with us andtherefore expensively. Hard coal bills are needed however as safe energy source in the own country, in addition, in order to be able to keep our high value with the mining industry technology on the world market.

The promotion of brown coal, which represents 30% of the German power supply, as well asby potash and rock salt to large extent are continued to operate. Potash and rock salts are used among other things in domestic rural economy as fertilizers and exported also world-wide. Germany possesses the world-wide most modern and most efficient Kalibergwerke. A substantial restaurant factor places alsothe mining industry on stones and ground connection, i. D. R. in the open mining to be diminished.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Mining industry - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)