Mountain park William height
the mountain park William height, which in the city of the north Hessian large city Kassel is in the Habichtswald, is the largest mountain park in Europe and a landscape park of world validity. George Dehio, Nestor of the modernCare of monuments, says about the park:„... perhaps the Grandioseste, which dared somewhere the baroque in connection of architecture and landscape. “.
Internationally is the park admits the Herkules, the lock William height in particular by the Kasseler of Wasserspiele, and the lion castle. At 1696 began the building of the park plant, whose extension dragged on during one period of approximately 150 years. Owners were the land counts and cure princes of Hessen Kassel.
Table of contents
the mountain park William height is unique inthe history of the European garden architecture: Italian gardens of the baroque were also at mountain-slopes, in terrace form, put on, covered however never a so large area, and French baroque parks extended only in the level. The today's form of the mountain park William height, particularly inlower range, is however no baroque garden, but follows the ideas of the English landscape park.
Admits itself is the mountain park William height today in particular due to the Wasserspiele, in the park of the Herkules over the cascades toward the east and/or. Lock William heightpour, and by the complex arranged garden architecture. The park plant is an image of the European art and culture history.
that approximately 240 hectares (2.4 km ²; those are approx. 350 football fields) large mountain park, its statements of size partly toto 300 hectars hand to the westernmost quarter of Kassel, in west east direction of the easternmost mountain comb of the Habichtswalds, extend in bath William height, to that the Karl mountain (526.20 m and. NN) with the Herkules in 515 m height belongs,to to the west edge of the cultivated Kasseler of city, where itself the lock William height (about 285 m and. NN) finds.
The mountain park William height is by the way one of the easternmost components of the nature park Habichtswald.
history and building phases
toPlace of the today's mountain park was in 17. Century a wooded slope of the Habichtswaldes, more than 5 km west - and thus far outside - the Kasseler at that time city boundary. In the place of the current lock William height was in the year 1143 based of Mainz from the monastery white stone of the Augustinermönche. It existed starting from 1193 as woman monastery and after the reformation in Hessen (around 1517/1518) was dissolved. Land count Philipp I. used the remaining buildings. as hunt seat. 1606 to 1610 build land count Moritz von Hessen-Kassel there a hunting seat, which carried further the name white stone.
Commencement of construction:
The mountain park developed starting from 1696 in baroque form under land count Karl, as with the construction work of the small Herkules (also age winter box called) begunbecame. Its building place, at which still some wall and foundation remainder are present, was the hut mountain (555 m and. NN). One decided however, this mountain, which about 400 m southsoutheast the today's Herkules is, as focus of the park plant andto give up thereby as building place so that the work was stopped.
Until far in 19. Century was developed further the park plant after the current in each case conceptions. In particular two building phases were important, which coin/shape the park today:
The baroque Karl mountain off1700:
In the year 1701 with the building of the high-altitude Herkules and the pre-aged cascades one began. Land count Karl and his Italian architect Giovanni Francesco Guerniero created a water axle after the feudalen time taste of the baroque, to 3. June 1714,publicly one presented to the first Sunday of the monthly, for the first time with Wasserspielen. The overall length of this plant amounts to between the Vexierwassergrotte, which are underneath the octagon, and which Neptunbecken, which establishes long cascades at the lowest end of the 250 mbecame, approximately 320 M. Original planning to resume this building to down to the lock was not converted and the lower range, thus three-quarter the slope of the Karl mountain became to end 18. Century first only slightly transforms.
The romantic, English William heightstarting from 1785:
under land count Wilhelm IX. (late cure prince William I. from Hessen Kassel) a large change and extension phase within the range began between after its accession in the year 1785the cascades and the lock. At the same time lock white stone was torn off from Ry starting from 1786 and again built as lock William height after the klassizistischen drafts of Simon Louis you. In the garden design the ideals had themselves in the meantime from “French severity” too “EnglishNaturalness " shifts: instead of straight lines of baroque axles surprising route configuration and lookout points played the new main role. In the context of the transformation and extension measures starting from 1785 developed the buildings of Heinrich Christoph Jussow, which coin/shape the area until today. Of Jussow, the garden architectthe land count, one of the most important buildings in the mountain park comes with the lion castle (1793 to 1800). It developed close-calibrates (1785 to 1791), also Lac mentioned, and extended the Wasserspiele by buildings like the Fontänenteich (1789/90) and the devil bridge with the hell pond (1792/93). Jussow sketched also the fascinating aquaduct (1788 to 1792), the architectural quotation of a purged Roman water pipeline, from their height the water into to 34 m a valley lain belowfalls. An important role as Gestalter of park and Wasserspielen had also the “well supervisor” Karl Steinhöfer (1747 - 1829), on it decreases/goes back the today's Steinhöfer Wasserfall (in former times “case of forest water”, 1793) and the new Wasserfall. Yard gardner of these yearsDaniel August Schwarzkopf was, he expressed the goals of the park reorganization in such a way:
- Nearly the very most walks have their intention and to lead toward a certain article, which always recompence the trouble of the walk. A connoisseur and a friend of naturein the plant places will find, which their special attraction and beauty to have at any hour. One finds pleasant places the morning ago and before hot noon, those before the evening is nearly still the worst, because throughthe verge by high Gebürge westward the effect of the going down sun to be not quite felt can. All walks are made, occupied with sand and Grant guth and firm, guth are maintained and the immaculateness much beobachted, eventhe Chauseen will maintain like “garden ways”. (n quotes. Lit.: Heidelbach, 1909)
1806 to 1866:
the mountain park William height reached lion castle in the mountain park William height 1806: The troops Napoleons stood before Kassel and drove cure prince out WilliamI. Napoleon's youngest brother, the kingdom again-created by concluding and mountain park from governed Jérôme Bonaparte Westphalen. The napoleonischen years felt of some cash-learn as a crew, of many however as release. Of the chroniclers of the William height - nowin “Napoleon height” renamed - this episode is described as a time numerous public Festivitäten and delivered of Jérôme the surname “king Lustik”. Construction measures of these years were the extension of the lock - the past three single wings were connected by intermediate's buildings - as well asthe new building of a yard theatre, the later ball house, directly beside the lock.
In the year 1813, after the defeat, the fled cure prince William I. turns Napoleons. back to Kassel and into the mountain park. His successor William II., 1826 left put on the last large building of the Wasserspiele with the new Wasserfall. The Friedrich William I. following on it. sympathized in the Prussian-Austrian war of 1866 with Austria. There also the relational relations with the Prussian yard used nothing more: After the militaryVictory of Prussia was arrested these and the centuries lasting history of the ruling family of Hessen Kassel, the owners of the mountain park, was final.
1866 to 1918:
Kassel was finally terminated Prussian province capital and the development mountain park William height thereby. The lock William height became 1870 briefly the state prison of the new German one of Reich: The emperor Napoleon III. who was subject in the French-German war. William height was as a prisoner in the lock.
Starting from 1899 the German emperor Wilhelm used II.Lock William height as annual summer residence. Lock and park formedthus in the following years again an action place of the European policy.1918, after the defeat in the 1. World war, organized and led Paul von Hindenburg of an auxiliary building of the lock the retreat and the Demobilisierung of the German troops andthus finally also the end of the monarchy in Germany.
In 20. Century took place no contemporary removals or extensions of the actual park plant. Konservatorische measures took place excluding, which the existing substance 18. and 19. Century to retain are.Additionally it came to buildings of infrastructures in the form of roads and parking lots the one problematic impairment of the mountain park represents. Thus today partly more than 6 meters broad, GET ores side streets lead themselves by the core ranges of the park, hardly with of Schwarzkopf “gardenBecause of " (s.o.) to agree leave.
Momentarily on the part of the federal state government from Hessen Umbaupläne for the museums in Kassel are advanced, in order to increase their visitor attractiveness. Of it is partially also the mountain park concerned, whereby also since 1986 existing the application to World cultural heritage to be carried is.
the size of the mountain park, the complex Topografie, the expanded Wegenetz and the influence of weatherand seasons lead to the fact that with each stay new impressions and views to park visitors of many years can be offered. The complex arranged landscape of the park consists those of many loosened up green areas and forest sections flowing into the tree existence of the surrounding Habichtswalds overgo. Particularly within the upper, western range the park is not clearly defined.
the infrastructure of the park covers mainly walking and moving ways. Beside the side streets already mentioned, which lead by the mountain park, can as partthe baroque total conception mountain park William height also more William-highly the avenue to be regarded. It was put on as approximately 4.5 km for a long time, completely straight running east west axle by the outskirts of a town at that time of Kassel to the lock William height and concomitantly in adjustment to the mountain park and Herkules. A furtherPart this conception is the lawn avenue, which leads directly from the park toward the north to the lock Wilhelmsthal in the municipality Calden.
between the Herkules (515 m location height; on with 526,20 the m and. NNsome more higher summits Karl mountain), which was established to Herkules in the highest place of the view axle lock William height -, and which lock William height (location height about 285 m and. NN), which in the lower park-hurry stands, are approximately 230 mDifference in height. To down to the western end that more William-highly avenue corner Mulangstrasse (231 m and. NN), where the mountain park begins about, are this even 284 m difference in height.
The hut mountain (555 m and. NN), on itself the wall and foundation remainders of the Small Herkules (also age winter box called) finds, represents the highest place of the mountain comb; its second highest place is the mountain eleven-beeches (551.30 m), itself also direct within the Habichtswalds however probably the something outside of the mountain park on the forest-rich borderto the quarter Harleshausen finds.
The difference in height evenly specified is directly experiencable for the park visitor: At the Herkules it is usually somewhat cool and often also windier, than to deep and more protected lying lock. The Topografie forms in addition, in thatVegetation off: Above, at the Karl mountain the planting works meagerly, almost monotonously, coniferous trees outweighs. Downward the number of the tree species increases, until the vegetation to close-calibrate (Lac), which again somewhat more deeply than the lock lies, variously andnearly tropical works.
the emphasis of the planting in the mountain park William height form fewer flowers than rather wood, thus bushes and above all trees. Nearly already an exception form the rose collection on in the Lac the lain Rose island. The island was completed 1795 and the bead of the white stone of 1795, bred there, is considered as the first rose breeding of Germany.
the dominating role of the trees and bushes goes already on late 18. Centuryback, when the park was transformed after the model of the English landscape park. Many differently tree species from different countries of origin to plant and concomitantly collect was a time feature, which rose from the arising naturkundlichem interest.1777 was counted already 329 kinds,of it 128 from North America. A listing of 1785 states then already 431 kinds. The first wood from strange continents came predominantly from the North American west coast. At the beginning 19. Century increases also from the American Pacific coast and starting from center19. Century from Asia. Until today the various tree existence from all continents coins/shapes the park, even if those are most of it new cultivations. About 500 different wood of the mountain park is nummeriert and in a dendrologischen leader seized (see Lit.:Hoffmann and Mielke, 1994).
an important element in the mountain park William height is the water. One meets it in the form of calm Wasserbecken or apparently natural lakes (thus ponds artificially put on), as brook run and as Wasserfall.Particularly in the centerline of the park (Herkules lock) water is always present, visible and often also gushing and gargling audibly.
constant flows the water the mountain-slope down there, at the lock past, direction close-calibrates (Lac). Owners and architectsit let ensure that when desired - for the Wasserspiele - beside that normally it hinabplätschernden itself water also enormous quantities the slope down pour can. But becomes rain and/or on the heights of the Habichtswalds over a ditch system. Oberflächenwasser in storage basinscollected; in addition the Vorwerk Sichelbach (also Sichelbachteich called) counts itself , under otherswith 6.300 m ² surface, 7 m depth and 40,000 m ³ capacity with the property Sichelbach 1,065 m (air line) west the Herkules ′ find. This water, throughunderground lugs to the Herkules, happened on its way the mountain down, in a complex choreography a set of simply for this purpose is led established buildings. The new Wasserfall is not from these after damages in the Second World Waragain merged into the expiration. Besides the Steinhöfer Wasserfall is reorganized at present (2005) and “taped” therefore only once in the month.
These Wasserspiele became in the course of the establishment of the Herkules starting from 1701 and the extensions starting from 1785over a highly detailed thought out system put on. Thereby about 1200 cubic meters water pour by the mountain park to down to the lock William height over cascades, channels and other buildings in the course of approximately one hour. The Wasserspiele are still based up, exclusively function to the centuries-old technology with the natural downward gradient and get along therefore completely without pumps. Two different water routes, which serves manually, exist and/or to be opened, to which six to seven persons are necessary. At the individual places that needsWater about 10 minutes, in order to pass these completely. The expiration is in such a way conceived that the visitors can accompany the water and its run from top to bottom and regard all individual stations:
Starting point of the Wasserspiele is the Herkulesunder that the upper water theatre with the Vexierwassergrotte is. Hufeisenförmig enclose two underground water stairs the Grottenanlage fed of the Vorwerk Sichelbach. If höfisches life on the Karl mountain took place, then here, where formerly magnificently decorated Grotten, spielerische Fontänen and thoseany longer received water organ for Kurzweil did not provide. One level more deeply one achieves the lower water theatre with the giant head basin. The stone head of the giant Enkelados speit its Bezwinger Herkules 12 m a high against Wasserfontäne. The scene becomes from twofurther mythologischen figures flanks, which blow on their horns propelled by water pressure.
At the giant head basin begin the actual cascades, which lead 350,000 litres water on 250 m length and 9 m broad downhill to the Neptunbecken. Achieve the Wassermassen the last stagethe baroque Wasserspiele, the statue sea God of the Neptun in their Grotte behind a Wasservorhang disappears.
The next stations form the Steinhöfer Wasserfall and the devil bridge, more exactly the Wasserfall, under it into that Hell pond pours. Whereupon the fall of the Wassermassen of the aquaduct , 34 m follows itself deeply into the valley following to it. The large Fontäne, in the Fontänenteich at the lock William height , marks the point of conclusion those likewise only by natural water pressure ofover 8 bar is produced and up to 52 m height ascends. From the Herkules to the Fontänenteich (approx. 290 m and. NN), that itself west and/or. above the lock, the water finds 225 m difference in height put back.
This pondthe water at the south end leaves, of where it south past at the lock in close-calibrate (Lac; 260 m and. NN) flows. Over its expiration the water leaves gradually the mountain park and reaches along the Wilhlemshöher avenue and forwardsthe building LG0 suppl. road partly underground running in the local district voter living, which belongs to bath William height, the Drusel, a Fulda - supply.
today find from the 1. May up to the 3. October on each Wednesday, Sunday as well as at holidays in such a way specified Wasserspiele instead of (originally and partly also today again than hydraulic architectures designates). Beginning is at 14.30 o'clock at the foot of the Herkules. Each first Saturday in the month (June until Septembers) in the evening the “lit Wasserspiele” take place, at those the individual places coloredare lit up.
The meeting attracts - in particular in good weather in the high summer and Sundays - partly up to several thousand visitors. Who prefers a calmer atmosphere, the Wednesday date and one are rather “unfavorable” weather conditions recommended to that.
lit up Wasserspiele - Herkules with cascades
buildings in the mountain park
lock William height:
germ cell of the entire mountain park is the lock William height (285 m and. NN), that on the easternmost and lowest place of the view axle Lock William height - Herkules stands. At the place earlier monastery white stone of the Augustinermönche land count Moritz von Hessen-Kassel let build 1606 to 1610 a hunting seat, from which from 1786 and 1798 the lock William height developed. Nowadays it contains under othersthe picture gallery age master.
- See in addition the scientific paper lock William height
On the westernmost and high-altitude place of the view axle lock William height - Herkules stands the Herkules established from 1701 to 1717 (515 m and. NN). The building (71 mhighly) is considered as the landmark of Kassel and stands - already from a distance visibly - on the easternmost mountain comb of the Habichtswalds. Those the Herkules pre-aged cascades are the starting point of the numerously visited Kasseler of Wasserspiele.
- See in addition the scientific paper Herkules
in the southern part of the mountain park and thus south the view axle lock William height - Herkules stands the lion castle (350 m and. NN). It developed after drafts of Heinrich Christoph Jussow in the time of 1793 to 1800. The lion castle is historisierend the imitation of a medieval English Ritterburg and, romantically, consciously as purging partial ruin was built.
- See in addition the scientific paper lion castle
- the ball house is directly north the lock William height. King Jérôme ofWestphalia, the youngest brother Napoleon, had built it from 1809 to 1810 as yard theatres of Leo of Klenze. The free standing, klassizistische building was platziert beside the north wing of the lock and is an early work of the later famous architect. Between 1828 and 1830 became it under cure prince William II. converted from Hessen Kassel from Johann Conrad bromine ice into a ballroom. It was used less by the yard than by the opposite hotel.
- the large greenhouse stands directly west the ball house.It is one of the first steel glass constructions at all and 1822 after plans by bromine ice was established. Owner was cure prince William II. In its inside exotic plants are not only to be admired.
The architectural element of the Staffage has in the history of arta long tradition. But particularly in the garden architecture of the baroque it receives a central function and takes a mediator position between architecture and nature.
In the mountain park numerous small Staffagen, to which no direct function can be assigned, is William height.They lie usually somewhat off the view axle lock William height - Herkules (in the following park centerline called), at the border to the ungestalteten forest. Each Staffage is singular, quotes the art and culture history and marks a special lookout point in the park landscape. Today inPark received Staffagen II. partly still originate from the reign from land count Friedrich., in the time between 1760 and 1785 were thus established and integrated in the years starting from 1785 into the extensive “English” reorganization.
- The Cestius pyramid becamearound 1775 south establishes to the park centerline and something above the Fontänenteiches. The building possesses a square surface area of approx. 6 m side length. It is shared to the tomb of the Cajus Cestius in Rome.
- The tomb of the Virgil developed for instance to the sameTime only somewhat north the park centerline. The building on square sketch with approx. Publius Vergilius Maro is designated 5 m side length and a put on column stump and feels its tomb with Neapel after after the Roman poet.
- The Eremitage of the Sokrates, which developed around 1780, is a wood hut, whose front front and trusting communication control unit realm with bark are disguised. The hut became in 19. Century replaces. The building is at the edge of forest southeast the devil bridge, the view flight corridor to its feet makes possible onewidens remote view. With this, to the Greek philosopher Sokrates 18 existed to dedicated buildings to end. Century also pavilions for example at Heraklit, Archimedes and Demokrit reminded. The buildings were original accessible and on the inside were wax or gypsum figuresthe antique scholarly.
- The “Roman” Merkur temple, which refers Merkur to the God, was built from 1782 to 1783. It is consisting an open circular building with 6 m diameters, of 8 columns. Its model is the temple of the Venusin the English landscape park Stowe. In 2. World war lost the temple its dome as well as the Merkurstatue.
- The Plutogrotte developed between 1760 and 1785 directly in the park centerline. Name giver of the building is the Roman God Pluto. The windows were originaland doors multicolored vitreous and on the inside were represented from gypsum mythologische scenes of having a horror and the underworld.
- The “Chinese village” Mou long, whose remnants at the southeast edge of the mountain park stand on the slope above the Lac, takes a probe role. If the ensemble was built starting from 1781 under land count Friedrich II., and develops further from land count Wilhelm IX. renews. (Cure prince William I.). on the one hand a contemporary Chinoiserie, the “village” was Mou long and its “inhabitants” served however also agricultural purposes.
in addition numerous sculptures, for example from the Greek mythology, platzierte in the park, came which are received to no more today. The multicolored mix from most different architectural styles and epochs affects thattoday's regarding by any means befremdlich, to the contemporaries at that time that was not different, the Sammelsurium of the land count could quite than “avant-garde” applying. The irritation still is over one hundred years later present, if Paul Heidelbach 1909 in its standard work the history of the William height writes:
- ... The style-adverse of such an anachronism forced itself all the more, than the particulars, after different epochs and peoples belonging Monumente to its style upon often at the same time in the eye fell. Of stylistic doubts straight liked free desire transducerthis different presentations mean a ergötzliche eye pasture, it, like the contemporaries to express maintained themselves, “into an agitating astonishment set”; the Ästhetiker felt itself already at that time that thereby in the viewer a mixture was waked by conceptions, those the eye absent-minded andat all to interconnect did not leave. Today, where a part of these creations shrank long again, other by close Buschwerk covered, as it were a world for itself forms, forces themselves upon the fantastic spielerische character of these Friedericiani new installations less unpleasantly. ... (Lit.: Heidelbach, 1909)
rockhit a corner
in the context of the transformation under his successor land count Wilhelm IX. (Cure prince William I.) in the years starting from 1785 numerous disappearedIn addition, Staffagen, it were added new ones:
- That rockhit a corner developed 1794/1795 underneath the cascades after the plans of Heinrich Christoph Jussow. Divided in Vestibül, clothes and cabinet it served as resting and Erfrischungsraum.
- Those resounds the Sokrates between 1813 and 1816 by Jussow one built. It is a semicircular Säulenhalle on the Bowlinggreen above the lock.
- The Jussowtempel was built directly 1817 /1818 at the Fontänenteich. The temple with open column handling and closed interior finds its modellikewise in the English Stowe. Also this building is from Jussow.
- The custodian house at the cascades, which was built 1810 at the Neptunbecken underneath the cascades, plays a special role. It developed under the regency king Jérômes. Jussow has itself hereclearly of French revolution architecture to inspire leave. The building serves today as frightening banal tourist cafe.
mountain park, city and citizen
the feudale landgräfliche park are in the meantime in the possession of the country Hessen and for everyone at any time freely accessible. ThoseSituation mountain park William height - in former times far forwards, today at the edge of the city - leads however to the fact that the area until today is no urban “citizen park”: The visitors of the park are there consciously, specially traveled and crossit not only coincidentally. After break-down of the darkness the park unlighted in the core zones (only lock and Herkules illuminated) is usually deserted.
For the city Kassel forms the mountain park with lock and Herkules an important object of interest, thosein the context their tourism marketing is put out. The area lures interested visitors themselves at historical garden architecture from the asiatic area to the slope of the Habichtswaldes. The park does not address however also humans, for those its art and culture-historical meaning a roleplays; its water surfaces and watercourses fascinate even children.
The mountain park William height forms today the window blind for most different meetings and activities: The German Federal Armed Forces already used the park for public recruit vows. Artist for exhibitions, like the nocturnal light (e) ways between 2002 and 2005. In addition, individual citizens are suitable the area - often unofficial - on: During some, drums others use the park for medieval games of roles regularly at the summer full moon nights. As traditional winter institution the ice skate running on that is considered to Lac frozen overand the Rodeln at the lock slope.
journey and traffic
the park can be attained most simply with the ÖPNV. In mountain-parked no motor traffic is to take place, it gives however parking lots at the lion castle and at the cascade restaurant. Alone throughthe enormous difference in height is it most meaningfully by bus to the Herkules to be driven and itself the park downhill too erwandern. Underneath the lock one reaches again the streetcar. A bus connects across the park the surrounding streetcar act ions. Problems preparethe former Parkwege tulip avenue and Mulangstrasse, which are dedicated for public traffic, and so the peace in the park lastingly disturb. The lease with the tourist cafe cascade restaurant in the custodian house permitted over the so-called local road move motor traffic within the core range of the park.The local road was gradated meanwhile from the circle road to the local road, the conversion according to the hessian road law and thus the collection is in preparation.
- Paul Heidelbach, the history of the William height. Klinkhardt & Biermann, Leipzig, 1909
- facsimile,Hrsg: Dieter Carl, Vellmar 2005
- Marianne Bolbach, history and social meaning of the mountain park William height, Kassel, 1988
- Alfreds Hoffmann and Herrmann Mielke, Kassel - lock park William height - trees and bushes, administration of the national locks and gardens, bath Homburg forwardsthe height, 1994 (3. revised Aufl.)
- Helmut Sander, “the Herkules building in Kassel William height”, publishing house Thiele & black, Kassel, 1981
- Bernd Modrow, Claudia Gröschel: Fürstliches pleasure. 400 years garden culture in Hessen. Publishing house fast + Steiner, Regensburg 2002, ISBN 3-7954-1487-3
Web on the left of
Commons: Mountain park William height - pictures, videos and/or audio files
- administration of the national locks and gardens Hessen, “Kassel - lock and lock park William height”
opening times of the buildings and listing of current special meetings
- Friedrich Forssman, “Kassel William height” Chinese village “and Villenkolonie Mulang ", last change: 30.June 2005
description of the plant and in particular the close environment with many historical photographs
coordinates: 51° 19 ' N, 9° 24 ' O
This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.
- administration of the national locks and gardens Hessen, “Kassel - lock and lock park William height”