Berlin city locks
citizen of Berlin the city lock was later the main residence (winter residence) of the Mark counts and cure princes of Brandenburg, the kings in and/or. of Prussia and that German emperor of the German Reich. It stood on the Spreeinsel in Berlin center.
After the November revolution of 1918 the lock functioned as museum and of numerous other tenants was used, so for instance from the emperor William company, psychological Institutthe Friedrich William university to Berlin or the emergency community of the German science. In the Second World War the lock was damaged heavily, could be used however still as place of event. Of 7. September up to 30. December 1950 became it on go-eats of Walter Ulbricht blown up.
Table of contents
1900the building 1443 by cure prince Friedrich II., called iron tooth. In the place of the later Schlüterhofes and yard III stood first a castle, which should check for the Spreeinsel crossing trade route. 1465 were inserted the important lategothical Erasmuskapelle.Cure prince Joachim II. the latemedieval castle let a splendourful and important Renaissance - residence clear away to a large extent and establish in their place by the building masters Caspar Theiss and Kunz multicolored shoe after the model of the lock in gate gau.
under cure prince Johann George originated in toward end 16. Century by the master of building of yards Rochus count to Lynar of the west wings and yard conclusion, as well as those yard pharmacy following north. Cure prince Friedrich William, the large cure prince, left the lock rather purged after the dreissigjährigen warprepare again. In the end of its rule important interiors developed like the ball chamber or the Braunschweigi gallery. The latter was built in the Galerietrakt implemented by Johann Arnold Nering to the Spree.
Under cure prince Friedrich IIITH, starting from 1701 king Friedrich I.into Prussia, it came to the development of the lock to the great king residence. Starting from 1699 Andreas Schlüter removed the lock for the most important building of everyday of the Protestant baroque. There the Münzturm at the northwest corner of the lock for static reasons, sketched by it, threadbarewill had, Schlüter became 1706 as a master of building of yards dishonorably to dismiss, remained however as a yard sculptor in the office. Schlüters post took over its competitor Johann Eosander of Goethe, who submitted a great extension plan for the lock. In a modified form this plan should is implemented, what however by death Friedrichs I. happened only insufficiently. Because his successor king Friedrich William I., the soldier king, dismissed most artists made of thriftiness and in view of the actually ruined finances of the state and left the lock by thatcomplete less meaning pupil Schlüters, Martin Heinrich Böhme.
With exception of the domed structure by Friedrich August Stüler and Albert Dietrich Schadow after a draft of Karl Friedrich Schinkel only smaller changes at the external's building took place. The inside experienced to lastnumerous, partially artistically important changes. The decorative work is worth mentioning by George Wenzeslaus of Knobelsdorff, Carl von Gontard, Carl God hard long Hans, Friedrich William of Erdmannsdorff and Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
the lock becameduring the Second World War at the 3. February as well as to 24. February 1945 with a large-scale attack on Berlin destroys to a large extent and burned out. With remained outside walls and basic walls receive, to the stairways as well as unite areas in the wing with the white one Hall was destroyed it to a grandiosen ruin, less than the lock Charlottenburg in the west of the city. Parts of lock, under it the white hall, were repaired and used from 1945 to beginning of 1950 provisional for exhibition purposes. A possible reconstruction came thoseGuidance of the GDR, which regarded the lock as symbol „ of the Prussian absolutism “, by its breakup before. This became between that 7. September and that 30. December 1950 accomplished.
Following the breakup first the Marx angel place becameas large marching-up place with a grandstand for the government of the GDR to the 1. May 1951 finished. In place of the grandstand the palace of the republic was built from 1973 to 1976. At the south side of the place 1964 the Council of State building were finished. Inthe Council of State building was integrated thereby the portal IV of the lock, of out to 9. November 1918 Karl dear farmhand „the socialist republic had proclaimed “.
as well as the surrounding buildings resulted inthe center of Berlin a singular architectural ensemble. Although citizen of Berlin remained always unfinished the lock in the sense of planning Schlüters and Eosanders, it is as one of the Hauptwerke of the Protestant building of everyday of the baroque of paramount importance for the history of art. On firstPlace are to be called thereby the work Schlüters, which steps as one of the large genius of the baroque architecture and plastics kongenial at Berninis side. Eosanders contribution - in particular its not implemented extension draft - are also important, however falls itsCreate in its stylistic execution opposite Schlüter clearly off. With the klassizistischen interior arrangements about hundred years result again to sequences of space, which belong in their epoch to qualitative maximum performances after Schlüter from different artists. Altogether placed citizen of Berlin the lock in the European contexta building of residences all first rank.
in the citizen of Berlin city lock is to have driven also the white Mrs. their nuisance who can be regarded as „house ghost “the Hohenzollern. It is regularly three days before the death of a member thatHohenzollernfamilie announced.
She was seen for the first time 1628, later again in the years 1840 and 1850. After statement of the Schlosskastellanin at that time and later directress of the lock Charlottenburg, Margarete bold, it is to 31. January 1945, three days beforethe bombardment of the lock a last mark gespukt.
already immediately afterthe war destruction a reconstruction of the lock had been demanded, unanimously cultural committees of Berlin for it had expressed themselves, likewise the Academy of Sciences and the office for monument.
The politically motivated outline could not prevent that itself also in the following years voicesfor a reconstruction raised. Walter Ulbricht gave way finally and promised publicly to develop with better economic situation the lock, however at another place, again.
The building of the palace of the republic made a reconstruction at the place for the time being stillin addition, more improbably, cause for Erich was Honecker to define the breakup of the lock publicly than errors. Again on the part of individual persons from east such as west a reconstruction was demanded and considered by the GDR guidance at least (thatReconstruction of historical buildings also after complete destruction had not already taken place in other socialist states such as Poland or the USSR and therefore anything unusual). Concrete planning in addition was not seized however, already alone due to the precarious situation of the GDR finances of the state.
After that Turn gave it a new discussion in Berlin whether the lock should be again-established. With it one did not only begin to today continuous public debate around the building of locks, but also around handling and the self understanding of the Germans with its reunitedState and its history. In the year 1992 two private initiatives, the society citizen of Berlin lock registered association were based. and the promotion association citizen of Berlin lock registered association. around that Hamburg buyer William of Boddien. The promotion association organized in the years 1993/1994for one and a half years a colored front installation of the lock. It was set up painted by the studios Catherine Feff, Paris and at the original location on a scale 1:1 with the world largest space stand. The installation was privately financed gesponsert over donations and among other thingsof Thyssen Hünnebeck. Thus the lock returned as simulation to its place, in order to call the citizens of Berlin the necessity for its reconstruction to the memory. This was lasting the first visible, to indications of the initiative of a reconstruction, working today. Upthis way came the lock also strengthened into the interest of medium. In the year 2001 was finally based the city lock Berlin initiative, which uses itself for a completely private financing of the lock new building.
The proponents of the reconstruction of the city lock have among other things the following arguments:
- The gap of the historical townscape at the place was closed, as well as restored the architecture ensemble of the center of Berlin, with which around the lock groups itself all buildings to the lock referred.
- A lock new building has, like also the historical city lockas center of the history of Berlin, Germany and also Prussia, identity-creative function.
- By the new building the historical center of Berlin would receive a new animating point of reference.
- The reconstruction of the citizens of Berlin Kommandantur as well as the woman church in Dresden is a proof for it,that also a lock new building is feasible.
On the other hand the opponents of the reconstruction state the among other things following:
- An again-established building of a past time epoch would be a refusal to the architecture of the present.
- There it itself among other things around a symbol of the German empire acts, would be a reconstruction an undemocratic, anti-modernistic political signal.
- A reconstruction of the lock the palace of the republic must yield, which is at least just as historically important.
- The present budgetary situation both Berlin and the Federal Republic forbids such large-scale projectswith indefinite economic use.
- It would not be today no longer possible at all to let more than a historisierende front of a so complex building again arise because no original plans were more present, the abilities art-relating to crafts available would be etc.
The discussion becomeson both sides quite sharply and polarize-mix led, which makes once clear again that it concerns more here than around a bare building, but around setting political and cultural symbols.
decision for the reconstruction
of the citizens of Berlin in most inquiries for the lock and in the remaining inquiries at least rather for the lock as for the palace of the republic, in addition many had decided lock as installation (tarpaulins printed on)prominent personalities from culture, politics and also sport for the lock had expressed, expressed themselves many architects and some monument conservators critically in relation to a reconstruction.
The commission historical center Berlin used from Federal Government and citizen of Berlin senate in the year 2000 underthe line of the former Viennese of housing town councillor Dr. Hannes Swoboda suggested 2002 with a majority from 8 to 7 voices that a new building in the Cuba door of the lock on the original location from aesthetic as urbanen criteria in place of the one which can be torn offPalace of the republic to be established must. One suggested the moreover that this must have, in order to rehabilitate the historical townscape meaningfully at least the three baroque fronts and the Schlüterhof.
The commission put two architectural alternatives for a land development of the lock placeforwards: A competition for a new building, in any case Cuba doors of the lock to take up and in its framework must be made possible just as a reconstruction of the lock can („let Schlüter in the competition go through “) or alternatively in addition a decision to the directReconstruction of the exterior of lock, with at least the three controlling baroque fronts and the famous smaller lock yard designated after Schlüter.
In July 2002 the Bundestag with one tuned nearly 2/3 majority for the variant 2, thus the direct reconstruction of the exterior of lock and thatHumboldt forum too. The special at this tuning lay in the abolition of the party discipline and the arranged, namentlichen tuning, i.e. presence obligation for the delegates. Therefore 589 delegates co-ordinated 383 directly on the project, of it for the lock.
Thus was democratically more legitimized and a finally calm resolution on the table. It did not have however yet the character of a final building decision, since this comes only with the grant of the financial means in the context of the household to the competitions. Here playsthe critical budgetary situation of the federation an important role. The debate around a reconstruction was terminated thereby however, even then not, when the Bundestag confirmed its resolution in November 2003 nearly unanimously.
In August 2005 the Federal Government of the public placedExcerpts (the entire study is further secret!) a so-called. Feasibility study forwards, according to which the implementation of the building project will be allegedly (publicly private Partnership) possible. The competitions necessary for it are to be written out now.
use concept - recommendationwas recommended
to the expert commission as use concept for the complex to establish the Humboldt forum in the lock. For this the collections of the non-European art of the donation Prussian culture possession from Dahlem are to be shifted into the lock and together with the collections of the EuropeanArt on the museum island a place of the world culture form. This conception with the establishment of the science museum (among other things the medical collection Rudolf Virchows from the famous collections of the Humboldt university ) and library of the land a fitting the concept is supplementedand Zentralbibliothek Berlin as well as the state library to Berlin. A Agora meeting center mentioned should be dedicated the dialogue of the cultures of the world and thus the solution of many future questions of mankind in the age of the globalization. Beyond that the Agora becomes thatCenter of the social life of the German capital its.
The new lock is not to develop thus (only) „for the lock “, but take over concrete tasks. In this way is to be tied to the scientific-cultural past of the place, at itself the state(Lock), church (cathedral) and science (museums) unite.
Whether the Humboldt forum well in the lock to insert does not leave itself is clarified yet. A again built Humboldt forum beside the lock suggests therefore the city lock Berlin initiative. (Articles in addition: )
due to the financial situation of the federation is raised a loud demand after commencement of construction neither from government nor from opposition side. A first performance is probable in the Federal Budget 2007. Up to then the promotion association citizen of Berlin lock registered association leaves.already at own expense structural drawings, samples and studies of the building details make, in order up to the first cut of the spade necessary pre-working for the reconstruction of the fronts to have carried out. The outline of the palace of the republic should be terminated to beginning 2007. After(with large majority took place) a confirmation by repeated Bundestag resolution of 19. January 2006 is confirmed the beginning of the demolition works of the Federal Government and the citizen of Berlin administration of building of senates for at the end of January 2006, culture senator Thomas Flierl would like to however still prevent this. There thatCommencement of construction for the reconstruction of the lock is located not yet firmly, took place in the summer 2005 in the context of a cultural intermediate use among other things an exhibition in the palace of the republic with alternative organization suggestions for the future use of the lock place. For an intermediate use of theArea after execution of the abort measures one discusses the application of a lawn.
Until today not clearly are the extents of the reconstruction of the lock. Were specified only the reconstruction of the north, the west and south facade as well as the Schlüterhofs, to one of the two lock yards.As probable a reconstruction of the dome over the west portal is considered, to that at least simple installation of the most important areas of the lock and the art-historically meaning Schlüter stairway. The reconstruction of the east front from the Renaissance time and the pharmacy wing, that is still disputed itselfat the north side to the cathedral attaches. In addition with the confirmation of the use concept Humboldt forum of each predominantly commercial use of the lock a clear refusal was given.
According to statement of the promotion association citizen of Berlin lock the commencement of construction is indicated as 2008/2009, the completion becomesbefore 2015 do not take place. The association aligned itself with all measures contentwise to the adopted concept.
The association would like to apply extra costs of the lock fronts in relation to a modern building at a value of 80 million euro over a donation collection, it receivedfor this the confirmation of the non-profit character. At least he already collected a several times millionfold amount according to own statement since at the beginning of of 2004. Starting from 2005 different citizens of Berlin recruit large-scale enterprises for donations. The citizens of Berlin of transporting enterprises (Federal Constitutional Court) leave some vehicles advertisement for the reconstruction of the lockdrive. The barrier AG plakatiert country widely for the reconstruction. 29% the citizen of Berlin should be ready after a representative inquiry of the Emnid institute from the spring 2005 to donate for the reconstruction of the lock. In the spring the promotion association opened 2005 generouslyarranged info. center reconstruction citizen of Berlin lock at the Hausvogteiplatz 3 in Berlin center, near the gendarme market. A current progress report the transmission brought WHICH! of RBB. For the PC you need the material Player around the contribution to see. http://www.rbb-online.de/_/fernsehen/magazine/beitrag_jsp/key=rbb_beitrag_3323248
for one excluding privateFinancing of the project on basis of a corporation, engages itself since 2001 the city lock Berlin initiative. From the citizens' initiative (http://www.schloss-pur.de) 2002 a non-profit association of same name (http://www.stadtschloss-berlin.org) were created.
The association city lock Berlin initiative registered association.sits downfor the fact that in the city center of Berlin the new city lock Berlin is established following the historical dimensions (outside Cuba door) and with fronts in the baroque style including the Renaissance wing and the pharmacist wing in such a way specified using private capital.Also art articles and culture treasures, in particular KPM archives are to be made accessible in the city lock Berlin of a broad public. For this the association recruits by actions and publications including architectural drawings, exhibitions and lectures.
- William of Boddien, Helmut Engel (Hrsg.): The citizens of Berlin lock debate. For and against. Berlin publishing house pointed, Berlin 2000 ISBN 3-8305-0106-4
- Albert Geyer: The history of the lock to Berlin, Nicolai publishing house, Berlin.Das standard work from the feather/spring of the last imperial master of building of locks in 2 volumes, with book of pictures. 2. Edition ISBN 3-87584-110-7
- Goerd Peschken, Lieselotte Wiesinger: The royal lock to Berlin, 3-bändige expenditure to the Schlüterbau, German fine-art publishing house Berlin/Munich ISBN 3-422-06342-0
- Eberhard Cyran: The lock to the Spree. The history of a building and a dynasty. 6. Edition. Arani, Berlin1995 ISBN 3-7605-8502-7
- promotion association citizen of Berlin lock /Kristin celebrate-eat (Hrsg.): The lock? An exhibition over the center of Berlin. Editorship: Kristin celebrate-eat and William of Boddien. Ernst, Berlin 1993 ISBN 3-433-02431-6 (exhibition catalog)
- Guido Hinterkeuser: Citizens of Berlin the lock. The change by AndreasSchlüter. Settler, Berlin 2003 ISBN 3-88680-792-4
- Goerd Peschken, Hans Werner Klünner: Citizens of Berlin the lock. Classical Berlin. 4. Edition. Propyläen, Berlin 1998 ISBN 3-549-06652-X
- Lieselotte Wiesinger: Citizens of Berlin the lock. From the kurfürstlichen residence to the king lock. Scientific book company, Darmstadt1989 ISBN of 3-534-09234-1
- citizens of Berlin of special edition, 36-seitige, updated information newspaper of the promotion association citizen of Berlin lock again and again. Edition in the meantime 1.2 million. To refer free of charge over www.berliner-schloss.de
Web on the left of
|Commons: Berlin city locks - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- promotion association citizen of Berlin lock registered association. with among other things Pictures
- forum townscape Berlin registered association.
- Society citizen of Berlin lock registered association.
- City lock Berlin initiative registered association.
- On the way to the Humboldt forum
- comment of the German institute for Urbanistik to the lock debate
- our village is to become more beautiful critical article the reconstruction
coordinates: 52° 31 ' 3 "N 13° 24 ' 10 " O