|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Berne (term clarifying).|
|Coat of arms|
|coordinates:|| 46° 57 ' n. Break. |
7° 27 ' o. L.
|Height:||542 m and. M.|
|Surface:||51,60 km ²|
|inhabitants:||127 ' 217 (31. August 2005)|
Berne (fr. Berne; ital. and guesses/advises. Berna), capital of Switzerland. At the same time principal place of the office district Berne and capital of the canton Berne. Seat of the Universal Postal Union.
Table of contents
the city Berne is put on on a promontory in a river loop of the Aare. The settlement area is surrounded by hills and larger forest areas. The old part of town and the center of the cityrise highly over the close river loop. The river separates the town centre northward, the east and the south from the external accomodation. In the north the accomodation Breitenrain and Lorraine pushes the lap waste dump to the center, in the east and in the south the church field. These are attainable over high-level bridges (Lorrainebrücke , grain house bridge , Nydeggbrücke , church field bridge as well as the Monbijoubrücke). In the west Bümpliz and Bethlehem border on the center.
(See also: Quarters of the city Berne)
around the town center Berne groupitself a multiplicity of dye municipalities (Köniz, Muri, Ostermundigen, Ittigen, Bolligen, Zollikofen), with which a dye with approx. develops for 350 ' 000 inhabitants. The old person observatory (today torn off and replaced by Institut for accurate sciences) formsthe historical center of the land surveying of Switzerland and carries Swiss national coordinates 600 ' 000/200'000.
August 2005 127 ' 217 inhabitants the city (inclusive inhabited population Dye of 350 ' 000 inhabitants), of it were 26 ' 836 or 21,1% foreign citizens. City president is Alexander Tschäppät (Social Democrat).
Still at the beginning 20. Century was characterised Berne by a strong social language arrangement: The patrizischeOberschicht spoke the elevated Patrizier Berndeutsch, the old-established citizenry the ancient city Berne German, the lower layer in the mat accomodation the so-called mat English and the again zugewanderten spoke land Berne German.
religions - 64%
Evangelist-reform denominations, Roman-catholic 27%. Berne is seat of the Christian-catholicBishop of Switzerland, and the synagog Berne is center of a Jewish municipality, which has today approximately 340 members.
after first settlements on the tightness peninsula in the La-Tène-time and the gallorömischen epoch became the city 1191 of duke Berchthold V. of tough rings based. According to a legend it called the reestablishment Berne, because it was to have killed a bear there. Berchthold built the city after a clear plan: It became on the promontory in a loopthe Aare establishes, so that she was protected in natural way on three sides. On the fourth side a wall and a military tower were established.
The protected situation made a rapid growth for the city possible toward the west: Military tower at the westernEnd was followed to 1256 the Zytgloggeturm (time bell tower), from the cage tower to 1345 and from the Christoffelturm to 1622. This stood for 1865 in the proximity of the today's main station, however was torn off. During the Dreissigjährigen war two additional protection facilities were established, thosedigging so mentioned. In this way protected area was largely enough for the development of the city to in 19. Century.
After becoming extinct the sex of the Zähringer (1218) Berne became free realm city. 1294 becameunder the pretext, Jews would have murdered a boy, would have gerädert a part of the Jewish population of Berne and the survivor remainder from the city would have driven out. The boy was admired later under the name Rudolf of Berne than martyrs.
Independently Berne became finalwith victories in the battle at the Dornbühl (1298 over Freiburg and the having citizens) and then in the Laupenkrieg (1339) over the Burgunder. In this second battle it supported of the three forest places (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden),with those it had allied itself 1323.
1353 joined Berne as figure eight place the federation of inside Swiss forest places and help so the recent confederation to a substantially extended sphere of influence. After the large fire of 1405 the reconstruction that took placebefore from wood built city in sandstone. The medieval townscape developed at that time is today kept still to a large extent unchanged.
1848 were determined Berne by the first Swiss federal Presidential Election Council to the seat of the federal authorities.
(See also: History of the canton Berne)
the transportation network of the urban transporting enterprises Berne (SVB; Marketing name BERNE-MOBILELY) Tram - lines as well as several trolley buses - and Buslinien cover 3, whereby most connect the city centre with the outlying districts and suburbs. The majority of centernear traffic is completed by Berne mobile. The bus traffic into the further dye becomesby the post office autoenterprises and taken off by the regional traffic Berne Solothurn (RBS). Since the timetable change in December 2004 Berne-mobilely the tariff group Berne Solothurn (“Libero”) followed, which over the cities Berne and Solothurn as well as the Emmental extend.
the rapid-transit railway Berne connects the city with the further dye. The rapid-transit railway net covers a number of lines, those the city with Thun, the Emmental, Biel, Solothurn, new castle, Freiburg and black castle connect. The rapid-transit railway becomes of the BLS Lötschbergbahn, which central country ( RM) and the regional traffic Berne Solothurn ( RBS) operated regional traffic.
The long-distance trains of the SBB and the BLS serve the main station of Berne, also the junction for the rapid-transit railway netis. From here the courses operate with national Destinationen (like Zurich, Basel, Luzern, Lausanne, Geneva and Brig). Also the international courses to Germany (among other things a ICE), France (TGV), Italy (among other things Pendolino) and Spain (Talgo) drive off from the main station.
Regarding the traffic volume the main station Berne (to Zurich) is the second largest station of Switzerland. Under the station is the underground last stop of the schmalspurigen RBS.
A further strange thing is lowering ELT RAM in such a way specified, which is actually an elevator, which connects the mat accomodation lain more deeply with the old part of town (cathedral platform).
fewKilometer south the city is the international airport Berne Belp.
economics and science
the city Berne are consisting one of the centers of the marketing area Espace central country, the one region, of the cantonsBerne, Solothurn, Freiburg, new castle, law, Waadt and whale-read, enclosure (approx. 2.5 millions Inhabitant and approx. 900 ' 000 jobs).
The most important industries in the marketing area Berne are
- traditional strongly are the telecommunications industry. Most well-known representatives are Swisscom (former national monopoly offerer for Telefoniedienstleistungen, todaydenationalized) and Ascom (telecommunications from elm).
- The two largest railway companies of Switzerland their head office in Berne have transportation with the Swiss federal courses (SBB) and the Berne Lötschberg Simplon course (BLS).
- Health and Pharmabranche
- an emphasis industry in Berne is the health and Pharmabranche. The most important enterprisesin this range the island hospital, Berna Biotech, is Galenica and ZLB Behring AG.
- Food branch
- from Berne comes the Chocolat Tobler AG, which 1970 with search pool of broadcasting corporations fused and today some of Kraft Foods is. The most well-knownProduct of the company, the Toblerone, is manufactured today in Berne wells. An enterprise was likewise originally Bernese moves AG (among other things Manufacturer of Ovomaltine), which has its seat since 2004 in Neuenegg.
- Public Dienstleister
- the post office, with onebroadly varied offer within the range letter and parcel post, financial services and transportation (post office car) has as the largest public Dienstleister in Switzerland its head office in Berne.
- in the city Berne are substantial parts of the administrations of confederation, cantonand city Berne settled. Thus Berne is the largest administrative centre of Switzerland.
science and education
in Berne is a multiplicity of institutes for education. Below the most important are enumerated:
- University of Berne with the university clinic “Bernese professional school
- with that Bernese
- professional school are
- written island hospital “educational university Berne about 5000 studying. The professional school consists of the following units:
- University for technology and computer science
- university for architecture, building and wood
- university for economics, administration and social one Work
- university of the arts Berne
- university for agriculture
- university for sport
- vocational schools
- of far ones is represented, as for instance a multiplicity of vocational schools
- commercial gewerblich-Industrielle vocational school Berne
- school for organization Berne
- economics and cadre school KV Berne
- vocational school for administration Berne
- BFF BERNE, occupation, -Technical and continuation school
- training workshops of the city Berne
- vocational school for care at the old person mountain
- hotel professional schools
- restaurant economics Berne
- vocational school of the Detailhandels
- further one schools
- conservatoire Berne
objects of interest
- the old part of town belonging to the world cultural heritage of the UNESCO alsotheir (continuous) summerhouse courses (arcades) and the numerous historical wells from that 16. Century (see: Bernese wells).
- Zytglogge - tower (time bell tower), first west gate (1191 - 1256) with figure play and astronomical clock.
- Cage tower, second west gate buildsfrom 1256 to 1344, until 1897 use as prison.
- City hall, gothical city hall
- Erlacherhof and Béatrice of Wattenwyl house, city palace at the June core lane
- city hall to the exterior conditions
- grain house with the magnificent grain house cellar
- bear ditch. Enclosure with the coat of arms animal of the city.
- German Parliament Buildings with federal place
- cantonal bank building at the federal place
- rose garden, flower park with beautiful outlook on the old part of town.
- Aare (Marzilibad)
- Tierpark Dählhölzli
- Untertorbrücke and Ländtetor, early entrances to the city Berne.
- Orangerie Elfenau
- Marzilibahn, shortest endless rope haulage system of Europe
- belts, house mountain of Berne,with endless rope haulage system attainable.
For special earnings/services to the local picture protection Berne received the Wakkerpreis from Swiss preservation of regional tradition in the year 1997.
reformed accomodation churches
- peace church
- matte house church
- church Bümpliz
- Dreifaltigkeitskirche (Roman catholic)
- pc. Peter and Paul (Christian catholic)
- pc. Ursula's Church (anglikanisch)
- Bremgartenfriedhof with grave by Mikhail Alexandrowitsch Bakunin
- lap waste dump cemetery with grave by Paul Klee
- cemetery Bümpliz alsoExtension of Schang Hutter
- Jewish cemetery with grave of max of Horkheimer
- city theatre Berne
- slaughter house theatre Berne
- university of the arts Berne
- the theatre at the Effingerstrasse
- fool luggage theatre Berne
- Tojo theatre in thatRiding school
- culture casino Berne
- Bernese Symphonie orchestra
- Marian's Jazzroom
- Mahogany resound
- to steam center
- indoor riding arena
- international student club (ISC)
- water company (youth centre)
- gas-fired boiler (youth centre)
- PROGR (center for culture production)
- historical museumBerne
- nature-historical museum of the citizen municipality Berne
- Einstein house
- museum for communication Berne
- art museum Berne
- psychiatry museum Berne
- Swiss alpine museum
- center Paul Klee
- arts center Berne
- Swiss theatre collection
- Swiss literature archives in the Swiss federal state library
- in the middle of July findsthat Bernese house mountain belts the Gurtenfestival instead of, with which ten thousands are carried by visitors with the belt course on the mountain. The festival, with which international of music star arise, ranks among largest Switzerland.
- BeJazzSommer and winter festival
- Bernese dance days
- internationalJazzfestival Berne
- tactless festival
of people celebrations
- annual, on fourth Monday in November, takes place in Berne of the “Zibelemärit” (bulb market), with which traditionsweise above all bulbs are sold. By visitors of whole Switzerland and the close foreign country, which alreadyin the earliest morning hours the Zibelemärit receives journeys and an omitted tendency by Konfetti and plastics Hämmerchen, with which the children strike the adult on the head, the character of a people celebration.
- since 1996 finds in each case at the national holiday (that 1. August)in the city Berne the Aareleuchten celebration instead of, which by Swiss welfare organization is organized SWISSAID. The Aare with light boats is illuminated, after the model of hinduistischen and buddhistischen light and water resistant one.
The football club BSC Young Boys, briefly YB, plays in the highest Swiss league. The new building of the Wankdorfstadions was opened in the summer 2005 after four years old construction period as multi-functional arena with underground purchase center as Stade de Suisse and offers placefor scarcely 32 ' 000 spectators. It is one of eight play places with the football European championship 2008 in Switzerland and Austria.
The old Wankdorfstadion was venue of the final of the soccer world championship 1954 (4. July 1954), Germany with 3:2 against Hungarywon. The unexpected German victory became as “miracle of Berne “admits.
the sports club Berne plays in the highest ice hockey league of Switzerland in the Berne arena (formerly common land stadium). European-wide the SCB has the highest with HeimspielenSpectator average. The Berne arena belongs to the largest ice-skating stadiums of Europe.
acquaintance Bernese personalities
(in alphabetical order)
- Ursula Andress - actress
- Marianne Alvoni - Swiss Modedesignerin
- Elizabeth de Meuron - city original („madame Demeuron “)
- Friedrich Duerrenmatt - writer
- Albert Einstein - physicist
- Berchtold Haller - large Reformator, friend of Zwingli
- Alexander Heimann - (crime film aluminum) writer
- Polo Hofer - rock musician, founder (Berne) of the German dialect skirt
- Carl Albert Loosli - philosopher
- Thüring of Ringoltingen - writer
- Ludwig Schläfli - mathematician
- Rudolf ofTavel - writer
- Karl Tellenbach - city original (“denting brook Kari”)
- Michael Thalheimer - director
- Robert Walser - writer
- Theresia Walser - authoress
- Adolf Wölfli painter, kind brood
- Berchtold V. of tough rings - Stadtgründer
of sons and daughters of the city
- Briefly Aeschbacher, television moderator
- roll ago Aeschbacher, conductor and composer
- Felicie Affolter, Swiss Psychologin and Psychotherapeutin
- Evi all man, Swiss Nationalrätin
- Volkmar Andreae, Swiss conductor and composer
- Peter Bieri, Schriftsteller and Philosoph
- Ruth offering hard, Swiss lady journalist,Authoress and teacher
- Susanne Juliane of Bondeli, authoress and Salonière
- Karl Viktor of Bonstetten, Swiss writer
- Christoph Braendle, Swiss writer and journalist
- walter Breisky, Austrian politician
- Adrian of Bubenberg, Schult-hot of the city Berne and herothe battle with Murten
- Otto von Büren, Stadtpräsident
- Fabian Cancellara, Swiss wheel running driver
- Jean Luc Darbellay, Swiss composer, conductor, Klarinettist and physician
- Carl Durheim, Lithograf and one of the first professional photographers
- Gottfried of one, composer
- Hans AlbertEinstein, Bauingenieur, professor, son Albert Einsteins and its Mrs. Mileva Maric
- Rudolf of Erlach, Bernese knight
- Margarethe Faas Hardegger, Swiss Frauenrechtlerin and Gewerkschafterin
- Philipp Emanuel of skin mountain, Swiss paedagogue and Agronom
- Emanuel Friedrich of Fischer, Politiker
- Henry Berthold of Fischer, Architekt
- René Gardi, travel writer
- Otto von Greyerz, Mundart-Schriftsteller and professor for language and literature
- Albrecht of Haller, Swiss poet and scholar
- Hermann Haller (sculptor), Swiss sculptors
- Karl Ludwig von Haller,Swiss Staatsrechtler
- Lukas Hartmann, Schriftsteller
- Alexandre Hay, Swiss lawyer
- Thomas deer horn, Swiss artist
- Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss painter
- roll ago Kauer, Swiss writer
- Emil Theodor digester, Swiss surgeon and Nobelpreisträger
- Samuel king, mathematician, Orientalist andpietistischer theologian
- Ernst Kreidolf, Bilderbuchillustrator
- Stefan short, actor
- Hermann Kutter, Swiss Evangelist theologian
- Paul Laciga, Schweizer Beachvolleyball player
- Remo Legnazzi, film director
- Salvatore Licitra, Italian tenor
- Rodolphe Lindt, founder of the “Chocolademanufaktur Lindt”
- David Loosli,Swiss wheel running driver
- Bernhard Luginbühl, Schweizer artist
- max of Lüthi, Swiss literature scientist and fairy tale interpreter
- Manon (artist), inhabitant of Zurich artist
- NIC louse Manuel, dramatist, painter, commercial artist and statesman
- briefly Marti, Swiss minister and writer
- Mani of matte, Swiss singer-songwriter
- Gottfried Mind, Swiss draughtsmen
- Monique (singer), Swiss singer
- Helene von Mülinen, Schweizer Frauenrechtlerin
- Paul Nizon, Schweizer writer
- Hazy Osterwald, hit singer
- Mirjam Ott, Curlerin
- Liselotte powder, Swiss actress
- Peter Reber, Schweizer singer-songwriter andSingers
- Thüring von Ringoltingen, Schultheiss of Berne
- Samuel Rohrer, jazz musician
- Jean Rudolf von Salis, Schweizer historians, writer and journalist
- Klaus Schädelin, minister, politician, writer
- Karl give, Swiss politician
- Carl thigh, Swiss film director and film script author
- Philipp Albert Stapfer, Schweizer politician, diplomat and theologian
- Verena Stefan, GermanSwiss authoress
- Daniel Steiner, Swiss ice hockey player
- Beat Sterchi, Swiss writer
- Charlot Strasser, Swiss psychiatrist and writer
- God-dear Samuel Studer, Swiss mountain climbers, panorama draughtsman and author
- Harald Szeemann, Swiss curator, leader that Bernese arts center, curator of the Documenta 5 and the Biennalen Venice
- Willy weber (artist), Swiss sculptors
- Lisa Wenger, Swiss artist, child book authoress and painter
- Adolf Wölfli, Swiss painter
- Johann David Wyss,Swiss author
- Johann Rudolf Wyss, Swiss author
- sense of whom Yang, Cellist to taiwanesischer descent
- Roland Zoss, Swiss musician and writer
- Matthias Zschokke, Swiss writer and film producer
- Markus inhabitant of zurich, educating artist
|Wikinews: Berne- current message|
- list that Bernese personalities
- capital question of Switzerland
- citizen municipality Berne
- new Berne
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|Commons: Berne - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Berne - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Berne - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- official Website of the cityBerne
- article Berne (municipality) in the historical encyclopedia of Switzerland
- Berne tourism
- CityHunter Berne
coordinates: 46° 57 ' N, 7° 27 ' O