the term begging medal (Mendikantenorden) marks medal communities, which may possess according to their rule no property, but are committed to the poverty. They deny their living costs by work, donations and begging.
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begging medals of the abendländischen Mönchtums
the abendländischen begging medals are in 13. Developed for century as reform medals. They go over the demand of the monk communities existing before doing without personal possession,outside, by rejecting any possession also for their communities. Also the monks were bound no more to a certain monastery.
The “four begging medals” of the Middle Ages one calls the Dominikaner, Franziskaner (with the splitting off of the Konventualen and Kapuziner), Karmeliter and Augustiner Eremiten; later one counted and. A. still the Serviten and Mercedarier in addition.
The begging medals still spread in 13. Century rapidly over the whole Christian west and Central Europe out. Differently than those up to then monk medals admittedthey looked for not the world separatingness, but left themselves preferentially in the cities down and unfolded there a rich activity as Prediger, teachers and Seelsorger. Thus they won large influence on the religious life of the rising medieval cities. Onthe universities controlled they for a long time the science.
The spacious, first quite simple begging medal churches were established as lecture churches for large people quantities and affected the building of churches of the high and the late Middle Ages. The monastery plants were adapted to urban conditions.
The begging medals lived on the one hand ina tension to the catholic church (temporary parts of the Franziskaner), on the other hand one the Dominikanerorden became by means of the Inquisition its sharpest advocate.
The two large begging medals of the Franziskaner and Dominikaner are for two centuries the center of all religious and scientific lifethe time been. From them the largest theologians, scholastics followed such as Mystiker, the worst trackhounds of the Inquisition, the largest Seelsorger like e.g. Berthold of Regensburg and poet such as Jacopone there Todi and Thomas's von Celano (mould stabat, this irae). But the two begging medals educated also the combat troop of the Pope in its argument with lay power, to the emperor. With their agitation they complained the emperor to as Gottesleugner, protector of the Ketzer, briefly as an anti-Christian.
begging medal in the broader sense
the orthodox church does not know begging monks; after their ideal monks are to nourish themselves by own work, and alms is to benefit that arms involuntarily.
In the Buddhismus the Bettelmönchtum is the ursprünglichste form of theMönchtums, and it are to be particularly found in Southeast Asia still frequently.