Bettino Craxi

Bettino Craxi (actually Benedetto Craxi, * 24. February 1934 in Milan; † 19. January 2000 in Hammamet) was an Italian politician.

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Craxi became 1953 member of the Partito Socialista Italiano psi (a socialist party of Italy). Its study of history it broke off and became early politically active. From 1960 to 1970 it was active as an town councillor of Milan. It was considered as of Pietro Nenni of promoted Jungreformer („young Turk “), became 1965 party secretary of the psi of the Lombardei, a function, which it laid down 1968, when it became member of the chamber of deputies.

Craxi granted Spanish a socialist party PSOE at the end of the dictatorship Francisco Francos and the Czechoslovakian Dramaturg Jiri pelican logistic support to that. The RAI excavated rare photos Craxis of its attempt to lay down at the grave of Salvador all end of flowers.

Craxi owed its ascent in its party not least to the circumstance that the Italian policy predominantly circled over decades around it, the Partito Comunista Italiano PCI (a communist party of Italy) from the government to keep far, although co-operation with the communists in all parties possessed, in particular in the psi proponents and the PCI the most dynamic of all Italian parties was. Also the Democrazia Cristiana (DC) had a proponent of the Compromesso in Aldo Moro storico (dt. Historical compromise). Its own party psi held itself after the resignation Nennis into different wings zerstritten and therefore only a comparatively subordinated position as a junior partner of the Democrazia Cristiana.

Secretary-General of the psi

1969 became Craxi vice-secretary of the psi. When advocates of a reformistic socialism 1976 it ascended to the Secretary-General of the psi, an office, which it dressed until 1993. The old guard of the party made the representatives possible of the currents the temporary rule in the party and expected also from Craxi only a Intermezzo. Craxi tried however the psi after the model of the Godesberger of program of the German SPD umzugestalten, professed themselves to the reformism, increased the distance of the socialists to the Italian communists and broke in April 1983 briefly the continuous coalition with DC, with which it became loose the stigma of the eternal junior partner of DC. Filming acre and mode designers became Party Congress guests.

The result was a voice increase for Craxis a party zulasten since 1945 continuously governing DC. The psi doubled its voice portion from formerly approx. 7% at the beginning of the 1980er years within one decade. It successfully succeeded to it 1983 to stress the office Italian Prime Ministers for itself became to 22. July 1983 of president Sandro Pertini with the formation of a government assigns, which it held longer continuously owing to its manager qualities until 1987, as most Italian heads of the government after the Second World War. During its term of office Italy became fifth-largest industrial nation and successfully stressed the membership in the club of the G7.

Without consideration for the particularist interests of its coalition partners it forced the abolishment the inflation-driving scala mobile, the automatic wage adjustment in view of a two digit inflation rate decisions, under it to the inflation rate. From this however also frequent long lasting strikes resulted particularly in the public service of Italy. During its term of office the indebtedness of the Italian public hand rose steeply, which it branded as an important cause of the inflation. Craxi dominated the Italian policy during the 1980er years. He endorsed decided the NATO nATO-Nachrüstung and the list of US medium-range missiles in Italy. 1984 were signed the concordat between the Vatikan and the Republic of Italy, with which the catholicism was abolished as state religion in Italy. The referendum for continuation scala the mobile, exerted by the PCI, ended in June 1985 with a victory for Craxi and a defeat for the communists.

Sigonella incident

as in the October of 1985 Palestinian partisans the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro cape ores and the handicapped American passenger Leon Klinghoffer with its wheelchair in the sea pushed, negotiated the Italian government a free departure of the terrorists to Egypt against the soundness of the remaining passengers and crew members. US president Ronald Reagan requested the Italian government for the publication of the leader of the command, the PLF - boss Abu Abbas , which the Americans wanted to place before court. When three US-American F14-Marinejagdflugzeuge forced the Egyptian airliner with the 4 kidnappers and Abbas on board to the landing on the American NATO Air Force base Sigonella on Sicilies to the landing and let the machine with American soldiers change over, Bettino Craxi instructed thereupon the conversion of the American soldiers with Italian military police, in order to make the Italian sovereignty on the own territory opposite the Americans, in addition, the reliability of Italian diplomacy clear opposite the Arab world and the PLO. The airplane was allowed to further-travel under company to Rome. Abu Abbas could set off with approval of the Roman government to Yugoslavia, which caused substantial tensions between the USA and Italy.

In view of the murder at the American passenger and kidnapping of a cruise ship the members were condemned later to relatively mild punishments. Abu Abbas was accused later in absence, lived in Bagdad and died briefly after the capture by the Americans in the Iraq 2003. The episode brought in in the The Economist the title for it „most powerful man of Europe “and the much-saying applause of the Italian senate including the communists.

Mani Pulite

as 1992 years the public prosecutor Antonio Di Pietro and its team Mani Pulite (dt. Clean hands) after the arrest of Mario Chiesa finances of the psi in Milan to examine began, one of the centers of the psi, in which Craxis was own son-in-law Paolo Pillitteri occasional mayors, turned out for Craxi in difficulties. Craxi designated Mario Chiesa first as if created and wild fragment of its party. The state lawyers proved finally that Craxi had furnished a system of bribes with the building of the underground in Milan. The determinations spread from Milan fast to other cities. A grotesque situation developed, when two Carabinieri wanted to bring a simple punishing note to a socialist politician and from measurement interpretation of the situation everything confessed its offenses to them.

The investigations of the law progressed both against the mafia especially in Sicilies and Kalabrien, like against the corruption generally speaking country. On its high point in May 1992 the examining magistrate Giovanni Falcone became, its wife and its bodyguard victim of an explosive assassination attempt. Also the examining magistrate Paolo Borsellino victim of an autobomb became a little later. The determinations of the law and the obvious answers of the mafia were pursued generally speaking country with extreme tension.

To 2. September 1992 committed the psi politician Sergio Moroni, to which corruption was accused, suicide. It left a farewell letter, in which it explained the fact that it had not enriched itself but the all means flowed to its party and accused the system of the party financing the corruption to have produced. The schäbigste attempt Craxis to clean-wash itself from debt consisted of pushing over to the treasurer of the psi Vincenzo Balzamo all debt on which this suicide committed, after it tried to resist the reproaches raised against it in vain.

The entire political class was involved, none of the parties was indifferent, but in some parties corruption was more common than in others. Craxi granted in the long run that its party the equivalent of approx. $ 93 millions took, developed the argumentation the fact that finally all parties needed money and would therefore have availed itself of an illegal system of the corruption. Its strategy consisted not of explaining itself for innocent but everyone for guilty. Also Silvio Berlusconi originating from Milan it explained when he was accused of Di Pietro that no entrepreneur without bribery and corruption in Italy could have worked.

The trailers Craxis argue that after the governing coalition, in particular Craxi only the communists it were away-swept by all that remained unaffected. There was to have received to voices, which accused the communist, its money from Moscow (a reproach, which after the collapse of the Soviet Union, temporary prohibition of the CPSU and adjusting the Russian support for Cuba , Viet Nam and North Korea just opposite the PCI because of its option for euro communism and the associated tension with the CPSU was obviously here-gotten to which at the hair) and therefore no refuge for corruption to take would have. Apart from the fact that nothing was proven of it, it would be long under preceding amnesties pleases.

The citizens of Milan of state lawyers were submitted of an examination several times by different governments, in particular by of Silvio Berlusconi first government 1994, but no signs for a failure were. 1997 were recognized Di Pietro a goal by determinations of the public prosecutor's office in Brescia of until longer time in the law that the determining public prosecutor Fabio Salamone had a brother, who had been condemned to 18 months prison because of corruption and during its process Di Pietro the accusation had represented.

The socialists stürtzten from 14% in the nothing. If Craxi had introduced 5% still before a clause to the introduction into the parliament, then the psi achieved last not even more the minimum ratio lowered on 4%. Similarly it was issued DC, which needed from a higher voice portion somewhat longer. The first Italian postwar republic had to exist stopped.

Craxis life-style as party chairmen, like many the Italian politicians into the 1990ern, was regarded in view of the financial problems and reproaches against its party as inadequate: Craxi lived in Rome in the expensive hotel Raphael to the Piazza Navona and inhabited in Hammamet in Tunesien a mansion at the sea, over which different, schillernde reports went through the media. Rino Formica, a prominent member of the psi of that time, described it in such a way: “The monastery is poor, but the monks are rich “.

Craxis Entourage was adversely called of its critics a “yard of dwarves and dancers “, what aimed at also the loose moral. To its system also the transport of friends belonged into influential positions with the national industrial conglomerates IRI, ENEL and ENI. It was not so important, which one could do, but to whom. Generally it was well-known that in the public radio and television RAI positions were assigned in accordance with party membership. Nachdem die DC sich bei RAI 1 eine ihr ergebene Schar von Journalisten mit einer ihr ergebenen Berichterstattung beschäftigte, gelang es dem PSI, bei RAI 2 seine Anhänger unterzubringen und eine dem nicht nachstehende willfährige Berichterstattung durchzusetzen. Craxis loved Sandra Milo erklomm a steep career with RAI, while its other loved Anja Pieroni possessed a TV organization in the region Rome. To these Entourage Craxis belonged also the later Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, to which Craxi approved in its term of office as an Prime Minister against the law to operate more than a private television channel. Publicly Craxis schillernde friendships were discussed to illustren dictators, how Siad Barre from Somalia and Ben Ali from Tunesien, which granted it later political asylum.

For a long time Craxi had understood it also still from the opposition to retard the investigations of the law by the immunity of the delegate. 1993 it withdrew finally as a Secretary-General of the psi. He regarded himself as to injustice pursued, because he had done nevertheless only that, what all different would have also done and it rejected to apologize for its acts. Despised of broad parts of the public as symbol of political corruption, students threw coins to him, if he left his hotel and sang to the melody of Guantanamera „Bettino take also “, 1000-Lire-Scheine swivelling. In May 1994 it fled in the Tunisian exile, while it was condemned in Italy in absence to altogether more than 28 years detention, of which it not one day served.

In the year 2000 Bettino Craxi at the consequences of its diabetes died - illness. The Italian policy hurried to offer to the members a state funeral for the condemned criminal one but its daughter saw her father still as a victim of dark conspiracy.

Silvio Berlusconi compared himself occasionally on the occasion of its law citations with Bettino Craxi and saw both by „the red robes pursued “(figurativy for the law implemented allegedly by communists). Many of Craxis trailers from the psi, under it its former minister of foreign affairs Gianni De Michelis, who former political television journalist Giuliano Ferrara and the former priest Gianni Baget Bozzo recycelten themselves in Berlusconis new right party alliance Casa depression Libertà, to which also the daughter of Sergio Moroni, Chiara Moroni belongs as a delegate of the Italian chamber of deputies.


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