Bhutan

Druk Yul
Kingdom of Bhutan
Flagge Bhutans
Wappen Bhutans
(detail) (detail)
office language Dzongkha local of dialects: Sharchop, Khenkha and Nepali; Far spreads capital is
English Thimphu
system of government monarchy
king Jigme Singye Wangchuk
prime minister Lyonpo Yeshey Zimba
surface 47.000 km ²
highest collection Kula Kangri 7,553 m
lowest point Drangme Chhu 97 m
number of inhabitants 553,000 (conditions: January 2006)
Population density of 11.8 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 761 US-$ (2004)
independence recognition from India to 8. August 1949
currency Ngultrum, Indian Rupie
Time belt UTC +6h
national holiday 17. December
national anthem Druk tsendhen
national sport elbow shooting
Kfz characteristic BHT
Internet TLD .bt
preselection + 975
Lagekarte von Bhutan
Karte von Bhutan

Bhutan (Dzongkha: Druk Yul, spoken: Dru u, country kites) is an independent kingdom in south Asia.

Table of contents

Topographie
Web on the left of
10
literature topography satellite photograph

[

work on] in south Asia and border in the south on the Indian Federal States Sikkim, West bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh (of the west eastward), as well as in the north Tibet (China). The surface relief of Bhutan is coined/shaped of the Himalaya. Over 80 per cent of the country lie over 2.000 m height.

The country is divided into three landscapes. In the south, at the Indian border, the Duar level, a narrow valley runs,to the Ausläufern of the course Brahmaputra Tieflandes belongs. North of it the country rises steeply. The 2,000 to 3,000 m high mountains of the Vorderhimalaya are the main settlement area. Because of the border to China, is the high mountain region Lunana. Highest mountain of the country is the Kula Kangri with 7.553 M. The 7,541 m high Gangkhar Puensum is the world-wide highest mountain, which was not mounted ever by humans. More than two thirds of the kingdom are wooded.

climate

the climate of Bhutanis very different in the individual regions. During in the south subtropical and/or. tropical climate prevails, has the valleys of central Bhutan a moderate climate with cool winters and is called summers. In the mountains the winters are extremely strict and the summers cool.Particularly in the southern areas of the country it comes during the rain time frequently to inundations.

population

the population of Bhutan consists of three groups: the Ngalongs immigrated living in the western high country in the Middle Ages from Tibet,to a layer, also the king house and in the eastern mountain country the living persons , ethnical the mountain trunks northeast of India intimate Sarchops , whereby both groups are connected by their affiliation to the Buddhismus, belongs as well as third group in the low country at thatIndian border predominant south Bhutanern (Nepalese Bhutaner or Lhotshampas). About three quarters of the population belong to the Tibetan people circle.

Children before the royal palace of Thimphu
dancer

the Nepalesen had themselves already since end 19. Century settled in the south of Bhutan,first with consent of the government, that was dependent on additional workers. In the year 1958 the borders were closed. A nationality law from the same year opened the ethnical Nepalesen the possibility, formal nationality in Bhutan, constantly living in south Bhutanto acquire. Also after 1958 nevertheless further Nepalesen immigrated to the south of Bhutan. The supply of population, in particular from densely populated Nepal, in addition, made of India, was not to be controlled.

In the year 1980 an accomplished census resulted in increasingthe Nepalese population portion on over 50 per cent. This caused the fear in the dominant layer of Bhutan that the traditional tibeto buddhistische culture of the country is überfremdet and the monarchy is endangered by a democracy carried by the Nepalese subpopulation.

In the year 1985 were issued a new nationality law, that the acknowledgment as a bhutanischen citizen of the renewed proof of the constant domicile before that to 31. December 1958 made dependent. Also material-legally the law of 1985 took a retroactive, loading interference into the citizen positionforwards. Thus a large number to people-associated into sudden failure of evidence was brought to the Nepalese; they became and/or. came into danger as foreigners and illegal immigrants to be explained.

Since 1988 the government operates a policy of the cultural assimilation. This, also as“Bhutanisierung” designated policy, existed in an intensified stress of the state maxim of tsa wa sum (unit of the three elements, king, government and kingdom and/or. Country) and imposing cultural assimilation obligations to the Ngalong traditions in shape of a requirement, the conventionalTo obey code of practice of the dominant group to carry the national clothes of the ethnical Bhutaner and to use the language of the Ngalongs as exclusive state language.

In the following time it came to substantial unrests into south Bhutan, those the government with onemet intensified employment of army and police. Since in the middle of 1991 a campaign of the intimidation and driving out began either with the statement missing and/or. not provable nationality, or under Abnötigung „freiwilliger “emigration explanations. To people-associated a large number of Nepalese - altogether zirka100.000 - fled to Nepal, where they live in refugee camps.

The Bhutaner of Nepalese nationality living in the exile created 1990 the Bhutan Peoples party (B.P.P.), which represents the interests of the Südbhutaner. On the high point of the argument in south Bhutan into thatYears 1990 to 1992 became members and sympathizers of the B.P.P. a so-called “NOC” (NO Objection Certificate), which for the entrance to schools, higher education and occupation of the public service is necessary, refuses. In February 1992 this practice was again given up.Members and trailers of the B.P.P. were arrested and also abused. In some hundred cases konfiszierten government troops the landed property of persons, who were classified as public enemies, burned their houses down or devastated them.

cities

the largest cities are (Conditions 1. January 2005):Thimphu (69,083 inhabitants), Phuntsholing (17,043 inhabitants), Gedu (of 8.469) inhabitants and Gelaphu (6,908 inhabitants).

religion

monastery clock-sang
wheel of the life, buddhistisches painting from Bhutan

those State religion (75%) is the Vajrayana - Buddhismus. Apart from philosophy Buddhas has itself, particularly by Indian and Nepalese immigrants, in addition, the Hinduismus (25%) in Bhutan establishes.

The establishment of state of Bhutan in 17. Century by Shabdrung NawangNamyal, the abbott of a Drukpa - Kagyü - monastery medal in Tibet, is closely connected with the Buddhismus. The building of the monastery castles (Dzongs) in Bhutan served the military defense against the rivaling Gelugpa - monastery medal, which repeated tried, its power-politicsTo expand influence since Bhutan.

In the course of a monastery reform under king Jigme Dorje Wangchuk the Drukpa monasteries lost their landed property, which the government distributed to landless farmers. Financial allowances from the national budget guarantee the existence of the monasteries. In the national assembly are furthermore 15 seats for representatives of the Klerus reserves, which is determined by a buddhistischen committee. The mirror-image-ritual head of the Drukpa Klosterordens is the for each Khenpo, it enjoys beside the king a high position in the political system of Bhutan. Beside the Drukpaalso the Nyingma - tradition after Pema Lingpa and the Drikung - is represented Kagyü school in Bhutan. The king family of Bhutan descends from Pema Lingpa.

history

over the history of the original inhabitants of the country, that are appropriate for Thepu,no written recordings forwards. It is occupied that in 8. Century n. Chr. Indian mission acres the Buddhismus into the then hinduistische Feudalfürstentum brought, which turned out in the following for century under Tibetan rule. The Indian hinduistischen influences were by force eliminated and the Buddhismus inShape of the Tibetan Lamaism in 12. Century to the state religion explains. At that time developed many monasteries, which became supports of the feudalen society. From the mixture of Thepu and Tibetern the people of the Bhotija developed.

Dzong (fortress) of Trongsa

1557 tore Pema Karpo (1527 - 1592) (master prince of the Bhotija) power actually and maintained it in violent fights against the Tibeter. After its death the government authority became formal between a religious head (Dharma Radscha) and onedivided, practically it was appropriate for lay head (Deb Radscha) however in the hands of the priests (Lamas). These placed the governors (Pönlops), who drove the taxes and deliveries of the farmers and whom exercised jurisdiction. Between the feudalen pressure groups cameit again and again to fights, into which from Tibet both the Dalai Lama and the Pant Lama interfered.

T/plate dung Nawang Namgyal (1594 - 1651) succeeded to that during its rule starting from 1616 the agreement up to thenindependent principalities of the country to a theokratischen realm. In Tibet born religious dignitaries as the founders of the state and as a founder to bhutanischer identity one regards. With its cultural achievements - it arranged all regions of the country in writing intoadministered realm - it put the foundation-stone to the today's bhutanischen society. The state received to today valid names the Druk Yul (country of the kites). For death many local ruler after central power, and the country reached T/plate dung Nawang Namgyalsby civil wars one afflicted.

1767 recognized the Deb Radscha Judhur the Suez RA rivet RK (sovereignty) China on, in order to strengthen with it its own power. 1772 began the nearly hundred-year border conflict with the British east India company. After conquest Assams in the year 1826erstrebte the British colonial power direct control of the border passports and okkupierte 1864 and 1865 (contract of Sinchula) the district Dewangiri and other areas of Bhutan. With British support the governor Ugyen Wangchuk the rule actually tore 1895. 1907he was selected in Punakha to the king and led the hereditary Maharadschawürde (Wangchuk dynasty). In the contract of 1910 Great Britain recognized formally the independence of Bhutan on, reserved themselves however control of the foreign policy.

To 8. August 1949 closed Bhutan alsoIndia a friendship treaty, therefore India the relations with regard to foreign policy of Bhutan notices and economic aid out (building of roads and power stations) carries. An Indian political resident had his seat in Gangtok (Sikkim). Against the moderate reforms of the king Jigme Dorje Wangchuk (reign 1952 - 1972) and its support at India arranged itself a conspiracy led by officers and officials (5. April 1964 murder of the Prime Minister Jigme Dorji; 1. August 1965 assassination attempt on the king).

In November 1964 that transferredKing the entire government authority. The created parliament (Tsongdu) 1968, when Bhutan became constitutional monarchy, received 1953 certain legislative powers. The royal advice and the Council of Ministers form the executive. Political parties are forbidden. Under king Jigme Dorje Wangchuk became thosePrivileges of the Lamas reduced and measures for the dismantling of feudalen conditions introduced (abolishment of the body characteristic, preparation of a land reform for the restriction of the large-landed property on 120 hectares, beginning of national five-year plans, development of the training system, award of the citizen right to the Nepalese population part). To 12. February 1971 attained Bhutan the international-law acknowledgment (admission into the UN), in fact already before the existing autonomy.

After death Jigme Dorje Wangchuks was proclaimed Crown Prince Jigme Singye Wangchuk in the year 1972 to the new king (official coronation/culminationto 2. June 1974). The coronation/culmination celebrations were overshadowed by an assassination attempt on the king by exile Tibeter. 1981 took place the classification of Tibetan refugees, who rejected an acceptance of the bhutanischen Staatsbügerschaft. Political resistance against in the year 1985 an introduced nationality law was 1990 the reason for unrests and driving out of more than 100,000 Nepalese Bhutanern (Lhotsampas) from south Bhutan to Nepal. August 1998 king Jigme Singye Wangchuck limited his own power against the will of the parliament and took shelter to thatAuthority of the parliament.

politics

formal are Bhutan a constitutional monarchy. The political system of Bhutan does not correspond however to western-democratic conceptions.

legislation (parliament)

the national assembly (Tshogdu) became 1953 on initiative of king JigmeDorje Wangchuk production. It consists of 150 members, that are not selected however directly by the population: 105 is appointed by village chiefs selected (again by the families to be determined), 35 of the king as well as sent 10 by the buddhistischen Klerus. ThoseDelegates (Chimis) are selected for three years. The national assembly fulfills to a large extent an acclamation function. An opposition does not exist.

executive (government)

the government of Bhutan builds itself since 2003 from ten Ministers, those up from the national assemblyare selected. The term of office of the government amounts to five years. The prime minister is appointed in a rotation procedure among the Ministers.

head of state

head of state is the king (Druk Gyalpo), since 1972 Jigme Singye Wangchuk. The national assembly can the king theoretically with a two-thirds majority the distrust express and force this to the resignation (in favor of its successor to the throne).

political parties

parties are so far forbidden in Bhutan. Groups of oppositions formed in Nepal and India. The demands of the exile oppositionconcentrate on the equal rights of all ethnical groups, the introduction of a democratic multiple party system and a revising of the citizen law of 1985.

2003 were discharged a new electoral law, which grants starting from 21 years the right to vote to all bhutanischen citizens. In March 2005 submitted draft constitution a permission of political parties plans, a change controversies of the citizen law is however not to take place.

home policy

of king of the Jigme Dorje Wangchuk (reign: 1952 - 1972) introduced reform process relating to domestic affairs (summoning of a national assembly,Abolition of the body characteristic, admission of Bhutan into the UN) was a reaction to political events and changes in the regional surrounding field of Bhutan. With the political independence of India (1947), the establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949), occupationby Tibet (1951), the escape of the Dalai Lama (1959) and the Indian-Chinese border war (1962) it became clear that the phase of the century-long (self-chosen) isolation of Bhutan had to be terminated.

The fall of the prince of Sikkim (1973), political unrests/demands of Nepalis in the neighbouring Indian Federal State West bengal after creation of an autonomous Gurkhalandes (1988) as well as the collapse of the absolute monarchy in Nepal (1990/91) required also in Bhutan further (interior) political changes. Of king the Jigme SingyeWangchuk (since 1972) forces claimant opening process thereby in the last decades to the development new social Interesssengruppen led. Their integration into the political system of Bhutan is the background for in March 2005 the submitted draft constitution.

The king announcedto 17. December 2005 that it will withdraw 2008. Its son, who Crown Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk 2008 inthronisiert as a fifth king of the country.

The bhutanische iurisdiction is based on the Indian and the British common law.

Until 1999the television was forbidden, in order to prevent thereby allegedly watering the own culture in Bhutan.

There Bhutan since that 17. December 2004 a nicotine-free country will is, became the trade with tobacco starting from this date with high fines (converted 175 euro) occupied and smoking at public places forbade. The measure with religious , health and economic reasons was justified. Smoking tobacco is in the private surrounding field (in the own house, in the hotel room) stillpermitted, but smoker in Bhutan only few possibilities gives of arriving legally at tobacco for the 1 per cent. For the power consumption tobacco goods in small quantities from the foreign country may be bring along, on which one however a additional customs duty of100 per cent to pay must. With view of an average monthly income of approx. 9 euro of it only little use is made and in view of the high fines against the new law will also only rarely offend.

foreign policy

its geographicalSituation as buffer state between the People's Republic of China in the north and India in the south set close limits to the scope of action with regard to foreign policy of Bhutan.

The relations with India was not in the past without tensions. The building of strategic roads in the country into the 1960erYears took place on urge of India. Militarily a close co-operation exists (among other things Weapon supplies, training aid). Economically both countries are interlaced closely with one another: the currencies of India and Bhutan are together coupled in the relationship 1:1. The entry of Bhutan to international organizations (UN, Non-aligned movement, IMF, World Bank, FAO) took place also before the background of the attempt to emanzipieren itself from the influence of India with regard to foreign policy.

The relations with the People's Republic of China is relatively unloaded despite an unsettled fixing of the boundaries between both countries. The borders betweenboth countries 1959 (of Bhutan) were closed, China build however roads on bhutanesischem territory, which led already quite often to small tensions. Development assistance offered by China was rejected by Bhutan so far out of consideration for India. Bhutan and China orderover no diplomatic relations.

The relations with Nepal is since the classification and/or. Escape (1990) of more than 100,000 south Bhutanesen nepalischer descent substantially loads. The refugees living in the southeast of Nepal become by UNHCR - auxiliary supplies supplies. Bilateral discussions between Thimphu and Kathmandu over a at least partial feedback of the refugees ran so far without result.

Co-operation with Switzerland and with Austria is under all countries of Europe, development assistance at Bhutan carries out to emphasize particularly. Both countries stand for oneexemplary development co-operation, since they are suited before the background of similar topographic conditions to develop optimal solutions for of Bhutan problems.

The development co-operation of Austria OEZA engages itself in the following sectors:

The development co-operation of Switzerland, which is completed of HELVETAS, concentrates in the following sectors:

administrative arrangement

Bhutan is divided into four administrative regions (dzongdey), which are divided again into altogether 20 districts (dzongkhag). These were designated with exception of the Distriks Bumthang ( capital Jakar) after their capitals.Some large dzongkhags besides into circles (dungkhag) are continued to arrange. On the lowest level the districts are divided in groups from villages, so-called Gewogs.

noframe
  1. Bumthang
  2. Chukha
  3. Dagana
  4. Gasa
  5. Haa
  6. Lhuntse
  7. Mongar
  8. Paro
  9. Pemagatshel
  10. Punakha

  1. Samdrup Jongkhar
  2. Samtse
  3. Sarpang
  4. Thimphu
  5. Trashigang
  6. Trashiyangste
  7. Trongsa
  8. Tsirang
  9. Wangdue Phodrang
  10. Zhemgang

economics

agriculture in Bhutan

the economical basis of Bhutan is narrow. The agriculture is not productive and by Subsistenzniveau is to a large extent determined. Rice surplus is not produced, on the contrary is thoseGovernment in a forced manner to import rice to the supply of the population. With the population growth which can be expected Bhutan in the future with problems of the Nahrungsmittelversorgung to see confronted.

agriculture

emphasis of agricultural production is the south of Bhutan. The escape/driving out of moreas 100,000 south Bhutanern (1990 - 1991) led there to break-downs in rice production. With the new settlement of Ngalongs from west Bhutan this problem is to be repaired. Small industrial companies (cement, wood working, canned goods) concentrate predominantly inSouth Bhutan.

energy

great importance as Devisenbringer enjoys the current production produced of hydro-electric power plants, which is exported predominantly to India and Bangladesh. The 1986 in enterprise taken Chukha power station (achievement 336 MW) carry to a substantial part (2005: 40 per cent) for the financing of the state household.

economic downward gradient

Bhutan exhibits a clear regional difference in development. While the west profits economically from water power projects and with Thimphu as center of political decisions from the distribution of the development assistance funds, are Central and east Bhutan however economically clearly left.

Statistically regarded Bhutan is considered as one of the poorest countries of the earth. The average pro-Kopf-Einkommen of its population lies nevertheless clearly more highly than in the neighboring country India. King Jigme Singye Wangchuk coined/shaped in this connectionthe key word of the “gross social luck “of its population, which he formulated as an important goal of the economic policy of Bhutan. 2004 lived 40 per cent of the population under the poverty border, those officially with a yearly income of 740 Ngultrum (about 15 euro) p.P. one sets.


traffic

the only international airport of the country is appropriate for valley , which is approached by the national airline Druk air in the Paro -. The capital Thimphu has a helicopter landing pad. Generally speaking country applies for left-hand traffic. Often Thimphu becomes asthe only capital of the world without only one traffic light marks. At the ends of the Haupstrasse (Norzin Lam) by Thimphu are two roundabouts, at which during the day policemen regulate traffic. Bicycle-drive is within Paro and Thimphu does not permit.

Web on the left of

Commons: Bhutan - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Bhutan - word origin, synonyms and translations

literature

  • Aschoff, Jürgen C.: Tibet, Nepal and the culture area of theHimalaya (with Ladakh, Sikkim and Bhutan). Commentated bibliography of German-language books from 1627 to 1990 (essays up to the year 1900). Garuda publishing house, Dietikon/Switzerland 1992.ISBN 3-906139-07-7.
  • F. Binder/W. Rode: Bhutan - kingdom of the thunder kite (2002).
  • Gisela Bonn: Bhutan - artand culture in the realm of the kites (1988).
  • Martin brewing: Somewhere in Bhutan, where women (nearly always) have a saying (1994).
  • Tom O. Edmund: Bhutan - country of the thunder kite (1991).
  • Katie Hickman: In the valley of the Zauberers. Interior opinions from Bhutan (1990).
  • MichelPeissel: To foot by the Middle Ages - miracle country Bhutan (2001).
  • Francoise Pommaret: Bhutan travel guide (1998).
  • Schicklgruber, Chr. /Pommaret, F. (Hrsg.): Bhutan - fortress of the Gods (1997).
  • Harsh ore Wilhelmy: Bhutan - country of the monastery castles (1990).
  • Jamie Zeppa: Bhutan - my life in the fortressthe Gods (2002).


coordinates: 27° 27 ' N, 90° 30 ' O

 

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