Library

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This article is concerned with the institution library. For collections of program routines see under program library.

A library (Greek βιβλιοθήκη „book collection “) is institution, public mechanism or place ( a building of libraries) of an arranged and usable collection of books and other published media and information or such a collection. The designation Library becomes occasionally also for other information collections, like web pages, data bases or individual books and/or. Book series uses. Also exclusive the area in a private dwelling or a private house, used for keeping and reading by books, is called library.

View into a library

Another name for above all public, also the school libraries is the library or recently also the Mediathek. Library is a translation of Philipp of Zesen for the word library. Colloquially the library also Bib is called.

Table of contents

general

the tasks of a library are collecting, opening and mediating books and other publication forms, like magazines, clay/tone carriers, pictorial materials, Mikroformen, electronic publications.

Each led publication has a location number (signature; English.: call NUMBER/shelf Mark), on the basis those one the copy in the library to find can. In smaller libraries the books know also only one number with evt. a category abbreviation get.In the catalog the signature of the medium is located (see also a finding of media in a library).

By making available and archiving their existence , libraries of the supply serve the population (public libraries) and research (scientific library) with literature and information (together with the publishing houses and the media, the this produce and the book trade, which provides for the commercial spreading).

Depending upon development libraries take different tasks of service from the BID range (library, information,Documentation) truely, among them also educational tasks like the read promotion. Related mechanisms are documentation mechanisms and archives, whereby the borders are flowing.

The library nature, humans working in a library forms the whole of all libraries is librarians and thosescientific discipline for the organization and function of libraries and other information mechanisms, as well as training programme is the library science. The course of business in a library is called library maintenance and optimizing activities inward and outside is called library management.

After the German library statistics gaveit 2004 in Germany over 9000 public libraries and scarcely 250 scientific libraries (without counting of branches and partial libraries).

use of media in a library

of books in the free hand list

the existence of a library can on the one hand asBorrowing existence of the users for a certain period entliehen or as operational readiness level existence only in the areas of the library will be seen. Depending on one differentiates both forms in a library between Leihbibliothek and reference library, usually occurs.Some Leihbibliotheken have a borrowing obligation.

A reference library has at least one read hall: as invitation for cosy reading equipped with comfortable furniture or also as lining up of jobs, often with computers.

With the help of remoteborrow can user also the existenceother libraries use or over the document delivery service copies order. (The association of trade and the combination international specialized publishing house (Stichting STM) for illegal hold it. The regional court Munich I had decided end of 2005 that libraries may dispatch scanned articles digitally to private users,Firm customers enclosed, see. meanwhile to copyright (Paragraf 53)/European Union guideline to copyright in the information society, see Bbl.online, 15. February 2006).


Further use possibilities are (if necessary. entgeltliche) copying and the public rendition.

finding media in a library

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In order to be able to find media in a library, one must know, how and according to which one can search. Which data are seized in which form and where do them find the library visitor?

The media of a library becomein library catalogs registers. In former times in libraries card indices were used. Today the catalog data are stored in computer data bases, which permit entrances of most diverse kind. If these data bases are accessible over a network, as for example the World Wide Web, they become also OPAC(On-line publicly ACCESS Catalogue) or WebOPAC (Web ACCESS Catalogue) mentioned.

Computer zur OPAC Recherche in der Bibliothek der Fh Eberswalde
Computer to the OPAC search in the library of the Fh Eberswalde

the so-called „development “seizes the relevant data of the media: Formal locking with bibliographic data such as title, author, feature year etc.and mostly also the contents development takes up the contentwise data, which permit access to topic tables. This facilitates an appropriate list on the basis systematics. Another common form of the contents development is the assignment of key words: These are standardized terms, afterdetermined rules put on and assign. In the last years a discussion developed around an automatic key word assignment.

In some libraries a next to each other of different catalogs prevails: It gives to be old card indices, the alphabetical catalogs , systematic catalogs or subject catalogs can anddifferent search entrances permit. With the users OPACs, which are served over PCs and simpler searches to make possible, often linked with the reference to the location and the lending barness of a medium, are many more popular. There often not yet all data of the card indicesin data bases to be entered could do, are sometimes necessary it to scan similar and electronic catalogs. Many libraries offer additionally an entrance to group catalogs, which lets scan existence of other libraries with.


See also: Group catalog, Karlsruher virtual catalog

Digitization of libraries

you means (to the expenditure for print) additional the archiving of whole library existence, especially. old books, possibly. also only in excerpts. The background is the physical purge of old books (and/or. their other one destruction, fires, wars) and the possibility, in digital formto scan fast and economically texts to connect to dispatch or provide lists. That at present most disputed project is Google Book search, besides exist many other national or spreading projects, which advance because of the high starting costs only slowly.Detailed representation:Retrodigitalisierung. DFG and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation support the introduction of the internationally common data exchange format MARK of 21 in the German-language library nature: Linguistic area-spreading standards for meta data. (Stock exchange-sheet-on-line, 8. To March 2006)

history

see library history.

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Large libraries

of book inventories of large libraries 1985 (selection)

  1. (Lenin) - library in Moscow (Russia) of 23.000.000 books
  2. Saltykow Schtschedrin library in sank Petersburg (Russia) of 15.000.000 books
  3. congress library LIBRARY OF Congress in Washington, D.C. (the USA) of 14.800.000 books
  4. university library Berkeley (the USA) of 9.900.000 books
  5. university library Cambridge (the USA)8.000.000 books
  6. university library Moscow (Russia) of 7.700.000 books
  7. British LIBRARY in London (Great Britain) of 7.000.000 books
  8. national library Bibliothèque national de France into of Paris (France) 6.000.000 books
  9. university library new Haven (the USA) of 5.500.000 books
  10. national library Kiew (Ukraine) of 5.000.000 books

important libraries

national libraries

to the most important libraries world-wide belong the large national libraries

university libraries

large university libraries are among other things:

historical libraries

or libraries with important historical existence

Venice [work on

] in

in Austria

in Switzerland

further libraries see under list of libraries.

see also

Wikiquote: Library - quotations

literature

  • George Leyh (Hrsg.): Manual of the library science. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1952-1965. (2. verm. and. verb. Aufl.)
  • Engelbert Plassmann among other things:The library nature of the Federal Republic of Germany. Harrassowitz 1999. ISBN 3-447-03706-7
  • And. Reason, A. Heinen: How do I use a library? Basic knowledge - strategies - aids. UTB, Munich 1996. ISBN 3825218341


Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Library - word origin,Synonymous one and translations
Commons: Library - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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