Library of Alexandria
the library of Alexandria is the most famous library of the antique ones, it was in the Egyptian Alexandria and in the antiquity several times was already destroyed. 2002 were undertaken however the attempt to tie with a reconstruction to the old traditions.
generally called bird perspective a Museíon (old-Greek μουσείο [ν], originally about „the MUSE seat “, today „the museum “) each Heiligtum of the Musen. The term became in particular for in 3. Century v. Chr. in Alexandria promoted by the Ptolemäern based and, underthe protection of the Musen Forschungsinstitut posed uses, in whom apart from philological also astronomical, mathematical, botanische and zoo-logical studies were operated. Its extensive library was famous. In this Museion worked among other things Apollonios of Perge, Ammonios Sakkas and its pupil Plotin, Theonof Alexandria and its daughter Hypatia.
To table of contents
the first seven librarians were
- Zenodotos of Ephesos (284-270 v. Chr.),
- Apollonios of Rhodos (270-245 v. Chr.),
- Eratosthenes of Kyrene (245-204 v. Chr.),
- Aristophanes of Byzanz (204-189 v. Chr.),
- Apollonios Eidographos (189-175 v. Chr.),
- Aristarchos ofSamothrake (175-145 v. Chr.) and
- Kydas of the Speerträgern (145-116 v. Chr.).
The library became of Ptolemaios I. based (Ptolemaios II. a smaller library based); around 250 v. Chr.the total number of the roles in the library amounted to already 400,000, later is here up to700,000 scrolls papyri stored its. After the reports one proceeded very refined during the knowledge procurement. Each landing ship, which carried a rolling and writings, had to let the roles copy after the excessive quantity. They kept only the copies alleged back.
As Caesar the fleet thatEgyptian in Alexandria in the year 48 v. Chr. burned, came up the library according to statement of some sources also in flames, but can it thereby parts of the library existence have concerned at best, since the library into late ancient times continued as Serapeum. Besides that becameExistence supplemented by itself the straight library of Pergamon, in the structure, Marcus Antonius let whose existence bring to Alexandria, in order to impress Kleopatra. Strabon worked in the time of the Augustus there several years and mentions no book losses (see. Sueton, Domitian 20).
When Alexandria 642 by the Kalifen Omar for the Islam was conquered, instructed it, all still existing booksto destroy, which contradicted the Koran. Since the remaining works necessarily only the repeated, what anyway already stood in the Koran, were they therefore likewise redundant, and could therefore likewise good conscience are destroyed. The handwriting was burned for the heating of the public baths.
However small becameParts of the library before conquest of Alexandria by the Islam after Konstantinopel spent. Briefly before the case also this city 1453 scholars still fled with some manuscripts into the west.
Probably in the year 2004 the remnants were rediscovered with excavations by an Polish-Egyptian archaeologist team.
New library of Alexandria
in co-operation with the Unesco was again established the library of Alexandria and opened in the year 2002 again. As architects the small Norwegian architect's office Snøhetta and Hamsa Associates appeared. The total area amounts to 45,000 square meters, the construction costses amounted up$250 million.
The library became for max. 8 million volumes laid out, at present (2004) should it already 200,000 be. In the library from Alexandria is a backup copy of the data of Internet archives. This contains snapshots of many web pages from 1996 to today (2006). ThatArchives have an estimated size of a Petabyte and grow over approx. 20 Terabyte per month.
- Alexandrini school
- library of Pergamon
- library of Ephesos
- clay/tone board collection of the Assurbanipal
- Edward Parsons: The Alexandrian LIBRARY. Glory OF the light NICworld. Its giant, antiquities, and destructions. Elsevier, London Amsterdam 1952. (3.Aufl. New York 1967) (Abstract)
- Luciano CAN forums: The disappeared library. The knowledge of the world and the fire of Alexandria. Red bay ash book 1104. Red book publishing house, Berlin 1990 (ital. Orig.ausgabe Palermo 1986). ISBN 3-88022-026-3
- Rudolf Bluem: Kallimachosand the literature distortion with the Greeks. Investigations for the history of the bio bibliography. Archives for history of the book nature, volume 18, Lfg.1-2. Frankfurt A.M. 1977. ISSN 0066-6327
- Rudolf Bluem: Kallimachos - the Alexandrian LIBRARY and the origins OF bibliography.Transl. from the German by Hans's H. Wellisch. Wisconsin1991, 1992 (English. Expenditure.).ISBN 0-299-13170-X
- Lofty Dwidar, Mostafa Elabadi: Life and fate of the old library. 1974.
- Uwe Jochum: The Alexandrian LIBRARY and its Aftermath. In: LIBRARY History. 15,1999, S. 5-12. ISSN 0024-2306