conventional Meier is called the time interval of 1815 (Viennese congress) until 1848 (beginning of the civil revolution) in the countries of the German federation and in Austria. The political term of the restoration, that is connected with it itselfto the national political development after the end of the Napoleoni time and the Viennese refers congress.
The expression conventional Meier refers on the one hand to in this time the developing own culture and art of the middle class, on the other hand to the literaturethe time, which both - frequently to injustice - will provide with the label” homemade “and” conservatively “. As typical the escape is considered in the idyll and in the private. Already the poet Jean Paul had from the” full luck in the restriction “spoken, Goethe's secretary Johann Peter Eckermann ” pure reality in the light moderate sea protest “to recognize believed.
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the term conventional Meier as epoch designation developed only around 1900. It goes back on a fictitious figure named God-dear to conventional Meier, those the lawyerand writers Ludwig Eichrodt and the physician Adolf kiss muzzle invented and under its name in the years starting from 1855 into the resident of Munich flying sheets various poems were published, the partial Parodien on the poetry of the material village school teacher Samuel Friedrich Sauterwere. Had developed the name from two poems with the titles of conventional man evening cosiness and Bummelmaiers complaint, which had published Joseph Victor of Scheffel in this sheet 1848. Written until 1869 Biedermaier, only to it came the way of writing with eggup. The fictitious Mr. Biedermeier was a sealing Swabian village teacher with simple mind, which according to Eichrodt its small room, its close garden, its unattractive marks help and the poor lot of a despised village school master to terrestrial luck blessedness.In the publications becomethe conventionalness, which karikiert and scoffs small spirit and the unpolitical attitude of large parts of the middle class.
- Look, there walks Mr. Biedermeier
- and his wife, the son at the arm;
- its footstep is sachte as on eggs,
- its Wahlspruch: Neither coldly nor warmly.
Allegedly Eichrodt very many later learned this poem to know only, after heits own conventional Meier poetry had long published. To test this statement Eichrodts does not leave itself certainly.
After 1900 the term conventional Meier was understood rather worth neutral however, as synonym for the new civil culture of the domesticity and the stress of the private one, as socialDwell phase before the circulation. In the extended sense it was then used also for art, literature and mode of this time.
the political situation
after the defeat Napoleon in the battle ofWaterloo and its banishing were converted the resolutions, which had been negotiated on the Viennese congress. It concerned a re-organization of Europe under the basic idea of the restoration. For this purpose the conservative monarchs emperors Franz I. went. of Austria,the Russian Zar Alexander I. and the Prussian king Friedrich William III. an alliance. They were driven in the long run by the fright ghost of the French revolution; they wanted to absolutely prevent a repetition.
An important political role played prince Metternich,native Rhine countries, which stood in the service of the Austrian emperor. It implemented the Carlsbad resolutions in such a way specified of 1819, which a strong restriction of any political manipulation meant. A strict censorship for all publications was introduced, including the music works.Man of letters such as Heinrich Heine and George Büchner emigrierten, just as Karl Marx, at that time editor of the Rheini newspaper in Cologne.
Without those Carlsbad resolutions is not conceivable the Biedermeier period; outside of Germany and Austria therefore also the term conventional Meier does not exist, therethe social development in other countries differently ran.
humans conventional Meier is karikiert as more entpolitisierter, of naive-authority-faithful efforts and harmony craze of driven small citizens. This and similar Konnotationen clingsthe literature” conventional Meier “until today on, as z. B.Franz Grillparzers ” the dream a life “, which can hardly be read today without irony:
- ” One is only luck hienieden,
- unity: the inside quiet peace
- and the debt-released chest!
- Andthe size is dangerous,
- and the fame an empty play,
- which it gives, are nicht'ge shade,
- what it takes, it is so much! “
Applicable is surely the statement that some authors conventional Meier from a conservative to reactionary basic attitude determineswere increasing and in a world coined/shaped by the industrialization and the urbanisation hereby accompanying for a simple, harmonious life back-longed themselves. In this sense the literature of the Biedermeier period is thus, like it itself in certain respects already ofto determine, idyllisierend and the Zeitgeschehen turned away and thus a reflex leaves to the romance on the social present, on an alienation and an emptying of sense, to which in the back meditation on elementary experiencing and work should be escaped. The man of letters conventional Meier were, inContrast to the romance, whose writer still predominantly recruited itself from the aristocracy, citizens, who often originated from rather simple conditions.
Nature was not the poets of the conventional Meier any more Projektionsfläche longing world and Ichschmerzes, but property and creation. Arising Forschungsreisen served the appreciation of all individual elements of this nature, of which many were also gladly collected, listed and issued at home then. And even if straight this appreciation referred then to the Christian God as a creator, then those locked Religiosität , but did not promote almost the zaghaften empirical interests. In addition, the criticism at the noticed alienation created a Elitarismus, which defined itself against ease and Zügellosigkeit.
Founder formulates this as” gentle law “: “[...] As it in thatoutside nature is, then it is also in the inside, in that of the human sex. A whole life fully justice, simplicity, defeating its, understanding in accordance withness, effectiveness into its circles, admiration of the beautiful one with cheerful calm dying to keep connected Ifor large: powerful movements mind, terribly rolling anger, which Begier after revenge, which ignited spirit, which for activity strives, outlines, changes, destroyed and in the excitation often the own life thrown, considers I not for larger, but smaller,since these things are so well only bringing out individual and one-sided forces, like storms, fire speiende mountains, earthquakes. We want to look for the gentle law to see, whereby the human sex is led. [...] It is [...] the law of the justice,the law of the custom, the law, which wants that everyone exists respected, honoured and safely beside the other one that it can go its higher human career, itself love and admiration of its fellow men acquires that he as Kleinod am guarded, howeach humans a Kleinod for all other humans are. This law lies everywhere, where humans beside humans live. “ (Vorrede to multicolored stones, 1853)
the conclusion of the time one seesgenerally in founder work. Its first novel late summer (by it the” narration “one called) appeared only 1857, was considered however nevertheless as the excellent work of the Biedermeier period. Founder affected both on Rosegger and Ganghofer, Heyse, Freytag und Wildenbruch wie auch direkt in den folgenden Bürgerlichen Realismus hinein, auf Storm und Fontane und über diese auf Thomas Mann und Hesse.
Founder work, which provided again and again for controversies, in addition, shows even already over thatBiedermeierliche handing out elements - in such a way e.g. is. in the novella Brigitta beside Sophokleisch Fatalisti also woman Mrs emancipatory.
Further ones the conventional Meier writer more or less who can be added are Annette of Droste Hülshoff, Franz Grillparzer, William Hauff, Karl liver-genuinly Immermann, Nikolaus Lenau, Eduard Mörike, William Mueller (“Greek Mueller”), Johann Nepomuk Nestroy, Ferdinand Raimund, Friedrich back ore and Leopold Schefer. Pure conventional Meier literature is however much rather within the trivial range, in literature calendars among other things It is at thisPlace it does not remain unmentioned that both founders and Raimund committed suicide. It is obvious that with them the biedermeierliche mentality was pure front, which did not have to do anything with the internal reality.
screen end art
In the forming art of the Biedermeier period dominated the category and the landscape painting, in addition, haven-guesses/advises. Religious and historical motives are missing nearly completely. The style was realistic, the pictures often resembled a photographic illustration. Model was the Netherlands painting17. Century. However the result desired was a pseudo realism, because the reality was gladly idealized and a little “was improved”. The water color technology achieved a very high level; for book illustrations now increasingly the Lithografie was used. As screen end artist conventional Meierapply the painters Moritz of shrink, for Friedrich Gauermann, Eduard gardner, Adolph Menzel (early work), Ludwig judge, Carl pointed way, Joseph Kriehuber and Ferdinand George forest Mueller. Judge was particularly in demand as Illustrator, he illustrated approximately 150Books. In the glass and porcelain painting the epoch is connected with the house painters Samuel poppy and Anton Kothgasser. For this time the opinion glass is furthermore typical.
also thoseMusic was determined for the first time in the phase conventional Meier by the civil taste. The house music attained great importance. In almost any living room now a piano was located. In demand were above all chamber music pieces; in the cities everywhere music companies and singing associations were created.The note publishing houses gave light, cheerful works in order with the composers above all, because the taste of the customers was crucial for the sales; particularly for the domestic purposes one had never composed before, but one had only reworked. In the piano music was clay-indicatingRobert Schumann, which was no conventional Meier composer nevertheless. Also Franz thrust ore is put to injustice now and then into this drawer. To call would rather be Ludwig Berger, Christian Heinrich Rinck or Leopold Schefer. Popular e.g. were. the songs William of Mueller.
Conventional Meier is also the time of the tome, whose center was naturally Vienna. It developed from the Ländler danced usually in the free one. To the Tanzveranstaltungen the masses flowed, were permitted Fröhlichkeit omitted here nevertheless. Composerand Kapellmeister were partly celebrated like star, everything in front Johann bunch (father) and Joseph Lanner. Much was also the ballet likes, in Vienna celebrated the ballet dancer Fanny Elssler of triumphs. Outstanding female singing star were Henriette Sontag and Jenny the Lind.
new one civil culture
with the term conventional Meier is meant primarily also a civil culture, those in the first half 19. Century developed. The middle class cultivated the private andFamily life in completely new extent. Not the representation was the center of attention, but the domestic luck in the own four walls, which became the retreat place. Civil virtues such as diligence, honesty, loyalty, obligation feeling, modesty were raised to general principles. The conventional Meier living room was the prototype of the today's living room, and was probably introduced at that time the expression cosiness. Sociability was maintained within small framework, with the Kaffeekränzchen, at the table reserved for regulars, with the house music, in addition, in the Viennese coffee houses.
The civil family structure, the man the head of the family was patriarchalisch; the sphere of activity of the woman was the household. The wealthier middle class busy personnel, under it a cook, a Kutscher, a child woman, for babies also a Amme, every now and then a house teacher. The most important femaleLeisure activities were manual work and the piano play, which had to learn each citizen daughter. Substantially more attention than one before dedicated also to the child education and the children's room. Developed for the first time own child mode, which was not only a copy the adult mode. ThoseToy industry experienced its first bloom.1840 created Friedrich Fröbel in bath bright castle the first kindergarten.
in the Biedermeier period experienced also the theatre an upswing, but instead of instruction maintenance was, in demand thus a break with the ideals of the clearing-up. From the national theatres again yard theatres, like in Berlin, became where infirst line the Prussian king determined, what in the Schauspielhaus was specified. The theatre metropolises of this time were Vienna and Berlin. Between 1815 and 1830 Schauspielhaus, but only 56 tragedies had nearly 300 comedies premiere in the citizen of Berlin. Much likes at the publicwere also Parodien, even Goethe and Shakespeare were not spared. Nestroy managed it 1857 to specify in Vienna a Parodie on Wagners Tannhäuser before the original had at all premiere.
Naturally also plays and operas were censored. In Austriathe censors sat even with the conceptions in the public. The theatre authors dealt with the censorship differently: Many adapted like Raimund; Grillparzer, which was also a civil servant, wrote some only for the drawer, while Nestroy occupies several times with finesbecame and even a term of imprisonment to serve had.
architecture and furniture
the substantial characteristic of conventional Meier architecture is the elegant, but rather style smooths, whereby it was in the long run a variant of the classicism. This stylethe buildings of monumental of this time, conventional Meier the civil residential areas coined/shaped. The most important architect of this epoch was the citizen of Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel, but its drafts were not biedermeierlich. The most important conventional Meier architect was surely Joseph Kornhäusel, that its traces forwardseverything in Vienna and bathing with Vienna, which left summer residence of the Austrian emperor. To bathe after a fire starting from 1812 completely again one rebuilt. Since Kornhäusel admits much was, he received also orders of the aristocracy.
Conventional Meier furniture does not follow uniformStyle, draw however likewise by simple elegance out. They had a less representative character, but should the impression of comfort spread, above all be also appropriate. The first furniture of this kind developed in Vienna, whereby English served furniture as model.Great importance was attached with production to the quality relating to crafts. For conventional Meier small furniture is typical such as bureaus, secretaries or sewing small tables. In Vienna the furniture manufacturer Joseph Danhauser senior coined/shaped the new housing tradition. Into this time also that fallsSuccess of the nose wood furniture of Michael Thonet, which originated from Boppard and was gotten 1842 from the Austrian yard to Vienna. It sketched the equipment of the palace Liechtenstein in Vienna.
afterthe epoch of the Empire - style (1795-1820) those became lady mode in the conventional Meier simpler, in addition, clearly more uncomfortable. The waist was stressed again clearly starting from 1835, and hoar frost skirt and Korsett became indispensable articles of clothing of the higher layers. Already starting from 1820 those becameSleeve of the daily dresses so voluminös that they were hinderlich even with piano plays. They are called mutton club sleeves. In form they were brought by means of Rosshaar and fish leg. Much were examined materials like: cross-hatched, touched or geblümt. For the evening becamegladly schillernde silk materials selected. The typical head coverage of this time was the Schute, a hood-similar hat. The shoes were flat, without paragraph. Important accessories were Kashmir scarf and sun screen. The conventional Meier hair-styles were first aufwändig and with volumes and loops were decorated,starting from 1835 the hair was combed however simply to a neck knot (Chignon) with lateral Korkenzieherlocken.
Also the Herrenmode conventional Meier was everything but comfortably. Mode model from 1800 to approximately 1830 was the Dandy, its prototype thatEnglishman George Bryan Brummell was. In this time also the male clothes were closely tailliert carried, so that many men seized to a tying belt. The shirts had a parricide in such a way specified - collar, which constricted the neck. In addition became since 1815for the first time long trousers (Pantalons) carried, the touched or geblümte west as well as a going skirt or a Frack. Head coverage was the cylinder. Important were also the artful geknotete tie, a Spazierstock, gloves and a watch, possibly. stilla Lorgnette. After 1820 did not apply also baking, oberlippen or chin beard any longer as revolutionary, the full beard however were considered than symbol of the liberalism. Essential long Koteletten was mentioned, Favoris at this time.
- Joachim bark: Conventional Meier and Vormärz/civil realism. History of the German literature, Bd.3, Klett publishing house, 2001, ISBN 3-12-347441-0
- Marianne Bernhard: Conventional Meier: Culture between Viennese congress and March revolution, Duesseldorf, Econ publishing house, 1983
- Helmut Bock: Departure into the citizen world:Life pictures from Vormärz and conventional Meier, Münster, 1994
- Klaus D. Filler: Successful child book authors conventional Meier. Christoph of forge, Leopold Chimani, Gustav Nieritz, Christian God praise Barth. Frankfurt/M., 2005, ISBN 3-63-1545169
- Johann Kräftner: Conventional Meier in the house Liechtenstein Vienna, Vienna, publishing house Prestel,2005, ISBN 3-79-1334964
- Renate Krüger: Conventional Meier: a living standard between 1815 and 1848, Vienna 1979
- Konstanze of center villages: Conventional Meier or the luck in the house: Building and living in Vienna and Berlin 1800-1850, Vienna 1991
- Hans Ottomeyer: Conventional Meier luck and end... the disturbed idyl 1815-1848, Munich, publishing house Hugendubel, 1987
- Gerhard Schildt: Departure from the comfort: Germany in the conventional Meier 1815-1847, Braunschweig 1989
- Angus Wilkie: Conventional Meier: Elegance and beauty of a new housing tradition at the beginning 19. Century, Cologne, publishing houseTo DuMont, 1987
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