Screen end art
the term screen end art has itself since early 19. Century in the German linguistic area as comprehensive term for the visually arranging arts in-patriated. In German screen end becomes art - differently than in the French (les Beaux kind) or in the Italian (le barks arti) - differentiated of the representing arts (theatre, dance, film art) and the literature as well as the music, whereby there are increasingly overlaps. During itself works of the other artsin the temporal operational sequence carry out, exists a work of the forming art as physical-spatial thing, which works no interpreter by itself and necessarily, in order by the recipient to be usually noticed.
Among the forming art originally ranked the architecture, sculpture, painting and diagram as well as arts and crafts, which are called also applied art or customs art. In consequence of the development of new media and the progressive expansion of the art term in 20. Century is today continued to seize the term screen end art very manyand is not to be distinguished in individual cases any longer clearly from other art forms. Thus up to the beginning of the modern trend above all visually and often haptisch experiencable work of art becomes in 20. and 21. Century as required process orientated, changes itself for instance to the pure ideaor exists only as procedural instruction. In place of the generic term the current screen end defines itself art strictly speaking by the term of the operating system art, to which established representatives of the art criticism, the art trade, collecting tank and the art museums belong.
artistic techniques and technical terms
a detailed list of all techniques of the forming art includingrelevant technical terms is here:
of the forming art an alphabetical assortment of artistic techniques:
the most comprehensive list of important representatives of the forming art -after epochs, and partially to countries sorts kinds - the portal offers: Screen end art.
Beyond that there are the following special lists at present:
- after kinds
- list of the painters
- list of famous sculptors
- Liste of well-known photographers
- Liste of well-known architects
- after epochs
- to countries
- list of Italian sculptors
- Liste Austrian educating artist
- list Polish educating artist
- list of Hungarian artists
- list of Russian painters
- list Swiss painter
- according to German Lands of the Federal Republic
- alphabetical one finds screen end artist sorted in addition in underthese references
- artists generally - painter - sculptor - photographer - architect - Kupferstecher - Lithograf - Radierer - draughtsman - Goldschmied - Stuckateur - Keramiker - concept artist - installation artist - medium artist - performance artist - emergency name
The first works of art of humans were religiously/ritually motivated, later concerned it with painting and sculpture usually order art for religious institutions (in Europe: the church) or member of social Oberschichten (in Europe: the aristocracy and in the following the middle class).The motives and picture language were subject to often strict conventions in most cultures. In Europe the discovery of the perspective and other technical inventions changed the art radically. The emergence of an art, which served no more special use as self purpose (L'art pourl'art), again the relationship of artist, society and work of art changed. Art often became on the basis of the European culture area the expression and only possible place of utopias or took over tasks of the religion. Today the professional screen end art of one is globalacting art market determines, which continues to grow ever. In the western countries increasingly also public funds or art places are replaced such as museums by private-economical institutions and private donations. Discussions around the contemporary art term find in the art criticism, art theory and onthe academies of arts instead of. Originally in Europe and North America concentrated art enterprise becomes increasing for the 1990er years from the developing countries, like e.g. Brazil, South Africa, Korea or the Gulf States with own Biennalen among other things into a world-wide network extends.
history and epochs of the forming art
here a short history of the forming art is described. For a development of the art term see the article art, for a development of the general aesthetics see the article aesthetics. For the art term of Asia, Africa, old America and Ozeaniens see African art, Chinese art, Buddhisti art, Islamic art.
| This article or section is still incomplete and exhibits the following gaps :|
Here at present that becomes at an outlineEuropean history of art worked (completion still in April)! Contributions to the non-European history of art of specialists are most welcome!
the Prähistorie, thus the prehistory, covers the periodof the beginning of the people becoming up to the introduction of the writing. Since the writing was not introduced at the same time everywhere, the prehistory is for instance in Egypt already around 4. Millenium before Chr. to the end, during it e.g. in Northern Europe at some placesstill to in 12. Century after Chr. persists. According to the artistic inheritances, which are delivered by excavations from this time nearly only , are various.
To the earliest certifications to artistic organization belong cave painting, rock design and rock cutting. Similarly asthe finds of small Statuetten (lion human being) one dates the oldest cave pictures (Chauvet cave) on approximately 30,000 years before our time calculation. And they all have vormutlich a ritual background. There are e.g. interesting settlement finds. in Çatal Hüyük, wherebefore approximately 8000 years also Wandmalereien developed.
With beginning of the permanence in the Jungsteinzeit different materials are more skillfully worked on more intensively and: Clay/tone, ceramic(s), wood, late metals such as bronze (Bronzezeit), copper and iron. VerzierteContainers, Gürtelschnallen, Schwertknäufe, garb clips (booklets) and similar articles as well as dead masks found at the body of Bestatteten or coins are the most frequent artifacts, at which the archaeology can fasten the organization urge of before-historical humans. Of “art” in the today'sSenses cannot be spoken yet. Arranged articles beyond the daily use like the recently found sky disk of Nebra, which shows the first well-known cosmological representation, are extremely rare.
The Eisenzeit brings the celtic culture out in Europe, thoseof 4. pre-Christian up to 5. after-Christian century a considerable artistic production to show knows. From the celtic art particularly the ornamental art has a lasting effect strongly in the high Middle Ages , where the book painting on the devoured knots and climbing this geometrisierenden stylefalls back.
screen end art of Europe and the Mediterranean area
approx. 3100 v. Chr. Egypt under the rule of the Menes was combined, with which first of the 30 dynasties began, into thoseOf Egypt old history one divides:Old realm, middle realm and new realm. With the hieroglyphics develops a picture writing, which is natural the switching of contents over pictures.
The Egyptian art serves exclusively the dead cult and thatGod admiration. The characteristic Egyptian style of the representations - excluding profile or frontal opinion with persons, strong schematizing with simultaneous tendency to manufacture similarities - develops already in the old person realm and remains, apart from certain changes under the influence of the policyEchnatons, 3000 years quasi invariably. Wandmalereien or reliefs in grave chambers were not intended for the view by a material public, but “it lives kept for the order of the dead one” (P. Meyer). Timelessness is a central request of all representations. The dead ones should be prepared for the eternity. That leads squatting figures, which are to outlast their existence in the dead realm in this position, in plastics so far, starting from a certain moment as Kubus to be only represented.
In old ägytischen architecture becomesmuch knocked against, which is further-obtained over the Greek antique one to the European history of art. Like that the Lotuskapitell of the Egyptian column ( has its own roots in the stone marks of the Megalithkulturen ) is a stylistic forerunner of the Korinthi column and the Egyptian Palmettenrankedevelops itself further in antique Friesen ornamental.
3. - 2. Millenium v. Chr.
the Greek art of the antique ones developed starting from approximately 1050 v. Chr. Their becomes in thatrecent research also the preceding Kretisch Mykeni art added, those already certifications from that 16. Century v. Chr. left. The most important, artistically meaning finds of the archaeology are sculptures from bronze or marble, painted vases and Wandfresken.
The kretisch mykenischen finds becomedivided into the periods Frühmykenisch (Mykenisch I: approx. 1600 - 1500 v. Chr.), Mittelmykenisch (Mykenisch II: approx. 1500 - 1400 v. Chr.) and Spätmykenisch (Mykenisch III: approx. 1400 - 1050 v. Chr.).
Those Greek art becomes into the art-historical epochs geometrical style (approx. 1050 - 675 v. Chr.), Archaik (700 - 500 v. Chr.), classical period (500 - 325 v. Chr.) and brightism (325 - 150 v. Chr.) divided.
From the Greek painting is keep unfortunately as good as nothing more, although there are an abundance of literary certifications and not few well-known names of painters (Apelles, Zeuxis etc. see also list of the antique artists).
the Roman art unfolded approximately of 5. Century v. Chr. up to 5. Century n. Chr. and long time under the aspect of its dependence on the Greek was evaluated. Indeed owes itselffor instance the today's knowledge of the Greek sculpture to a considerable degree the fact that important works of the Greek bronze casters - that had again melted because of the high materials value long - when Roman marble copies were delivered. Nevertheless the art has of theRoman realm in painting, walked on sculpture and particularly in architecture also new ways. Thus e.g. made possible. the employment of cement in Roman architecture for the first time widespread domes (Pantheon). Were trained in Rome and its provinces alsoalready most building types, which were taken over by the early Christianity for its Sakralarchitektur:Zentralbau, Basilika and mehrschiffige resound. Contemporary descriptions of art and art theory supplied for example the writer Plinius the older one and the architect Vitruv.
earlyChristian art are at the first places, at which the new religion spread, for the first century after Chr. demonstrably: in the holy country and in Rome.In accordance with the living conditions of a suppressed movement are partially hidden into these discovery sites in Rome: Wandmalereien and simple altars in Katakomben rank among the earliest certifications.
With the seizure of power emperor Konstantins becomes the Christianity in the year 313 first the othersReligions on an equal footing and in the consequence then state religion, why its symbolic indications, buildings and pictures can leave the conspiratorial places of the early period. By the division of the Roman realm in west Rome and east Rome, where Konstantin the old Byzantion tonew capital Konstantinopel developed, develop two different denominations, which see their differences to a not small part in respective handling the pictures of the holy one. While old Rome after the storms of the people migration time to the center that Roman-catholic church ascends, unfolds in Konstantinopel the orthodox Christianity.
To its special achievements the development of a mobile cult picture , to the icon , belongs which becomes a central component of the orthodox Liturgie. Solitär or as picture wall (Ikonostase)it is located in the center of the picture admiration and trains many new representational forms. Their success causes the picture controversy , in which itself the two fundamental attitudes to pictures for the entire history of the art exemplary opposite as reaction: Ikonoklasten and Ikonodulen.
Among emperors Justinian new cultural centers develop for Ravenna also in the west, with buildings and picture decoration are particularly revalued. Mosaics of San the vital one and Sant'Apollinare in Classe rank among the besterhalteten certifications of this specifically Byzantine art form. Both inFixed picture types, which illustrate theological contents in fixed forms, develop mosaic as also with the icons.
The typical design of the othodoxen church is the cross dome church.
the Byzantine realm and concomitantly its art ends with thatCase Konstantinopels 1453 and its appropriation by the Turks. The orthodox churches of Eastern Europe maintain further the tradition of the icon painting, due to the strictly reglementierten organization repeat these works usually however only older models.
Vorromanik and Romanesque
as itself Karl the large one in the year 800 in Rome to the emperor to crown leaves, does not only justify it one to in 16. Century continuing political practice, but renews also aesthetically a European tradition. Its returnto the Roman ex metropolis shrunk in the people migration time to a village it can be read on the one hand as first after-antique tying to the large time of the Roman realm why art production under Karl is called also karolingische Renaissance. Secondly connectsitself the Kaisertum engstens with from now on most important power, which will produce also the most buildings and pictures: the Roman-catholic church. If the merowingische art and its predecessors still the celtic culture last themselves to add leave, the karolingische art unfoldsalready the wealth and the variety of a “style “, which spreads owing to the power expansion of Karl in completely Central Europe. In the painting works of the book painting and the Wandmalerei protrude , a set of illustrated handwriting arrange one a yard schoolOf the Karl's large one too. In architecture approximately with the Aachener Pfalzkappelle one tries, which to-activates temple designs of the Roman Kaiser era.
The Karolingern following Ottonen lead the qualityful book painting away (e.g. the Reichenauer painter school) and ensures, like the following Salier and Staufer for many new buildings of churches among other things in the areas of the expansion eastward. Roman architecture draws, v.a. in the comparison to the following gothic, by their firm building method and a militaryful character out. Churches had often still thoseFunction of castles fulfill (military church), large windows were possible and for safety reasons not desired technically not yet. On the other hand a high need of wall surface stood for the Wandmalerei. Further decoration were two-colored volume run gene of the columns and Gewölbegurte, as well asSculptures at portals and Lettnern density Roman buildings e.g. are. the Speyerer cathedral, the abbey of Cluny. In addition important ones skulpturale works of art are received , among other things from bronze the Hildesheimer Bernwardssäule. The blossoming Reliquienhandel benefits arts and crafts, thatas well as the demand for magnificent Reliquiaren produces the liturgical requirements of the church (Tabernakel, lecture crosses, measuring cups, embroidered liturgical garbs, Radleuchter etc.). With the emergence of new reform medals (Cluniazenser, Cistercian etc.) stricter building codes and precise regulations developfor artistic organization, which out-differentiate the form development ever more.
With the development of a new architectural style at the beginning 12. Century in France one epoch is introduced, under thatlater will originally coin/shape selected and devaluing meant term gothic up to the end of the Middle Ages the art of the evening country. By the discovery that the weight of building loads, in particular to covers, by prop elbow away from the wall can be shifted outward,became possible large window areas, which let the gothical cathedral become the light-through-flooded solidium. As establishment building the choir of the abbey church of Saint Denis is considered with Paris, as high points of the French high gothic the cathedrals of Chartres, Reims, Notre-Dame de Paris and the Sainte Chapelle. In at that time German-speaking countries are particularly to call free citizens Münster, the Strassburger Münster, the Cologne cathedral and the Prager Veitsdom. The development of the painting owed its largest impulse to a criminal act: those Venezianer bring a new type of picture to Konstantinopels from their plundering in the context of the fourth crusade of 1204 into the west. The icon is mobiles a board picture and becomes soon as most important carriers for painting triumphieren, where so far only on walls -whether as Fresko or glass painting on larger the window areas become - and in handwriting one painted. In Italy, where the icon arrives first, codevelops also first a western mark tradition, those with Duccio a first large painter brings out andthe first user of the perspective, Giotto di Bondone, the laminarness, to overcome those meaning perspective and the nature distance of the Middle Ages already again tries. The sculpture unfolds as particularly in the Romanesque at the fronts and portals thatlarge buildings of churches, north the alps however particularly in a special form of the wing altar, the carving altar. Particularly in Southern Germany point works in the workshops of Tilman belt cutter, Veit impact and the Erhard from Ulm develop in the late gothic.
With the emancipation of the buyers and sailors in the Italian city states and principalities such as Florenz (Toskana), Mantua, Urbino, Genova and Venice developsnew public for art beyond church or feudaler clients, which can take up cultural influences of most diverse art centers owing to international trade. Coincidental and purposeful finds of antique works of art at the same time carry a new view particularly in Rome on humans and its arrangedImage. The Renaissance takes 14 in the Italy. There century its beginning and reaches in 15. and 16. Century their high point. In the other European countries the new art pulls off approx. 1500 finally. Both in architecture howin the sculpture one takes oneself the antique one directly to the model: Proportions, classical Säulenordnungen, designs like the Portikus, which becomes Ädikula taken over and with other elements (domes) combined. The artists free themselves from the zünftischenOccupation organizations of the Middle Ages, become self-confident, mark their works and present themselves. The ever more skillful application of the Zentralperspektive (their first mathematically correct transmission in the fig. 1426 Masaccio in its Dreifaltigkeitsfresko in Santa Maria Novella in Florenz to have succeeded is)made possible ever naturenear representations.
1600 - 1720
1600 - 17701760 - 1830
1720 - 1770
1750 - 1850
1830 - 1870
1842 - 1945 Impressionismus, symbolism, art nouveau, expressionism, Fauvismus, Kubismus, Futurismus, Dadaismus, Surrealismus, Constructionalism, kind Déco, building house, abstract expressionism, Pop kind, fantastic realism
art of the Khmer
Hinduisti art - Buddhisti art
a comprehensive key word list to all kinds, epochs, techniques, contents and subranges that Screen end art is forming art in the portal.
- the history of the art, E.H. Gombrich, Berlin: Phaidon1996
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