Biografie

of these articles treats the description of the life of a person. For the US-American film company bio graph see under: American Mutoscope and bio graph company.

A Biografie (biography) (Greek βιογραφία, of βíος - the life and γραφή -the writing) is the biography of a person.

The personal record to describe is also sense construction. This continues to lead to the question about the subjectively meant and the life taken place objectively.

An autobiography is present, if it of the concernedHumans (majority) or he was written at least as an author applies. In the book trade there are many autobiographies of prominent ones, whose truth content in further books is doubted. Sometimes in the family group autobiographies are attached to the will. It is of the life a traceremain remaining - the descendants are to know, what was.

In the professional old person care the biography brings advantages in a “personal making” the up to then relatively anonymous PatienIn/customer in the home. Because many female patients/customers draw in there, without their life history admits would be.They appear first as an accumulation of problem situations and not necessarily as over decades a matured personality. Belonging one, which could be asked in addition, are also not well-known sometimes. The biography is there thus first like a puzzle with manyBlank characters, which can be filled out only gradually with the events of the individual life.


Table of contents

to Biografie

as literature kind treated thoseBiografie usually persons of the public life such as politicians, scientists, sportsmen, writers or humans, who made an important social contribution through their working. It belongs to the Monographien, if it has only one author and to the class of the autobiographies, if she wrote the described person.

An early example of a heroisierende biography of a political ruler from the antique one are for instance the Res Gestae. In addition, the Biografien of some (up to then) unknown quantities persons is common (z.B.Anna Wimschneider, autumn milk).

Life pictures are short Biografien of such persons without historical rank. They become often of Genealogen, families - and homeland researchers writes; Biografien against it of bio counts. The described persons are depending upon requirement, historical meaning orInterpretation related, simple fellow men or historical, cultural or important personalities. Colloquially sometimes also (in terms of catchwords) the personal record of humans is called its Biografie (alsoVita “).

The argument with the own Biografie - which own personal record - is and. A. Topic and contents of the rather psychoanalytisch aligned Biografiearbeit.

the origins of the Biografie in the antique Greece

definition

after Momigliano: Representation of the life of humans from the birth to death.

After Friedrich Leo: chronological representation from birth to death, grouping of the events around the main person, collection of the life after Rubrike, moral-didactical adjustment.

These are modern collections of the antique biography, but no own literature theory seized in the antique one.

AfterLeo gives it to two forms, from which first, literarily little fastidious is meant, for persons of the spirit life, the second, clearly quality-fuller form, for politicians, kings and field gentlemen is meant (school of the Peripatos). This became however with the find ofSatyros' biography of the Euripides (dialogue form) shakes.

emergence

the biography originated in in 4. Century v. Chr. as a product of the transition of the dissolving Polis - culture of the classical time for the monarchy of the brightistic time.

In thatdemocratic Polis prevailed the ideal forwards that it was not a sum of individuals, but a real community. After the peloponnesischen war introduced and by Philipp II. of Macedonia and Alexander D. Large claimant development led with the Greeksto a stronger putting of the individual out. For the Polis era the historiography is characteristic, while the biography is characteristic for the brightistic era.

Also the close and Gelehrtenbiographien budded, since individualizing introduction held also here. It was not sufficientmore the works of the poets to have, but one wanted to read also the Viten.

When prototype applies for Platons Apologie, which contains numerous biographic notes on the life of the Sokrates to the close and Gelehrtenbiographien. It is only one part of onepronounced Sokrates - literature.

The biography as literature kind can be rated due to the points mentioned as indication for certain political-social processes.

Somewhat completely different one is the personal record or the tabular personal record (vita) in a written application for a post. A ritualisiertes letter,in order to place itself into a positive light. So far still completely similarly to the autobiography. But this “personal record” particularly serves putting completely certain vocational characteristics out in its Sturkturierung. This is not treated here.


biography in the Greece of the5. Century

from the framework under 2. described process fall the biographic excursions in the works of the historians Herodot and Thukydides.

Herodot describes the life of the Kyros in its histories into that already admitted categories (I, 107-130: Descent,Birth, childhood and youth; I, 177-188: selected acts and achievements; I, 201-214: last campaign and death) and the Kambyses (III, 1-66). These two Viten are coined/shaped from excursions and many narrations besides. These biographies unusual for the Poliszeit would be allowed to do twoReasons have: on the one hand both were porträtiert, straight because them no Greeks, but exponents of a monarchistic regime were, whatever in Aischylos' Persern was outlined impressive already, on the other hand gave it by the numerous sources from inscriptions over thoseTo report kings much. The Herodot originating from small Asia united the peculiarities of the culture areas, which touched themselves here.

Thukydides describes the life of the Themistokles in the Pentekontaetie in the first book its history of the peloponnesischen war in chapters 135-138 betweenBanishing and death and before in chapters 128-134 the fate of the Spartaners Pausanias. Both episodes tell history of banished politicians, who made themselves earned around their pole ice. With consideration of the fate of Thukydides, which banishesbecame, one may regard these passages not as character study and view of both persons, but as criticism in handling earnings-rich personalities in the Polis.

As only complete biography the work of the Skylax of Karyanda , that is considered to that time the lifethe Herakleides of Mylassa tells. In addition, here again the point relevant with Herodot is interesting that it acts itself the hinge between the culture areas. Herakleides was Karer and this was a people in small Asia.

Biography in the classical time of Greece

of ISOC advice created Enkomion from the kinds (before in verse masses, never on politicians, but on persons from artistic-athletic circles, example: Among other things with their Epinikien) and Epitaphios (speeches on the war-dead, not on individuals, buton the collective of the pleasures, example Thukydies II, 34-46, Epitaphios of the Perikles on the pleasures of the peloponnesischen war) the Prosa Enkomion, the Vita of the Euagoras. Es wurde vielleicht zwischen 370 und 365 v. Chr. abgefasst, in jedem Fall frühzeitig nach dem Tod des Euagoras 373 v. Chr. Gliederung: cap. 1-11: Vorwort, in cap. 8 beschreibt Isokrates, dass er beide Gattungen verbindet und ist sich somit der Innovation bewusst; cap. 12-21: Herkunft und Familie des Euagoras; cap. 22/23: Kindheit des Euagoras; ab cap. 24: politische Karriere des Euagoras; Abschluss: Anweisung an den Sohn des Euagoras, dem Vater nachzueifern. Charakteristisch für dieses Werk: Erhebung des Euagoras über andere, Erhebung in die Nähe der Götter --> individualizing in the Greek culture area.

Xenophon wrote the biography of the Agesilaos and the Kyrupaideia. In thatIt praises the spartanischen king Agesilaos to Agesilaos biography, which is clearly shorter than ISOC advice' Euagoras; Xenophon had established itself after the campaign of the Kyros against its brother, the Perserkönig Artaxerxes, which he processed in the Anabasis, in Sparta and with Agesilaosmade friends. This biography preserves clearly the life of the Agesilaos and omits details. Proof for this is Xenophons Hellenika, which reports details from the life of the Agesilaos, which into the enkomiastische tendency of the biography does not fit. Arrangement: cap. 1,1-5: Introduction, praise intention,Origin; 1,6-2,31: praising representation of the acts (under Weglassung and indulgence!); 3,1-10,4: Catalog of the Aretai of the Agesilaos; 11: Summary. Characteristic: Vergleichsmöglichkeit between the bio graph Xenophon and the Historiographen Xenophon.

Not clearly the biography to assign is the Kyrupaideia, which unites several kinds(Historical representation, historical novel, didactical novel, educating writing, military manual, Enkomion). Much is fantasy, digressions serves as certification of good personal shape. At the end Xenophon compares current Persia with the Persia of the Kyros and places a destroying judgement over Persia its timeup.

Greek biography in the brightism and in the early Kaiser era

the developments mentioned above fully, those developed brightistic monarchy the Poliswesen perfectly displaced. As an age of the individual the brightism almost required Viten of politicians, field gentleman,Artists and philosophers. This probably settled in a very large quantity of texts, which are as far as possible not received to us, as this is generally typical for the brightism. Unfortunately it is not in terms of figures even to be suspected, like largely thosebiographic production now was real.

Theophrasts of characters are not biographies in the actual sense, but represent behavior patterns. They can have served as empirical studies for a larger work. Theophrast nevertheless belonged to the Peripatos, the one biographic direction the namesgave. The characters direct the focus completely strongly on the individual and on the individual character. This becomes coining/shaping for the further brightistic biography.

Aristoxenos from Tarent (geb. 370 v. Chr. ; Death) wrote numerous works unclearly (altogether 453 books),competitor of the Theophrast for the follow-up of the Aristoteles was as Scholarch of the Peripatos. Contrary to other Peripatetikern it was not generally experienced, but specializes in music and biography. It wrote mainly philosopher biographies, perhaps also a Alexander biography, therePlutarch one refers to a description Alexanders by Aristoxenos.

Hermippos from Smyrna (geb. zw. 289 and 277 v. Chr. ; gest. after the death of the Chrysippos, which between 208 and 204 v. Chr. died) developed the biography of the Peripatetikerfurther. It belonged to this school not, but lived in Alexandria. Plutarch appoints itself in several places to Hermippos. He seems to have written numerous biographies. Sueton is after-said for two reasons a similarity to Hermippos: on the one handlet both gossip and anecdotes flow, on the other hand have both numerous source material, because Hermippos could access the library in Alexandria, while Sueton had imperial archives under itself.

Satyros was born at the black sea. Its life data are not closerto determine, its life must however before the reign of the Ptolemaios VI. Philometor (180-145 v. Chr lay.) or into the reign to have in-handed. The certifications of Satyros are only meager. one found a papyrus with one to 1912 in Oxyrhynchoslonger cutout from a Euripides biography. Historians see herein a proof for the unbroken interest of the brightism in the large classical authors. There are however two characteristics of this biography: Satyros did not operate source research, but the facts from the tragedies of the Euripideseven and from the comedies of the Aristophanes, which outlines Euripides even as a woman enemy. In addition Satyros wrote this biography as dialogue, in which the author is interlocutor of the Euripides. Biographies of Pythagors, Empedokles, Platon, Diogenes, Alkibiades, Dionysios are occupiedII. of Syrakus and Philipp II. of Macedonia, in addition over the seven ways. It wrote also a work with the title “over characters”.

Antigonos of Karystos (2. Half of the 3. Century) wrote excluding Philosophenbiographien. It did not write chronologically or afterSystem, but tried to draw character pictures. Usually its biographies describe the way to philosophy and death, are thus not comprehensive not the life. To it referred later in the 3. Century n. Chr. Diogenes Laertios.

Alkidamas (around 400 v. Chr.)wrote the famous Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, in the Homer and Hesiod with one another matches. It is written in hexadecimal meters and contains also biographic.


The probably most famous biographies of our culture area are however in the new will and are to the excrescences thatbrightistic literature to assign, since the canonical EH gelists is considered as brightistic education, to be certain this seems with Lukas.

The gospels exhibit biographic characteristics, contain the birth (except Mk), the genealogy (Mt, process card), the acts Jesu, its process and finally death,as well as additive and new fact the reon purchasing.

This steps out most clearly with Lukas: Prooimion, announcements of the births Johannes D. Täufers and Jesu, births, baptism, family tree, lectures equal sneezing SE miracle, communion, betrayal, process, death, reon purchasing, Ascension Day. With the Ascension Day those endspersonalisierte representation of the history of the core of the core of the Christianity. Now no more plays the person Jesus the large role, but the community of the young for further history, which leads to the fact that Lukas after the Ascension Day on the historiographyturns. This almost turned around the process of individualizing, only evenly.

Plutarch

Plutarch became 45 n. Chr. in Chaironeia in Böotien born. Its family was wealthy. Since it was financially independent, it could study philosophy in Athens.Plutarch did not become philosophy scientist, thus he was a philosopher, who formulated its own teachings. To the study it returned to Chaironeia and remained there refrained, from some journeys. In Rome he learned the Q emperor-trusted. Sosius Senecio know. L.It had to owe Mestrius Florus the citizen right, for which it accepted the name Mestrius Plutarchus. He noticed some offices in Chaironeia and belonged to the Priesterkollegium of Delphi. 125 n. Chr. Plutarch the largest part of its work diedthe Moralia took, those consisted of 78 single writings. They treat popular-historical, philosophical and everyday questions.

Plutarch wrote biographies for the emperors von Augustus to Vitellius. The biographies of Otho and Galba are received, with Tiberius and Nero have onestill fragments, which is remainder lost. The Kaiserviten describes sequentially history and is not worked not as Einzelviten.

The Parallelbiographien of the Plutarch shows in each case a Greek and Romans, who were connected by special achievements, characteristics or qualities. The Parallelbiographienare thus not meant as name for biographies, which the Viten of parallel living humans describes. The sequence, in which Plutarch wrote, is unknown, in the today's editions is arranged the biographies according to the data of the Greek in each case person. Inthe Perikles Vita receive we the reference that Plutarch the Viten not when complete work planned, but it wrote gradually and gave change. Up to a pair the Parallelbiographien is received: Epaminondas and Scipio Africanus are lost. After the assumption formedit the prelude of the Parallelbiographien. The pairs: Thesis US Romulus: Stadtgründer; Lykurg/Numa Pompilius: Legislator; Solon/Poplica: Reformer; Aristeides/Cato the older one: outstanding custom-strict politicians; Themistokles/Camillus: outstanding military and strategic achievements; Kimon/Lucullus: military quality; Perikles/Fabius Maximus: first misjudged,then confirms and both Zögerer; Nikias/Crassus: large military defeat with own death; Alkibiades/Coriolan: the sides changed in arguments; Lysandros/Sulla: military earnings/services; Agesilaos/Pompeius: military talent; Pelopidas/Marcellus: military abilities; Dion/Brutus: Fight against Tyrannen; Timoleon/Aemilius Paullus:„political supervisors “; Demosthenes/Cicero: outstanding speakers, placed abilities into the service of the fight for the liberty; Phokion/Cato the younger one: Fight for liberty and self-determination; Alexander/Caesar: Field gentlemen; Eumenes/Sertorius: as a foreigner army leader; The tri OS Antonius: Mixture of positive and negative characteristics;Pyrrhos/Marius: military qualities; Agis and Kleomenos/Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus: Social reformer; Philopoimen/Flaminius: Benefactor of the Greeks, characteristic: both contemporaries of the Plutarch and had to do contrary to all other somewhat with one another.

One asks oneself reliably, what Plutarch toLetters of such biographies moved have. It may have been striving to compare the large personalities of Greek country with Romans in order to show the equivalence from Romans and Greeks to. Furthermore prevailed in the time, in which it wrote the Parallelbiographien (1.Half 2. Century), a pronounced Greek friendliness within the cultural range.

Autobiografie

a Autobiografie („self description “) is present, if the Biografie is written by the person concerned or it is considered at least as an author. Many prominent ones also beginningprofessional Ghostwriter helpfully to the side.

Much auto+biographic takes itself already first of the self views of the Roman emperor Mark Aurel. As first Autobiografie in the actual sense „the Confessiones(„confessions “) of the Aurelius Augustinus is considered; it wrote it inthe years 397 and 398.

To the auto+biographic texts also the memoirs belong („memories “). With them the weighting is often more on the outstanding events interesting for a broad public and the author throws an extended view of allin it persons took part.

see major items: Autobiografie


the life as succession of different events

kinds of events

a personal record can consist of the succession of most different events. Some are foreseeable and for many persons of a generation within a period of life very probably = normative events

other events have an time-historical character.All living persons in this country heard of it, it saw. The meanings are however different depending upon embarrassment and age very. (Examples: the Second World War, thatCase of the wall, the 11. September 2001)

Critical life events can give a turn to a personal record in an unexpected direction, this life crisis can have later quite positive consequences. This positive or negative idiom is is rather feared not surely to foresee ().

Examples: Accidents, death of the marriage partner, own serious illness, continuing loss of one's job, participation in war events. Hunger period gone through - for many very old humans it was added in the course of the life even three times: after 1918, 1927-1931 and after 1944 again (that is inExample, where it itself with zeitgeschichtl. Event mixes). Divorce or lethal illness.

With “fragile” personal records biographies are meant, which deviate several times from the process of most Personenen in comparable social position. They are normally in the Familiensaga rarely represented. It is z. B. the role of the black sheep.

Also kannn vary the organization of the periods of life in the biographies - example youth and childhood have today another meaning than at present the Industriellen revolution.

Bspl. for the compositiona “typical” life history

follows a “typical” life history, compound from the event forms specified above.

  • Childhood, parents' house, brothers and sisters
    • typical normative Ereign.: Birth of brothers and sisters, kindergarten attendance
  • school time (approximately to 14. Lj)
    • typical normative Ereign.: 1. School day, 1. Hlg. Coming union (r.kath.),Certifications, school friendships, graduation (in former times with 14 usually)
    • into this phase often fall the first memories of a “political”/time-historical event, which is classified as “importantly” for the Biografie. (z. B. Case of the wall)


  • youth, professional training
    • typical normative events:Konfirmation (evang.), 1. Day D. Teachings, moped driving licence, acquittal, German Federal Armed Forces (with ju. Men)
    • puberty, first love
    • possibly. resume. School attendance (Mittl. Matures, Abitur)


  • young. Adult
    • typical normative Ereign.: Driving licence, in love/marries/more schwanger o.a., first larger journey abroad without parents


  • time D. Establishment of family
    • typical normativeEreign.: Wedding, baptism
  • child education
    • typical normative Ereign.: Removal/building of houses, common vacation, family celebrations


  • Nachelterliche companion shank (expression for the Zeitabschn. after the excerpt of the children from the eleterlichen dwelling)
    • typical normative Ereign.: Excerpt D. the latter erwa. become child, celebrations toJob, silver wedding


  • ages employee
    • typical normative Ereign.: Assumption of a line function in the company, thank speech of the boss with retirement. One revives as a grandmother/father “”.
  • Transition to the pensionable age (possibly. with previous phase in summary)


  • widow shank (with Mrs. a frequent situation in life)
    • typical normative Ereign.: Death D. Married man about 70 - 75 Lj., removal into the household of one erwa. Child, Uroma critical
    • events become: Accumulation of serious diseases to a substantial handicap in the everyday life life


  • Hochaltrigkeit
    • typical normative Ereign.: Ceremonywith round birthdays, removal in the nursing home
    • writing up of age wisdom

the biographic method in the social sciences

the Biografieforschung is in the sociology a research beginning of the qualitative social research and is at the basis more lying concerned with the reconstruction of life processes andindividually mediated, social sense constructions on the basis of biographic narrations or personal documents. The text material usually consists of writing-light interview minutes, which are evaluated and interpreted according to certain rules.

qualitative research beginning

the Biografieforschung is in the framework thatto evaluate qualitative research beginnings as individual case study. With the choice to accomplish individual case studies an approach is designated to the research field and not yet a method.

The Biografieforschung does not avail itself during the data evaluation of an individual method, but is as research beginning to be understood,in that different methods to be used. The most frequently used method of the data acquisition is with living persons the narrative interview (“tell” leave) and/or the open manual interview (questioning), otherwise outweighs the classical (sozio) historical source development up to the modern content analysis.

In that Gerontologie is called “biographic method” the systematic investigation of the personal record of a person in the context of a larger research project. Must to the support of the memory the questions placed on their open and/or. Unanimity to be examined, thus the telling person not ofadvance by the interviewers on a line of sight one restricts. For it a manual is to be provided and be examined for differently requirements.

life-span

with the crossing of the life-span accompanies a constant change of social roles, thosean individual takes and loses (e.g. Ms Xyz, Mutter, empty nest, retirement). Also the personal perception of the own role and the tasks changes. After Ursula teach on the average 17.5 salient cuts per biography are observed. 2/3 of it as negative,1/3 positively experience. To Mrs. report more interhuman, men more special, occupation-oriented.

Life experience can be regarded however hardly only as crossing a Normalbiographie. The word Wahlbiographie meets the situation better, because social modernization today particularly in the Ausdifferenzierung of lifeand is appropriate for family forms.

the possible. Proceed in a study

technical means this research beginning the comparison of most diverse biographies under common order categories. In addition the verbally seized biographies will be transferred into writing (transliterates). The interviews become subsequently, throughat least two persons evaluated (English: rating /gesprochen: rähting, and/or. again-German turn out).

This makes comparisons between several biographies, for z possible. B. whether it contain of statements to the research topic. Two analysts compare thereafter their respective estimate, like very pronouncedly in the biography these order categoriesinto action go. (H. Thomae)


10 dimensions of the biography

as ten dimensions of the Altersbiographie after Hans Thomae are to be considered: genetic and food situation at the beginning aging process, taken place changes in the biological system, changes in the social system, more socio-economicallyStatus and ecological, and change into that of the cognitive system, Konstanz and change in the personality, individual habitat (subjectively deeply felt), life satisfaction or degree of the balance between needs and situation to manufacture ability this balance., social authority (ability independently, verantwortungs and give up-referredto live).


aging and biography as task

various phase teachings of the sociology and development psychology describe sections and tasks, which in this respective age (- sabschnitt) to fulfill are; e.g. Self implementation, order create, wisdom. From this the psychological description attempt of tasks of development developed. The goal knows satisfaction with own history, which is called own lives however also new setting of tasks actually.

During in former times of the four sections childhood, young adults, adult, grandparents (with smooth transition to the phase of hochaltrigen humans/Greis)relatively clear conceptions prevailed, can be today already spoken of 7 clearly different periods of life. They have own in each case rolling finite ions and behavior patterns. The own sections youth, annuitant, Hochaltriger humans were added.

The phase of the grandparents existence begins at present somewhat later thanat the beginning 20. Jhdt.´s and corresponds temporally for instance in the business life to the term „older employees “. The Gerontologie refers to an increasing Ausdifferrenzierung of the aging phase. The earlier stepless transition from here to the Greisenalter was void by the life extension. Hundred-year are a characteristic however surely no more exception feature. Neunzig- und Hundertjährige können sehr verschiedene Lebenswelten um sich herum errichtet haben.


literature

as literature kind

  • Pierre Bourdieu, the biographic illusion. BIOS 1990 number 1
  • Siegfried Kracauer:„The biography as again-civil art form “in: ders., the ornamentation of the mass, suhrkamp paperback 371, Frankfurt/Main 1977, S. 75-80
  • Osborn/Schweitzer/Trilling: Remind, Lambertus 1997, ISBN 3-7841-0932-2

in the social sciences:

  • BIOS - Magazine for Biographieforschung (http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/INST_GESCHUBIOG/BIOS/bios.html)
  • Bude,H., reconstruction of life constructions - an answer to the question, which brings the Biographieforschung, in: Kohli, m./Robert, G. (Hg.), biography and social reality. New contributions and research perspectives, Stuttgart 1984
  • Cicourel, A.V., Mark, in: Kohli, M., sociology of the personal record, 1978
  • fox,W., biographic research. An introduction to practice and methods, Opladen 1984
  • Kohli, M., sociology of the personal record, Darmstadt 1978
  • Lamnek, S.: Qualitative social research Bd. 2, methods and techniques, Weinheim 1995
  • teach, Ursula: To the situation of the old-becoming woman. Beck, Munich. 1987. ISBN3406 3222263
  • Rosenthal, G.: Experienced and told life history. Shape and structure of biographic self description, Frankfurt/Main 1995
  • Thomae, Hans: Aging styles and agesend halls. A contribution to the differential Gerontologie, Bem, Stuttgart, Vienna. 1983.

Bio count IE collections over older humans

  • Bliminger, EH; Ertl, Angelika;Cook Straube, Ursula among other things 1996. Life stories. Biographiearbeit with old humans. Hanover: Curt R. Vincentz publishing house, 2. Aufl., 177 S., 17.90 EUR
  • Dörr, Margarete. 1998. Who did not see the time. Woman experiences in the Second World War and the years after. Frankfurt/Main [among other things]: Campus publishing house.3 Bd., 1559 S., 25.00 EUR.ISBN 3-593-36095-0. To contents: The Historikerin Margarete Dörr asked from 1988 to 1996 over 500 German women after its experiences in the national socialism. A singular documentation, those developed for the historiography to the NS timeavailable, straight makes informative details and important realizations still punctual, before the time witnesses take their memories also in the grave.
  • Deer, Helga. Heavy luggage. Escape and driving out as life topic. 2004. Hamburg: edition basket he donation. ISBN 3-89684-042-8. To contents: Deer accompanies humansthe second generation of refugees on the search for their biographic roots and the loads by homeland loss. In addition one to sieved literarily written personal records, which analyzes Helga deer in their accompanying text successes exemplarily for different aspects of refugee fates, butalso failures of the integration. It describes the change of the collective memory since end of war in east and west and feels the mental late sequences in the second generation of the refugees after.
  • Michael judge: Come and remained. German-Turkish life stories. Hamburg: edition basket he donation. 3.Aufl., 2004. 280 S., 14.00 EUR.ISBN 3-89684-048-7
  • Regine cutters: 55plus - The art of the old becoming. ISBN 3-8218-5625-4 .
  • Wierling, Dorothee (Hrsg.). 2004. Homeland find. Life ways of Germans, which come from Russia. Hamburg: edition Körber donation. 280 S., 14.00 EUR. ISBN 3-89684-043-6


others:

  • Genealogy - in the past of the own family many of the genealogy/family research promise themselves stop. In addition an overview into geo.de, booklet September. 2004
  • Gerhard, And: Type construction with patient careers, in: Kohli, M. /Robert, G. (Hg.) 1984
  • OlafHähner: Historical bio graphics. The development of a historicalscientific representational form from the antique one to in 20. Century, Frankfurt A.M. 2002
  • Kuratorium German old-age assistance (Hrsg.); Weingandt, Birgit. 2001. Biographic methods into the Geragogik - qualitative and contents-analytic entrances. KDA series of publications „topic “, Bd. 167. Cologne:Self-publishing house. 96 S.

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see also

Wiktionary: Biografie - word origin, synonyms and translations


Biographic articles in Wikipedia are alphabetical and according to topics sorted under portal: Biografien and list of the Biografien.

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