a biotope (that or biotope; of griech. bios = life + topos = place) is a spatially definable small unit of an ecological system, whereby relevant their abiotische factors (did not animate components) coin/shape a habitat. At onePlace (Topos) occurring Biozönose coined/shaped by abiotische factors (the partnership usually several kinds of plants and animals) is the criterion of the spatial demarcation. The vegetation has itself because of their clear characterization barness as distinguisher of terrestrial (land) biotopesinterspersed.
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differentiating is however Habitat (=Lebensraum), its criterion for spatial demarcation the requirementsfrom view of an individual or a population of a kind are. Habitate and biotopes do not have to be congruent. A biotope can make several different Habitate available (a forest has structures such as branch holes, crown and Krautschicht, soil…), e.g. for insects, or a Habitatcover several biotopes, e.g.complementary Habitate, like with birds or many mammals, which visit winter and summer accomodation or biotopes only to the food search.
By the development of the Biozönose abiotische and human (hemeroben) influences of a place can seizedbecome. Nevertheless are also (allegedly) dead places, as deserts or naked rock bio tope, which must be defined however by abiotische characteristics. This definition assumes each place of the earth is settlable. Under which circumstances itself a Biozönoseto establish, is article of discussions can in the ecology and in the nature protection.
The term biotope is worth-free. Biotopes one calls both landscape components and brooks , a mountain forest, coniferous forest, naturally developed , mixed woodland etc., and - againstthe colloquial use - of humans erschaffene landscape components like “concrete deserts” (for example motorways). Further usual examples of biotopes are for instance a brook run, a forest, a pond, a fresh water Watt or a strewing fruit meadow.
A biotope knows both area more differently Habitate (faunistical or floristische „dwellings “) and even a component one or several Habitate its. Both the existing Biozönose ( partnership) can be coined/shaped and coined/shaped by it, why one may always proceed from a reciprocal effect between lives and habitat.
in systematics of the ecology consist a biotope of Phytotopen (plant conditions place) and Zootopen (live place). A biotope are thereby characteristic kinds of plants of assigning to mushrooms and animals. A biotope is the smallest spatial unit in the landscape ecology. A very small biotope knows z. B. a church tower or a dying tree its (Habitat for z. B. Bat and insects). Nevertheless some biotopes can depending upon systematics of the collection (Take biotope mapping) a very large surface (z. B. Lakes, Watts). Several biotopes with the animals and plants living therein and the interactions between them form an ecological system. Expanded areas, as for instance one quilt, a rain forest or a that Consist sea as ecological systems of a multiplicity of different biotopes and Biozönosen (partnerships). Further articles over biotopes are in the category: Biotope
evaluation and endangerment
of biotopes become frequently after their rarity (and/or. Surface development and functional position in the ecological system),after their suitability as habitat for threatened kinds and/or. after the degree of its influence by humans (Hemerobie) evaluates.
Habitate (habitats) of mobile animal species often consist of several biotopes. Develop with spatial neighbourhood of different naturalBiotopes kleinerere surfaces species-rich ecological systems. Such mosaically built up culture landscapes from extensive restaurant forms replace partial biotopes, which could result themselves without influence of humans from forces of nature in the process of the Sukzession (ecological system development) of alone (natural landscapes) (see also: Mosaic cycle concept, Megaherbivorentheorie). Small-scale and structure-rich landscapes of this kind are particularly threatened by economic interests of the society (colonization by traffic, settlement, raw materials, intensification of agrarian and forest). Individual biotopes or ecological systems suffer to under thatEntry of pollutants from air or by direct introduction.
In contrast to it some mobile animal species have a minimum need of surface size. Above all animal species, which move themselves at the soil or are very shy, need larger, coherent ecological systems and/or. Biotopes.Operating races, agricultural or forest-economical Monokulturen and settlements or single buildings (z. B. Hydro-electric power plants) do not only represent a loss of biotope surface, which can lead relative to becoming extinct insensitive kinds (most in great quantities arising insects, spiders, Kleinstlebewesen) in subspaces. ThroughCutting and negative edge zone influences reduce them the quality and accessibility of the remaining biotopes (isolation), so that many sensitive and mobile kinds (for example Luchs, wolf, sea-eagle, many fish types) are become extinct or endangered and do not settle despite most intensive efforts the biotopes againcan. This is called falling below the critical group distance.
biotope protection and biotope group
biotope protection is a measure of the protection of species and ecological system protection. As a goal of the nature protection it serves of receiving the ecosystem. There the human bases of life by onedestroyed ecosystem are endangered, is the protection of biotopes and the biotope group defined as a legal goal in Germany. The substantial point of contact to environmental protection arises here in the minimization of the emissions of industry, traffic and households, as a result of theirPollutants the biotopes endanger or destroy.
The nature protection law defines particularly valuable biotopes, which are protected without further protected area classification. Those are above all biotopes, which are rare and have a very long regeneration time (time for reemergence), like z. B. Moorlands.Disturbances and destruction are generally forbidden. If „predominant public interest exists “, impairments must become equivalently “balanced „.
The success of initial efforts of the biotope protection, which was limited to the receipt and the re-establishment of valuable biotopes, was by the isolation of the biotopes throughTraffic and settlements strongly reduced. Because of the increasing pressure of economic land uses minimum requirements cannot be satisfied to Habitatsgrössen or the critical group distances of some kinds. The animals know its complementary Habitate (z. B. Laichplätze) no more do not reach or are from othersIsolates populations (genetic depletion). Therefore the biotope group became since amending the federal nature protection law 2001 a further substantial goal of the nature protection.
The biotope group is to diminish the barriers for animal species and consists of so-called Trittsteinen (for mobile kinds, like z. B.Birds), from linear elements (z. B.Hedges, rivers, brooks etc.), group surfaces (z. B. structure-rich areas for game), and from that actually to protecting biotopes or core surfaces of a protected area. The biotope group stresses thereby in particular surfaces within the settlements orat transport installations, in order to diminish their negative barrier effect. Individual measures are z. B. To receive green bridges or toad tunnels, which are to put animals into the position, despite the intensive land use their requirements for habitat as a substitute.
Since 1988 in Hessen biotope of the yearly is proclaimed,in order to make the public attentive on endangered or particularly valuable biotopes.
criticism and resistances
the goal of the biotope protection are legally defined and democratically legitimized. On the other hand receipt and care of valuable biotopes make one financial and energetichigh expenditure necessarily, which means external, thus usually from the public to the one which can be carried, costs. The valuable, artificial culture landscape is above all to receive against economic interests of surface-intensive uses (land and forestry, building and settlements, raw material dismantling), only by political instruments. ThoseEffectiveness of care measures is not always opened for the technically not educated observer, and so measures are felt frequently as „unreasonable Verschwendung “or as „Zumutung “.
The fact that these external costs does not internalisiert (the causer (consumer, driver) charged) becomes, is, after the pressureby colonization, a substantial social resistance against the biotope protection. This aufwändige care of biotopes would be necessary in a substantially smaller measure, if their management became paid by higher prices (and promoted). By increased efficiency, those with a degradation of the conditionfrom nature and landscape accompanied, to resources were released. These resources are however not used in the sufficient measure for the receipt of the condition of nature as base of life of humans.
A further possibility would be the mechanism of large protected areas, in those itself such biotopesautomatically to adjust could. Instead the land development and settlement pressure increase. The laminar Zersiedelung and the recovery need of the population apparently not possibly make effective large protected areas, in which nature could really be left itself in last consequence.