|of these articles treats the chemical element bismuth. For other meanings of its German name bismuth see bismuth (term clarifying).|
|name, symbol, ordinal number||bismuth, Bi, 83|
|group, period, block||15, 6, p|
|appearance|| shining |
|proportion onthe Earth's shell||2 · 10 -5 %|
|atomic radius (computed)||160 (143) pm|
|Kovalenter radius||146 pm|
|van the Waals radius||-|
|Elektronenkonfiguration||[Xe] 4 f 14 5 D 10 6 s 2 6 p 3|
|electrons per Energy level||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5|
|1. Ionization energy||703 kJ/mol|
|2. Ionization energy||1610 kJ/mol|
|3. Ionization energy||2466 kJ/mol|
|4. Ionization energy||4370 kJ/mol|
|5. Ionization energy||5400 kJ/mol|
|6. Ionization energy||8520 kJ/mol|
|state of aggregation||firmly|
|density (Mohshärte)||9780 kg/m 3 (2,25)|
|magnetism||strongest dia.-magnetic element|
|melting point||544.4 K (271.2 ° C)|
|boiling point||1837 K (1564 °C)|
|molecular volume||21,31 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol|
|heat of vaporization||104.8 kJ/mol|
|heat of fusion||11.3 kJ/mol|
|steam pressure||0.000627 Pawith 544 K|
|speed of sound||1790 m/s with 293,15 K|
|specific thermal capacity||122 j (kg · K)|
|Electrical conductivity||0,867 · 10 6 S /m|
|heat conductivity||7.87 w (m · K)|
|oxidation conditions||of 3, 5|
|hydrides and oxides (basicity)||(easily sourly)|
|Normalpotenzial||0.23 V (Bi 3+ + 3e - → Bi)|
|Elektronegativität||of 2.02 (Pauling scale)|
| as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.|
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.
Bismuth (also: Bismuth, bismuthor Wismuth, of lat.bismutum) a chemical element is in the periodic system with the symbol Bi and the ordinal number 83. In German mostly bismuth , but is specializedlinguistically official the name bismuth is called since 1979 also in this country.
Table of contents
thatOne probably already knows element bismuth since the antique one. The name bismuth is since 1472 admitted and decreases/goes back probably on the first place of the production “in the meadows” at the snow mountain in the ore mountains . There are however also different Etymologien, for example of “knows”.Georgius Agricola used the latinisierte designation bismutum, on which the today's name decreases/goes back.
bismuth come in nature only in small quantitiesforwards. The find places lie particularly in South America and Spain, where bismuth is found more purely both in (more gediegener) form and as sulfide ( bismuth gloss or Bismutin) , Selenid (Selenidbismutglanz) and oxide ( until with or bismuth ochers).Bismuth occurs as Begleitmetall in lead -, copper - and Zinnerzen .
production and representation
for the production of bismuth one can proceed from oxidic ores, which are reduced with coal to the element:
<math> \ rm 2 \, Bi_2O_3 + 3 \,C \ rarr 3 \, CO_2 + 4 \, Bi< /math>
Sulfidi bismuth ores can be reduced either with iron in the precipitation procedure:
<math> \ rm Bi_2S_3 + 3 \, Fe \ rarr 3 \, FeS + 2 \, Bi< /math>
Or the sulfidischen ores are converted first into the oxides andsubsequently, with coal reduces (roasting reduction methods):
<math> \ rm 2 \, Bi_2S_3 + 9 \, O_2 \ rarr 6 \, SO_2 + 2 \, Bi_2O_3< /math>
<math> \ rm 2 \, Bi_2O_3 + 3 \, C \ rarr 3 \, CO_2 + 4 \, Bi< /math>
The raw bismuth becomes afterwards by oxidizing melting of othersMetallic one cleaned.
bismuth is a reddish shining, brittle metal. It has a rhomboedrische crystal structure with very closely packed blocking layers. Bismuth is one of the few innocuous heavy metals, has the strongest hall effect of all metallic elements, a highand beyond that the strongest dia.-magnetic characteristic has electrical resistance, i.e. it repels magnets.
Liquid bismuth stretches as one of the few materials with solidifying out (anomaly of density).
natural bismuth consists only of thatIsotope 209 Bi. 2003 one determined d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay , France in Institut that this so far for isotope stably held an alpha emitter with a radioactive half-life of (1.9 0,2) · 10 19 years is. Thus is thus thatheaviest trueful stable element the lead.
The radioactivity of bismuth is however so weak that it can be regarded as harmless. To the comparison: The natural radioactivity of 14 C or 40 K, which prove themselves in each living cellleave, is stronger around orders of magnitude: Per 100 g carbon with a portion of 10,-12 (a trillionth) 14 C in ruins per hour on the average about 59400 atomic nuclei, per 100 g bismuth are there on the average 1.2 atomic nuclei, thus about 1/50000;in addition alpha rays knew a small range and the skin not to penetrate.
it finds use as alloying constituent of lowmelting alloys, for example for the Wood metal, which already melts with 70 °C.
The alloy Bismanol also Manganese is a strong permanent magnet.
The chemical compound Bismuttellurid produces cold weather in Peltier elements. In medical preparations it is used for the staunching of bleeding and for the disinfection. Bismutoxichlorid BiOCl is used in Kosmetika. The phase CHANGE material of some DVD-RAM contains bismuth.
Bismuthof some sources as alloying element in freecutting steel as replacement for lead one publicises. It is to improve the cutting property of these steel without the negative ecological characteristics of the lead. From view of the steel metallurgy this is however unfavorably, there bismuth itself metallurgically quasinot to remove leaves and then as unwanted accompanying element in the steel produced from scrap irons emerges.
of safety references
bismuth prove one with the “bismuth chute” with thiourea. As means toPrecipitation of unwanted breakdown ions is used NaF, NaCl and K-/Na-Tartrat: NaF for the integration of Fe (3+) and aluminium (3+); NaCl for the precipitation of AG (+) and Hg (+); Tartrat for the integration of self-service (3+) and SN (2+).
As fluxing agent becomes verd. HNO 3 uses. With presence ofBi (3+) form lemon-yellow thiourea crystals.
An alternative proof reaction is accomplished with alkaline Stannat (II) solution (redox reaction with tin ii-ions as reducing agents: Elementary Bi precipitates black) or with Natriumiodidlösung (first black bismuth iii-iodine iodine precipitates itself, then in the Iodidüberschuss as oranger Tetraiodobismutat complex solves):
Bi 3+ + 4 I -< /sub> <math> \ rightarrow </math> [Bi (I) 4] - (complex education reaction).
bismuth, but gives it is primarily trivalent also in and pentavalent bismuth (bismuth (V) - oxide is however muchstrong oxidizing agent, which oxidizes even to manganese (II) to the Permanganat). In addition it forms polymere cations. At air it is steady.
- bismuth ochers, until with
- bismuth gloss, Bismutin
- bismuth hydrogen (Bismutan)
- of fluorides: Bismuth tri fluoride, Bismutpentafluorid, bismuth fluorine oxide
- of chloride: Bismuth mono chloride, bismuth tri chloride, bismuth chlorine oxide
- of bromide: Bismuth mono bromide, bismuth tri bromide, bismuth bromine oxide
- Iodide: Bismutmonoiodid, Bismuttriiodid, bismuth iodine oxide
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