Bithynien (griech. Βιθυνία, Bithynia) is an antique landscape and kingdom in the northwest small Asia.
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Bithynien becomes westward and the northof the Marmarameer and the Pontos Euxinos (black sea), southward of the Olympos (Keşiş Dağ) with for instance 40° n. Break. limited. Eastward it separates the Parthenios (now Bartan CSU) of Paphlagonien; in the south the knocking against countries are Galatien, Phrygien and Mysien.
The country is coined/shaped in the east and the south of forest-rich mountains (except the Olympos with Bursa, the Orminios, now Işik Dağ, in the east); the lower and west half cut through by fruitful valleys contains some large land lakes, like AskaniLake (İznik Gölü) with Nikäa (İznik) and the Artyni lake (Uluabat Gölü), because of which Apollonia is.
Here in the west also two sea bosoms cut deeply in the mainland: of Astakos (with the today's İzmit) and of Kios (with the today's Gemlik).Largest river is the Sangarios (Sakarya); in addition the Billäos (now Filias) in the eastern half.
The bithynische knew the Satrapen Alexanders of the large KalasDynast Bas 333/28 v. Chr. repel. Antigonos Monophtalmos stopped the expansionist tendencies Zipoites' opposite the Greek cities of this area. Zipoites placed hostages and seems to have been allied with Antigonos, how strong the dependence on this was, is disputed in the research in the futureZipoites could maintain ground against Lysimachos and two of its generals. A victory over these it probably took 297 v. in the autumn. Chr. to the cause to accept the king title. Briefly after the battle of Kurupedion (281 v. Chr.) Zipoites died. Its son and successor Nikomedes I. the policy of its father continued to aim at itself the respective political extended-range weather situation adapting territorial profits. It fought with luck against Antiochos I. Soter, allied itself 277 v. Chr. with the Galatern and its realm extended by the conquest of the northeast part of Phrygien. 264 v. Chr. it created the capital Nikomedia.
Under Prusias I. achieved Bithynien its largest expansion and took 184 v. Chr. the volatile Hannibal up, which it could not protect however from the Romans. The last king, Nikomedes IV., became of Mithridates VI. from Pontus twice drove out, from the Romans however again in each case assigned. With its death 74 v. Chr. bequeathed it its realm to the Romans, it also the Bithynia maintained under Lucius Licinius Lucullus against
The province stood occasionally under direct imperial administration, then about Plinius was the younger one here 109-111 Legat.
Thus Bithynien was not already in the Byzantine realm administrative unit more and became with the province reform in 7. Century the topic Opsikion assigned, later again between this and thatTopic Optimatoi divided.
1074 - 1097 were the country in the possession of the Seldschuken, it in the 1. Crusade to the Christians lost. During the duration of latin dock ore around in Konstantinopel (1204 - 1261) Nikäa was in Bithynien seat of the Greek emperor. 1298 broke Osman I. in Bithynien, and 1326 became the conquered Prusa (Bursa) capital of the Osmani realm.
list of the rulers Bithyniens
- Doidalses (435/4 v. testifies. Chr.)
- Boteiras (* approx. 300 - 377/6 v. Chr. )
- Bas (377/6 v. Chr.- 328 v. Chr.)
- Zipoites (328 v. Chr.- 280 v. Chr.)
- Nikomedes I. (280 v. Chr.- 255/3 v. Chr.)
- Ziaelas (approx. 250 v. Chr.- approx. 230 v. Chr.)
- Prusias I. (approx. 230 v.Chr.- 182 v. Chr.)
- Prusias II. (182 v. Chr.- 149 v. Chr.),
- Nikomedes II. Epiphanes (149 v. Chr.- 128/7 v. Chr. )
- Nikomedes III. Euergetes (128/7-ca. 94 v. Chr.)
- Nikomedes IV. Philopator (approx. 94 v. Chr.-74 v. Chr.)
- Christian Marek: Pontus et Bithynia: The Roman provinces in the north of small Asia. Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-8053-2925-3 (also with an outline of before-Roman history)