|Stilisti originals:||Thrash Metal, Death Metal|
|emergence:||Late 1980er Europe, particularly Scandinavia|
|typical instruments:||Guitar - bass guitar - Schlagzeug|
That term which can be limited with difficulty is used for volume, their image, occurrence and texts a connection more satanistischer, more heidnischer or misanthropischer elements exhibit. However there are also different definitions, for example alone over the music. The singing is usually a kind Gekrächze or shouting, while the guitar play is characterised by predominantly monotonous of reef. At the Schlagzeug doubles bass dominate and Blastbeats. Isolated also key boards are used for the setting up rather orchestraler moments.
The call charges at least patriotic attitude pronounced by humans with nationalistic , National Socialist, racistic or to be dominated this to the scene particularly due to expressionsindividual musician. This prejudice was promoted particularly by the criminal document, which members of the Norwegian scene committed - among other things these several churches set in fire.
Table of contents
development and history
the British speed Metal - volume Venom, which kokettierte with sowing anise mash, is considered as an initiator of this music direction, because among other things it published 1982the named-giving album „Black Metal “. Ironically the volume members do not addition years later, them would have from the philosophical sowing anise mash, the main topic of the Black Metal, notion.
1984 published those Swedish volume Bathory their debut album of the same name, which was text and thematically affected by Venom, in music however partly already different ways hit. The raw training room - sound set the standard „of the dirty “sound, which is too own to the Black Metal since that time. Soonthis new style began itself to spread particularly in Scandinavia: Bathory refined in the late 80's their musical style and justified besides also the Viking in such a way specified Metal, a modification of the Black Metal with partial more epischerAdjustment, whose textuelle contents refer particularly to the nordische mythology.
At that time organized yourself allegedly a combination of Black Metal trailers named „internal Circle “(English. „internal circle “, sometimes also „Black Circle “), whose existence is based however only on rumors. Youa avowed goal would be more exact „the De-Christianisierung of “Norway, „cleaning Norway all homeland-strange influences “. Øystein Aarseth (alias „Euronymous “), guitarist the volumes Mayhem, was considered to Helvete “as head of that organization and coordinated it allegedly from the cellar of its disk business „(Norwegian for„Hell “) out. Due to his popularity it can be said that Euronymous with its thoughts coined/shaped the ideology of the Black Metal crucially; few call it also „father “„of the movement “.
A majority of the members of this „internal Circle “served detentions of many years because ofMurder, grave violating and arson. Thus for example the arson of the famous Fantoft stave church in mountains was put to them to the load.
Likewise at admittingness Kristian won „Varg “Vikernes, also well-known as „COUNT Grishnackh “, only member the volumes Burzum and an alleged member„internal the Circle “. Vikernes had made friends itself with the avowed communist Euronymous, while he regarded himself as a nationalist. He expressed admiration for Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, pole poet as well as other dictators and put stronglyconception of the world coined/shaped by racingism and nationalism too. Attention attained Vikernes by however-funny „notices “on Death Metal - volume; thus it threw according to rumors the route bus of Paradise draws with stones.
Into the field of vision to a broader public came the scene, than the singer Mayhems,DEAD, with a shotgun suicide committed. Its corpse was discovered by Euronymous, which called for the police not immediately, but first shot photos of its dead friend and picked up lying about head fragments. These head fragments became later from the remaining volume members to trailersprocessed and to different friends DEAD sends away. One of the photos, which showed the body DEAD, found - very much to annoyance Euronymous', which had even similar plans - the way on the Cover of the boat putting album „to Dawn OF the Black Hearts “.
Inthe following two years came it within the scene among other things to numerous arsons and the murder at a homosexual one into Lillehammer by Bård „fist “Eithun of that volume „Emperor “. By a reisserischen article over the procedures within the NorwegianBlack Metal scene in the British magazine „Kerrang!“also the interest of medium in the Black Metal found its provisional high point.
A sudden end found the scene, when Vikernes murdered its once times gone away Euronymous. Vikernes called Euronymous as reason, a communist was; probablyhowever a competitive situation between the two as well as controversy over a disk contract (and thus money) played the main role. Vikernes states today, he has Euronymous erstochen, since these assassination plots against him preserved. The decisive reasons for the act probably remain foralways uncertainly. In addition Vikernes explained later, „the Circle “had been internal in truth a myth developed of the media. The person Varg Vikernes is differently judged within the scene. From some trailers it becomes as icon of the subculture and of the„NSBM “(„national Socialist Black Metal “) regards. In music quite respected, its person is however generally regarded as violating mark.
Center of the 1990-er years entered „the second wave in such a way specified “the Black Metal volume into the business: Groups such as Emperor or Ulver liftedand gave the style in music into completely new spheres to the Black Metal a most interesting, progressive element. In the compositions particularly a tendency could be often constituted to the Neoklassizismus with Emperor.
With this development set in the eyes of manyTrailer in addition, the fall of the Black Metal. The subculture therefore experienced one „invasion “by commercially aligned of volume such as Dimmu boron greed, Cradle OF Filth or - in Germany - Mystic Circle.
By these „invasion “and commercialization various„Years (Satyricon, Mayhem, Darkthrone) the Norwegian Black Metal its reputation in the underground lost hero “the 1990er, and chartkompatible of volume such as Dimmu boron greed dominate the portion of Norwegian disk sales. The Black Metal underground has itself in the course of the years ever moreinto other countries such as Greece, Portugal, Germany, Finland, Eastern Europe and the USA shifts. Whereby in particular Greece exhibits a very large and openly radicalized NSBM scene.
In Germany, mostly in the new Lands of the Federal Republic, a large Black Metal Untergrundszene formed in the run the time.Representatives are for example nail-far, lunar - or were - Aurora or Morrigan (formerly Mayhemic Truth).
In connection with the East German scene also the volume absurd must be called. She is the most well-known representative of a neo-Nazi current in the German Black Metal. ThoseVolume members were condemned 1994 to terms of imprisonment between six and eight years, after they had killed a schoolmate. This murder was sold by the media reisserisch as „sowing to murder of special living “, although the authors stood in no relationship to the sowing anise mash.
Alsoin the Eastern European countries this subculture even still found at the Soviet time in the respective countries trailers. That volume cultivate the pre-Christian customs of their country in their texts frequently. This sharpens itself in increased arising on NSBM volume such as Graveland, Infernumand lord wind from Poland too.
Also in the USA a noteworthy Black Metal scene, the most well-known representative exists is Judas Iscariot.
whether common ideas existed, even doubted within the scene. Omit themselves neverthelesscommon basic ideas to the individual directions find.
Generally ideas, which are carried over the texts, very extremely and befremdlich on; however the degree of development is individually different. Probably because of the extremity of the ideology straight those pullSzenegänger of the Black Metal a dividing line between their „normal “and the scene life. The stay in the scene becomes thus the expression of a personality side, which does not come in the everyday life openly to carrying.
One in the Songtexten again and again brought up for discussion emotion is the hate. The feeling of hating and hating becoming represents a central experience for the Black metalworker. One regards the hate as a means, in order to dissociate itself from the world to to recognize each other and so better.The hate goes as general Misanthropie and life hostileness into action. Partly this increases to deny to each life the value - also the own, which explains, why some Black metalworker is inclined to auto+aggressive behavior. To it death longing a frequent is similarMotive of the Black Metal.
Mental self sinking arises in many songs as topic, on which probably the intended Monotonie of many pieces is to be led back, by which hypnotische atmospheres to be created is. While Emotionalität is as far as possible verpönt, many trailers in that seeMusic a way to deep mirror-image-ritual experiencing.
The Black Metal takes up hereby in various regard elements of the romance : Apart from the search for mirror-image-ritual development own a general longing comes after nature to light - to see openat the frequent motive giving of snow-covered, foggy forests. Also a general interest in the national culture on the part of many Black metalworkers, in particular at pre-Christian history and religion, witnesses from parallels to the romance, which last the latter in the romantic paintings of the Plattencover Burzums(except for few exceptions paintings of Theodor Kittelsen) partly becomes visible and in nationalism and neo-Nazi - ideology degenerates.
Another beginning sees the attempt, the old, pre-Christian cultures of the European peoples in the Black Metal again up-arises to leave. Inthe eyes of its representatives the movement thereby is today quasi „dead “, since it was falsified. Under influence of the very patriotic Norwegian romance some Norwegians for itself discovered the religion of their ancestors again for itself. Thus a text line reads for example:„One needed one millenium, in order to bring us the message of the Gekreuzigten; the next 1,000 years will be ours! “. From the Black Metal scene accordingly among other things the Substile Pagan Metal and Viking Metal isolated itself. A separate Pagan or Viking Metal sceneexisted however not. Volume with heidnischen texts are however often despised by the core of the Black Metal scene, since this stresses the music as „purely satanische “art form for itself.
The Black metalworker sees itself in principle in opposition to the values and standards to that Society, since they these lied as heuchlerisch and regard. In the tendency for demarcation the Black Metal in last consequence stylizes itself as „ultimatively the bad “. The affinity for the sowing anise mash and/or for satanistischer symbolism explains itself therefore from the possibilityto the provocation and self from bordering in a like a Christian coined/shaped society. Black metalworkers generally appears the Christianity as heuchlerisch, and they regard it only as totalitarian ideology, which would limit the individual by moralism and Obrigkeitshörigkeit.
Similarly, this explains to the Death Metalthe occasionally emerging Songs, in which killing Christians is described and publicised. This is not however (in most cases) under any circumstances concrete to understand but metaphorically. Some Black metalworkers attribute the emergence of the scene partially also to it,that Norway was very Christian-conservatively adjusted into the Achtzigern, which probably led to the intensified articulation of the ideological demarcation.
Some Black metalworkers are occupied also deep-going with that so-called. „“or also „lying sowing anise mash “, only some basic ideas of it seize in addition, philosophical sowing anise mashup, like e.g. the individualism. While the plate of satanistischer victims on cemeteries at the reality goes - most Black metalworker is Atheisten and regards such okkultistisch justified acts as ridiculous - was it to at the beginning of the 1990er past perfectlydoes not verpönt at all to express its refusal of the Christian culture by church arsons or grave violating.
However not all Black Metal of volume fall back to sowing anise tables or at least anti-Christian symbolism. Some lean a supporting of the own ideals on symbols even as indication thatWeakness off. The fact that Black Metal can be regarded evenly also purely in music becomes so ever more recognizable. Often philosophy serves Friedrich Nietz many as a source of the inspiration (for example „Twilight OF the Idols “designated by Gorgoroth, after Nietz „Götzendämmerung “).
Some volume play stylistic Black Metal upward described criteria, assign themselves however by no means contentwise satanischen or okkulten directions. Whether it thereby only around simple Parodien does not act is sometimes recognizable.
An important characteristic is a certain elite consciousness, since one regards as the general mass as considering. Some volume such as Satyricon or Gorgoroth partly occur their texts and statements for socialviennaistic thoughts. Thus Gaahl, singer von Gorgoroth, in the name its volume meant that thatHumans at any price to fulfill itself must, even if this murder requires.
Black metalworkers see themselves in a constant fight against each kind of suppression own. Generally showing weakness in the subculture is tabuisiert. Songtexteover own inadequacies or mourning are only rarely. To this aggressive self from bordering an occasional emerging Kriegsfetischismus is to be due, so for example with the Swedish volume Marduk.
Black metalworkers appear even from the view of other metalworkers often than strangePersons. It is to be marked absolutely that the ideology explained above is not to be transferred necessarily to each Szenegänger. Many simply only the music, other one pleases accepts obtained ideas only to a certain degree. Only few correspond to this picture almostcompletely.
Black Metal understands itself as not measure-suited underground music and at the same time life attitude for Gleichgesinnte. As a sign of this defining identity a Kodex „of the Trueness developed “. „The Trueness “of a Black of metalworker represents the degrees of the ideological authenticity. The Kodex is actual„the Trueness “in the Black Metal by far more rigider and more pronouncedly than in other Metal styles, why this Kodex victim many more scene-internally and - external satires became.
defiance of the common definition by the texts, becomes from the trailers and thatSpecialized media also an explanation over the kind of the music carried out. In the Black Metal lies a large influence by the classical music. Therefore is Black Metal music beside loud, extremely fast and of gekrächztem singing accompanied, also very melodisch, although for outstanding ones bare Kakophonie. However even sometimes ambiguity prevails over the differences to the Death Metal in the Metal scene.
For the Black Metal was usual since its invention a fast, extremely distorted guitar play. The guitars hardly become the differentiation of the Death Metalto not at all more deeply been correct. Reef of the guitars are generally relatively simple; the focus lies much more to repeat it long-windedly what is used pretty often also for the production of hypnotischer passages. A good example places the Song„Jesus' death “(sic!) of Burzum.
The singing in the Black Metal usually exists of Gekrächze or cries, in contrast to the deep Growls of the Death Metal. Although Schlagzeug and guitar with very high speed are played, is thatSpeed of most Black Metal pieces rather normally or even slowly. As example here „Quintessence can be called “by Darkthrone.
While key boards are partly verpönt in the Underground, it finds particularly in the Mainstream for the production and underlining of certain atmospheres use. So hasthe key board on Dimmu borrowing IR album „Enthrone Darkness Triumphant “a basic role during the melody guidance.
The constantly growing portion „of the progressive “Black metalworkers, who endeavor itself to connect elements of the music with other music styles, is worth mentioning. Were at first stillEmperor, then followed the project Peccatum which availed itself meanwhile nearly completely the Black Metal renounced and of a mixture from Neoklassik and jazz with „hard “inserts; or the Italians Ephel Duath, which pair jazz with hard Metal.
Generallyan issue prevails in the scene whether volume ideologically and in music correspond to the scene ideals. While the one as important judge it, old ideals to protect - to be „true “- criticize other one, which Black Metal would suffocate at Konservatismus „“.
and outside feature work on play in the scene a relatively large role. Since Black Metal with satanischen elements plays, a dark, partly intends deterring appearance selected, what is clarified by black clothes, rivet decoration and cartridge belts. Accessoryhow Drudenfüsse (see: Pentagramm) and reverse crosses are usual.
Frequently a black-and-white painting of the face appears, „Corpse Paint “(or „also was Paint “) mentioned with Black metalworkers. Due to the used colors an analogy to that often becomesSkirt volume KISS manufactured. The fact that this derivation is wrong shows up already in the differences in the painting style and the used motives. Occasionally the Black metalworker uses blood for the make-up also (art). Besides the Posieren with medieval weapons is such as swords, axes orPrick clubs not uncommonly.
The fact that the musicians add themselves aliases within the scene is considered as normal case. The names are to underline the music and the ideology (Infernus), however often find their origin in non-Christian, nordischer or Babylonian mythology (Marduk) or into thatBooks J.R.R. Tolkiens (Gorgoroth, Burzum, in former times Uruk shark).
Apart from the expression of the own world view this occurrence, in particular represents the face painting to often separate for the trailers a possibility, their public life from their existence as Black metalworker visibly.
of the scene
the extreme ideology and symbolism work on take care on the one hand for it that the hard core of the Black Metal scene never reached Massenkompabilität, on the other hand one work this in various regard also attractively to young people, who find therein a way, approximatelyto revolt their environment and their parents. However an argument with contents finds and would only rarely background to the music instead of. More experienced scene members often react to such young person with Verachtung and mockery. This phenomenon leaves itself inobserve almost all youth cultures; in the Black Metal seems it however particularly strongly pronouncedly, much more strongly still than in the Heavy Metal scene.
Also regarding foreign influences the Black Metal scene points itself substantially more rigider to their „purity “- conceptions. Volume, the elements from other music stylesinto their work to flow let become, frequently - and only for this reason - diffamiert. Within the scene in this connection however also a discussion is under way. While the one party storm-runs against any deviation, the other one criticizes that the BlackMetal at its Konservatismus would go sometime at the basis. Forced by those diversities of opinion developed for above of volume alternative style designation like for example Dark Metal.
Even if one can speak in music still clearly from a purchase to this scene, it givesnevertheless many debates whether certain volume is bare now authentically, or on commercial success out. Beside Cradle OF Filth and Dimmu boron greed is this for example also with the German Mystic Circle and this Ater the case. In the long runthere are also Black metalworkers, who reject the idea of one „scene “fundamentally, since this would force the individualistischen basic idea of the Black Metal to contradict and the individual to the adjustment and Konformation.
also within the Metal subculture „enjoys “the Black Metal a doubtful call. It should marked that the kind of ethics, to which this criticism falls back in the eyes thereby of the attacking naturally possesses no relevance. Likewise one should know that many fans between the attitudesand a difference to the music that volume draw; while they estimate on the one hand the artistic work of these groups, they exclude the remainder of these personalities. NSBM becomes frequent - volume and the like boycotts completely.
One point of main attack lies often in the fact that many Black Metal volumeare generally busy in their texts and their statements with topic areas such as war, national socialism, racingism and all kinds of killing in an apparently inflationary and unbekümmert unreflected way. Even if they did this only only from provocation, they became the explosiveness of theseTopics dangerously play down. Thus the volumes Marduk is frequently accused, the war to wonderful, which tries to disclaim the volume also only halfheartedly.
Such ideas are partly firmly established actually in the Prominenz the scene. Thus the Norwegian leavesLight hammer (Mayhem) quite often it is reported that it would give without foreigners in its homeland of substantially fewer problems. Particularly individual musicians clarify the existence of this problem crucially; if it was in former times still the right-wing extremist Varg Vikernes, then became for example into several crimescomplicated singers von Gorgoroth in May 2004 to a 14-monatigen detention and a fine at a value of 190.000 Norwegian crowns condemns, after it had flogged and had tortured a man. In view of the fact that it not only of its volumes regularlyScandals to hear and many musicians to a ever more extreme self-manifestation to fall back, many the Black gives to metalworker a clouded view of the reality is after-said.
Of many other extremely successful volume such as Darkthrone, Emperor or Immortal are likewise such statementsand attitudes admits. The fact that the scene media call that volume and musician „scene icons “benefits the call of the Black Metal likewise everything else as. For example in the Metal magazine Legacy under the heading was printed „Polish pride “an interview with Graveland, inclearly nationalistic and racistic statements use found to which.
However itself above all Black Metal trailers themselves are this criticism conscious and place themselves decided against it. Former doubtful statements of Emperor and Darkthrone members are disclaimed for years, the prevailing attitude in relation to Black Metal philosophyit is that she must remain unpolitical.
pointing the way ones of volume and albums
list of some important and Black Metal volume pointing the way. In parentheses the origin and important albums including feature year:
- Burzum (N) (albums to „Filosofem “)
- Darkthrone (N) („A Blaze into theNorthern Sky “ to „Panzerfaust “)
- Emperor (N) („in the Nightside Eclipse “)
- Gorgoroth (N) („Pentagram “)
- Graveland (PL) („Thousand Swords “)
- Immortal (N) („Diabolical Fullmoon Mysticism “, „pure Holocaust “)
- Marduk (s) („Dark Endless “)
- of Mayhem (N) („De Mysteriiscathedral Sathanas “)
- Samael (CH) („Worship Him “, „Blood ritual “)
- Satyricon (N) („Dark Medieval Time “, „The Shadowthrone “, )
of volume such as Cradle OF Filth or Dimmu boron greed are ranked by some persons if necessary in their initial days among the Black Metal.They in music partly avail themselves the Black Metal, blend this however with other influences. Therefore the allocation this volume to the Black Metal is discussed controversially, or is only partly appropriate. Selbige topic applies among other things for Agathodaimon, Bethlehem, ice rain, Mystic Circle and Nocte Obducta.
For a listing in the Wikipedia of represented volume, see category: Black Metal volume.
- Michael Moynihan and Didrik Söderlind: „Lord OF chaos: The bloody ascent from the underground “. PROM dia., Zeltingen ISBN 3-936878-00-5 (German version with additional contents)
- „lords OF chaos: The Bloody giant OF the Satanic Metal Underground “. Feral House Books, of Los Angeles ISBN 0-922915-48-2 (English original version)
- Garry Sharpe Young: „Rockdetector: Black Metal “. Cherry talk Books ISBN 1-901447-30-8
- Karl Jones: „A blaze into the northern sky: Black Metal music and Subculture “. University OF Manchester ISBN 0-946180-60-1