Braille

Braille - postcard to the Int. Blind day 1915
Übersicht Brailleschrift
overview Braille
Übersicht Moonalphabet
overview MOO alphabet

as Braille one designates a writing, which can be read by blind ones. Reading takes place thereby with the Tastsinn of the fingers. Different writing systems, z exist. B. that MOO alphabet. Today the furthest common Braille is the Braille. For the demarcation of Braille one uses the term black writing frequently for the writing of the seeing.

Table of contents

fundamental remarks

it gives two fundamental directions of the Braille:

  • The relief writing, with which the normal letters are made gropable, and which
  • point writing, those the letters into a code translated.

Many writing systems for blind ones were well durchdacht, had however the crucial disadvantage that they were developed by seeing without consideration for the blind ones.

point writing

a Braille character exists depending upon use out up to 6 or 8Points. In each case these points in two columns are arranged. The close borders of the character sets developed in such a way (64 and/or. 256 indications) are extended by two methods:

  1. For many languages and/or. There are technical languages own character sets.
  2. For a black character becomesa whole combination of Braille characters uses. Most obvious example for this is that there is no difference between large and lower case in the 6-Punkt-Braille. A letter is explained by placing a special indication in front as the capital letter.

The space requirement of the point writing is enormous, becausethe indications are larger than also in the black writing and the paper must be many thicker. However the Duden in point writing covers 18 volumes. In order to adjust any disadvantages by the high weight in the correspondence, transport the German post office transmissions inBraille free of postage (marking:Blind transmission /C écogramme).

Verkürzung of the writing for the purpose of acceleration

efforts to make the writing faster led to a Verkürzung of the word pictures and to the development of a blind short writing and a Blindenstenografieschrift. The blind short writing becomesmost frequently to the production of printed products in Braille and assigned with Mitschriften of blind humans with the point writing machine. The point writing machine has six keys, of which everyone coins/shapes only one point, and often a space bar. If no space bar is present, that becomesLetter blank by easy pressing of any other key released, so that it comes to no coinage. By chord - notice on several keys the individual letters are represented. In principle one differentiates between elbow machines to the letter on Braille paper and Stenografiermaschine with role strips.These machines made enormous speeds for blind Verhandlungsstenografen possible. Since six points permit only a limited number of combinations, Stenografiesysteme with seven and eight points were created. Thus the number of the indications was increased to 128 and/or 256.

Static Braille becomesby unity dancing of the points of the back of the paper produces ago. By shifting the lines paper can be printed on reciprocally.

der Name Helen Keller in Basis-Braille
the name Helen cellar in basis Braille

dynamic Braille - e.g. in form of a Braille display and/or. a Braillezeile - becomes throughelectromechanical raising and sinking of pins produce. This article was revised on a computer with such a display.

In university code 256 Braille characters are coded in the range U+2800 to U+28FF.

see also

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