|of these articles treats blitzkrieg as military tactics; for further meanings see blitzkrieg (term clarifying).|
The blitzkrieg is a form of the war guidance of the combined, coordinated employment of different armed forces, i.e. Air, sea and ground forces. Sudden, fast and unexpected raids are ideally no opportunity to the opponent leave to organize a stable defense. The theories of the blitzkrieg became already at the beginning of the 20's particularly of the British military historians J.F.C. Filler and B.H. Liddel hard under the English termlightning throwing acres production. Thus a way out of the immovable material battles of the 1 should. World war to be found. Technical partial aspects of this concept were however already developed in this conflict, so e.g. the tank (Great Britain 1916), battle flier (German Schlastas (battle relays) starting from 1916) as well asspecialized “Sturmbatallione” of the infantry, which was used on German side starting from the spring 1916. Blitzkrieg tactics found their first really comprehensive practical man however in the Second World War in person of the German general Heinz Guderian. Further important representatives e.g. were.the generals Erwin Rommel, George S. Patton (both in the Second World War), Ariel Scharon (Yom Kippur conflict), as well as Norman Schwarzkopf in the first American-Iraqi Gulf War 1991.
The word “blitzkrieg” entered as Germanism into other languages, like for example English andthe French.
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with the Poland campaign unexpectedly short for the world public 1939 became the term blitzkrieg the synonym for an allegedly new form of the war guidance.The term was developed however not by the German military guidance or by Hitler, but mentioned for the first time 1938 in an article of the military weekly paper.
In the sober military language there is hardly another term, that from so impactlight-like Prägnanzand is at the same time as measure interpretable, as that of the blitzkrieg. Still the opinion prevails forwards, this word only during the Second World War after that surprisingly fast successes of the armed forces developed. An evaluation of German military journalism shows however that itwas already before common. Thus 1938 in an article of the military weekly paper the blitzkrieg are already defined, spoken as strategic assault by the operational employment of the armored force and Air Force as well as by air landing troops. Thus Hitler explained: “Blitzkrieg, the word is pure oneItalian invention, Italian Phraseologie, a translation from the Italian… ". It is remarkable that this term in the military technical language is nearly never used. In the propaganda journalism however it attains almost inflationary meaning after the west campaign. This suggestive word became inGermany and abroad during the war and afterwards uses in such a manner differently that it came to an interpretation anarchy mash. Two meanings essentially can be differentiated, according to whether one the blitzkrieg only operationally as purely military phenomenon or strategically inFrame total warfare regarded. Afterwards blitzkrieg could be defined as concentrated employment of armored force and Air Force, in order to paralyze the opponent shocklike by speed and surprise and to cover it after large-scale raids. Bernhard R. Kröner (military historian) defines blitzkrieg strategy as“optimal combination of military guidance principles with the appropriate economic and social factors, which are necessary, over with a time beginning the desired overall strategic goal calculated from the beginning to reach”. The blitzkrieg developed as result of tactical considerations, like one the position warfare of theThe First World War to overcome can, and not as strategic product of the brain. Only after surprising successes on the engagements field one tried to develop from it a strategy. The nimbus of the word blitzkrieg began actually with the operation Sichelschnitt, which regards, exactly, alreadyafter few days by the operational break-through with Sedan was decided. The break-through, which was achieved at same place as 1870, contributed in particular to the formation of the blitzkrieg legend.
The national socialists used the term later, over in propagandistic increased heightto express military superiority and Unbesiegbarkeit. However Hitler dissociated itself after the position warfare beginning at the east front from the term: it did not use “ever the word blitzkrieg, because it is a completely blödsinniges word” (in a speech to 8. November1941).
if it was possible, here without declaration of war was as surprisingly as possible attacked. Already in the apron secret services were often transferred and into civilian clothes or in the uniform of the defender dressed special commands, during the invasion the importanttactical tasks had, like the income of important positions and support of the fast advancing tank units. With the invasion advanced the tanks in several places of the front concentrated, went around the hostile primary positions and broke through the weaker, during strategic Bombardments throughthe Air Force far behind the hostile lines took place. If necessary air landing troops were used in strategically important places to take around it together with the special units in the back of the enemy and the maneuverability or the possibility of the opponent, itself behind fastened positions tooentrench to limit and tactical air forces supported above all the tank units, which split the hostile troops up into verletzliche positions and behind their back united and formed boilers. A part of the armored troops with motorized artillery these break-throughs for those hadto hold advancing heavy infantry, while the destruction of the encircled troops of the latters became to leave, while most tank units continued to advance, in order to form further boilers.
This process repeated itself so long, until the opposing armed forces were put out of action.This is aimed at particularly by a paralysis of the opposing command structure and less the physical destruction of the opposing troop. This succeeds, leads too high prisoner numbers, like to beginning of the war. If this fails however, it can to high lossesfor the aggressor lead, since this attacks at the emphasis inconsiderately (blocks, not kleckern) and the broken through troops from the defender to be isolated and destroyed can.
In the blitzkrieg the weapon systems tanks, tactical air impacts and air landing troops developed further between the world wars were coordinated for the first timebegun. Thus the infantry lost as main instrument of the then dominant military doctrine at meaning.
Because of the insufficient depth armament of the German wartime economy the armed forces were forced as reconciliation to a fast war guidance and were then successful owing to the sufficient width armament briefly. (See also: Wartime economy Germany (1939-1945))
Still with the polarizing and France campaign deutscherseits with an only rough time term one worked, thus no approximate temporal terminator point of the operations at the basis one put. At the time of planning and execution of the war against the Soviet Union was thishowever of decisive importance. All the more serious the failure of the scheduling affected itself for the campaign. As forcewise very limited enterprises can remain Norway, the Balkans and Africa campaign in this regard out of consideration.
The fast victory of the German armyinto Poland, France, the Netherlands and Belgium however that came to the victory of its army with Sedan to 19 also for the German army guidance and Hitler surprisingly. May proclaimed “it is a miracle!”.
In the long run however was this form of the militaryeconomicalResources use successfully and did not end in a national and international disaster. The temporary efficiency owes the blitzkrieg of the local superiority of the forces which is based on mobility, also concentration mentioned.
today's term meaning
After today's understanding no longer only the fast war decision is the center of attention. Of substantial importance the optimal combination of military guidance principles with the appropriate economic and social factors, those is necessaryare, in order to achieve with a time beginning calculated from the beginning an overall strategic goal.
In addition blitzkrieg stands for the mobile war guidance, thus fast penetrating and occupying by means of tank points instead of the front and ditch battles (see. Battle around Verdun in The First World War). This term became known to a broader social class for the first time by the attack of the German armed forces on Poland in September 1939 and the associated fast temporary area gains.
The excellent training above all the tank - crews and communication(Radio in each tank available) for the commander an efficient coordination and thus common working made possible it subordinated troop units. The efficiency in all three types of combat was crucially increased thereby.
In the meantime many variants of blitzkrieg conceptions exist.
- Heinz Guderian: Attention - tanks!, Cassell PLC, England, ISBN 0-304-35285-3 (in English)
- Charles of measuringclose; Blitzkrieg, a strategy makes history; 1980; ISBN-3-404-65028-x
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|Wiktionary: Blitzkrieg - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wiktionary: blitzkrieg - word origin, synonyms and translations|