Blues is a vocal and instrumentale music form, itself in the afroamerikanischen society in the USA the end 19. , At the beginning 20. Century developed.

The Blues forms the root of a majority of the popular US-American music. Jazz, Skirt and Soul are closely related to the Blues. Even in current style directions such as Hip Hop is to be felt a response of the Blues.

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early ones forms of the Blues originated in in the southern parts of the United States in late 19. and early 20. Century. The Blues (Plural: the Blues) is its own form of black US-American folklore, bothElements of originally African music and European music contains. Early Blues forms are already in Vaudeville - and Minstrel - shows late 19. Century documents. The origins of the Blues do not leave themselves on other afroamerikanische music forms such as Gospel, Negro mirror-image ritual, Worksongs (in addition also Fieldholler belong) lead back.

In the early phase the Blues was only one part of the repertoire of afroamerikanischer musicians. It supplemental by daily hit, rising up time, Country - Songs and contemporary Popmusik. The musicians of this time“Songster” were “Blueser”. Blues was maintenance music of the black ones and its interpreters played on House and Rent parties or other public meetings. Only with the using commercialization by the disk labels into the 1920er years took place a specialization on Blues Songs.

That frequentlydrawn picture of the lonely Blues singer, who accompanies only from its guitar the Blues sings, is a plate. Common appearances with other Blues singers were just as frequent as solo appearances. The Songs was often in such a way developed that the singer a lineand the guitar then on it sang answered (call and response).

Around 1910 the word had developed “Blues” to the general linguistic usage. Singers such as Bessie Smith, mA Rainey or Alberta Hunter made the Blues under the Afroamerikanern very popular. Thatblack musicians and composer W.C. Mobile phone (1873-1958) contributed substantially to make the Blues popular. In the time of 1911-1914 Memphis Blues “(1912) and particularly „the pc. became by the publication of mobile phones „. Louis Blues “(1914) the interest of manyHumans waked. As one first and arranged he noted Bluesstücke for musicians and singers. Due to the migration of many black ones from the south into the north of the USA, particularly into the large cities such as Chicago and Detroit, becamethe there popular jazz by the Blues crucially coined/shaped and extends. Into the 1940ern and the 1950ern it came in the large cities of the north - particularly in Chicago - in reverse also to an increasing refinement into thatSouthern States popular Country Blues. To stylistic advancements here also the use of amplifiers (electrical Blues) led, which was characteristic of artists such as Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker and Howlin' wolf.

Into the 1950er years was the archaische, acoustic Country Blues in the Folkbewegung again popular become. The American Folk Blues festival had large influence on the increasing admitting heating degree of the Blues in Europe with that sizes such as John Lee Hooker, T-Bone Walker and Jimmy Reed arose. But thatelectrical, current Blues was particularly played since center of the 1940er years in the USA also by radio DJs, Alan Freed, in their transmissions. By means of the radio it reached also white young people not to hear it otherwise due to segregationgot. From a fusion with raueren play forms of the Country such as Honky Tonk the skirt and roll finally developed.

The social change into the 1960er years particularly led among the young Americans, in addition, the young British to an intensified interestat afroamerikanischer music, and the Blues became interesting also for white musicians. Many skirt volume of the 1960er years, particularly in Great Britain, took the Blues as basis for their music and reimportierten it during “British the invasion in such a way specified “centerthe 1960er years into the USA. It was taken up also here again by mostly white rock musicians. Popular musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton and Alvin Lee were affected both of the acoustic and of the electrical Blues and led of ittheir own style off, the Bluesrock.

In Germany led into the early 1970ern z. B. Aluminium Jones Bluesband, Frankfurt town center Blues volume and the third ear the tradition of Muddy Waters or B.B. King away. Became later volumelike the Mojo Blues volume (from Vienna/Austria) or the Blues company popular. The 1968 created volume the third ear was one the first volume, which spoke the Blues in German language.

The Blues is in the afroamerikanischen Communityas popular music form replaced Hip Hop or R&B lengthens from other styles such as Soul, however he lives in the work of white as also on afroamerikanischen artists such as Robert Cray, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Bonnie Raitt andother further.


the texts are usually auto+biographic and reveal many personal characteristics and experiences of the author. Frequently the texts contain sexual purchases and act of betrayal, resignation, of unreturned love, unemployment, hunger, financial emergency, homesickness, isolation andUnfaithful one. This prejudice hangs the Blues until today after. But is by far larger and more facet-rich topic tables the spectrum of the Blues. Are brought up for discussion also religion, politics (so e.g. Hitler Blues, „the The Florida Kid “Ernest Blunt in the year 1940Bluebrid record brought), women's rights, tyrannische Vorgesetze and also crude Sexismus in. This last kind of play crude vulgären Blues developed in and the 30's 20's and as Hokum Blues is designated. It often became in the Work Camps of the American south of traveler musiciansto the maintenance of the workers sung. Among the Hokum Bluesern rank among other things Bo Carter, its Song „Please my Weiner “(1935) also the title of a Hokum Blues Samplers of the Yazoo label is warm and the Hokum Boys (Tampa talk and Georgia Tom), with thatTitle „It' s tight like that “a hit into the 20ern to land could.

The early Bluesstücke was of irregular Rhythmik and followed the Sprechrhythmik. A Strophe in the early Blues consists usually of three lines. The first line is repeated and becomesusually in the same or a similar melody sung. In the third line is a kind contentwise reaction: an answer, an explanation or reason, and the melody is another, e.g.

Woke UP this morning with the blues down inmy soul
Woke UP this morning with the blues down in my soul
Saying “My baby of gone and left ME, got A heart as black as coal”

the repetition of the first line has the purpose, the singer more time forto give the third line. In addition hereby a stress ratio is developed, which retards only with sung third line dissolves. The text often does not seem to fit the music, but the singer can emphasize certain syllables and suppress others,so that the rhythm is correct. The singer can vary the tones likewise in such a way that they fit the bass and the company.

the Blues pattern

the standard Blues pattern is based the 12 taktige Blues (12-bar of blues) and on the chord sequencesi. Tonika, IV. gradates. Subdominante gradates and V. Dominant factor gradates. After four clocks Tonika follow two clocks each Subdominante and Tonika, one clock each dominant factor and Subdominante and again two clocks Tonika.

|| I | I | I | I | IV | IV | I | I | V | IV | I | I ||

This pattern was strongly extended and modified in the course of the time. Beside twelfth share towards standard form it gives muchmany further Bluesschemen. Examples of it are the 8-Takt-Blues-Schema, the 12-Takt-Moll-Blues-Schema or the 12-Takt-Standard-Jazz-Blues-Schema.

Quick CHANGE becomes in 2. Easily, then one speaks clock of the Blues pattern in place of the Tonika the Subdominante of a Quick CHANGE.

|| I | IV | I | I | . . .

Turnaround Turnaround announces the end of the Blues pattern and leads back melodisch and rhythmically for the beginning of the pattern. Turnaround can be played either 1-taktig or 2-taktig. With a 2-taktigen Turnaround becomes frequentlyin clock 12 the dominant factor instead of the Tonika easily.


the melodische structure of a Strophe corresponds to the contentwise. The Blue in such a way specified Notes is typical. These tones do not have in a chromatic twelve tonus towards system place, because themfrom the African Pentatonik come. It essentially concerns two tones: a clay/tone between small and large third and one between decreased and pure Quinte, in each case related to the basic clay/tone. The small seventh is strict-taken none blue note. See in addition also the article over the Bluestonleiter.

The Greek word penta means five and marks thus a fünftönige scale. This is extended the decreased Quinte by flatted fifth, so that a scale outdevelops for six tones. Related to the basic clay/tone this is as follows developed: 1 - k3 - 4 - v5 - 5 - k7 - 8

with beginning of the 1920er years developed (acoustic) the guitar for the style-coining/shaping instrument of the delta Blues.Up to then Blues were played frequently by dance orchestras. In the case of occupation there were obviously no firm defaults, although the clarinet, which might have been represented Fiddle as well as the banjo in many orchestras of this kind. For the bass situation becameeither a tuba, a ton bass or the Jug assigned.

Guitars became since end 19. Century by the industrielle production and the Versandhandel in the backward delta affordable Begleitinstrumente. In addition it came that guitars with the climatic extreme conditions in the damp-hotThe south of the USA better by right came than bspw. a Piano or a banjo. Almost exclusively open tendencies were played. The today's standard tendency of the strings after E-A-D-g-h-e began itself to intersperse only later with the Blues musicians.


see also


  • Alfons Michael duration (1983): Blues from 100 years, 43 examples for the typology of the vocal Bluesformen ISBN 3-596-22952-9.
  • Amiri Baraka (2003): Blues People - from the slave music to the Bebop, orange press, ISBN 3936086087
  • Robert Palmer (1995), Deep Blues: A musical and Cultural History OF the Mississippi delta, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140062238
  • Carl Ludwig enriches (2001): Blues - history and stories.With audio CD ISBN 3423242590.
  • Bill Wyman (2001): Blues - history, styles, musicians, Songs & photographs ISBN 3-88472-525-4

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Blues - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikibooks: Bluesgitarre - learning and teaching materials

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