Wahlspruch: La unión it la fuerza
|office languages||Spanish, Quechua, Aymara|
|seat of the government||La Paz|
|system of government||Präsidialrepublik|
|surface||1.098.581 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||8.724.156 (conditions July 2004)|
|population density||of 7.9 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||1,055 US-$ (2004)|
|independence||6. August 1825|
|currency||Boliviano (colloquial peso)|
|time belt||UTC -4|
|national anthem||Bolivianos, el hadopropicio|
Bolivia (splinter Bolivia [boˈliβi̯a]) is a state in South America. It is an inland and borders in the west at Peru and Chile, in the south at Argentina and Paraguay,in the east and the north at Brazil.
Table of contents
major item: Geography of Bolivia
Bolivia becomes of two large and lying chains of the Anden pulled through far apart, their height toover 6.500 m is enough (Sajama 6,542 m, Illimani 6,439 m). Between them the central high country is appropriate, for 3,000 to 4,000 m high Altiplano. This to far area handing into the neighboring country Peru is round the actual heartland, in that80 per cent of all Bolivianer live, although it constitutes only about a third of the surface of Bolivia. Between the east slope of the Anden and the eastBolivian mountain country the Yungas in a height extends between 1.200 and 1.800 m and. NN.
That surface-moderatelylargest part of Bolivia are the Llanos, which extends from the eastBolivian mountain country to to the borders to Brazil and Paraguay. This settled only extremely thinly tropical-hot low country subdivided yourselves into the dry savannahs of the Gran Chaco and the tropical Rain forest areas Amazoniens.
In the midst of the Altiplano the Titicaca lake , of one of the high-altitude seas of the earth lies. By its center the border runs to the neighboring country Peru. The Titicacasee is the high-altitude commercially navigable sea of the earth.
of about two thirds of the population are Indígenas, usually Quechua (17%) and Aymara (35%); Mestizen form a large portion of the population. The remaining inhabitantsthe country are white ones, usually descendants of the old-Spanish Kolonisten. The population of Bolivia belonged to 92% of the Roman-catholic church on, the remainder consists of trailers of the protest anti-mash and other faith directions (3% Baha'i and Muslims).
Indigene of peoples
goods at times of Spanish conquest alone in the Departament Santa Cruz 80 groups of peoples to find, then exist today generally speaking to country only about 40 ethnical groups, those againin 35 language families to be summarized. The largest ethnical groups are on the Hochebene, where the Quechua and Aymara with 2,5 and/or. 2 millions a very large part of the population constitute.
Contrary to the small and smallest races, ofthose three in foreseeable time, could the large and medium sized subpopulations will probably become extinct such as Chiquitanos (180.000), Guaraní (130.000), Moxeños (80.000) and Afro Bolivianer (20.000) even increase in the population register. At the same time the groups mentioned experience a process of the back meditation on their roots anda Erstarken of their cultural identity. - One suppressed the passing on of the indianischen languages still recently often even by indianischen parents themselves, in order to create its children no “language disadvantage”, then there are serious efforts, the land children for some yearsin their indianischen native language to alphabetisieren and these languages also for certain studies (z. B. Teaching profession to prescribe medicine) as obligation or at least free subject. A at least symbolic milestone for the efforts toward the receipt of the indigenen cultures was the constitutional amendment of1995, with which Bolivia was recognized now also officially as a multi-cultural, pluriethnische society.
the official capital of Bolivia is Sucre, the seat of the government is however in La Paz, the most important city of the country,in 3.200 to 4,100 m the height lies and thus the high-altitude seat of the government of the earth is.
The largest cities of Bolivia, arranged according to the number of their inhabitants in the year 2005, are Santa Cruz de la Sierra (1.113.582 inhabitants), La Paz (789.585), El Alto (647.350), Cochabamba (516.683), Oruro (201.230), Sucre (193.876), Tarija (135.783) and Potosí (132.966).
the Bolivian culture reflects those variety of the 35 Ethnien of the country, under the most differentclimatic and economic conditions live and according to different myths, rites, textiles, rhythms and dances developed.Bolivian dances
major item: History of Bolivia
Bolivia was settled by different cultures, the most important was the civilization of Tiahuanaco.It became in 15. Century part of the Inka - realm. As the Spaniards in 16. Bolivia, at silver occurrence, conquered, became rich century the country part of the viceroy realm Peru and late part of the viceroy realm Río de la Plata.
The fight overindependence began 1809, but Bolivia remained Spanish colony, until it was released 1825 from Simón Bolívar, after which it was later designated. After a short union with Peru Bolivia became completely independent. The union had the Confederación Perú BolivianaWar (1836-1839) against Chile lost. In the saltpeter war (1879-1883) Bolivia lost large parts of the territory with entrance to the Pacific at Chile, disputed since independence , finally. In the Chacokrieg (1932-1935) Bolivia loses enormous regions in the south at Paraguay. Into the followingYears began the fall due to the wars and economic sales.
Confronted with ethnical and cultural fights, there were revolutions in Bolivia andmilitary coups. A military junta was fallen into the early 1980ern, in order to install a democracy.
In October 2003 it arrived to broad unrests with the character of a rising of the people, as trade unions against the sellout of the important soil treasure natural gasUS-American companies protested and strikes organized. This placed at the same time the high point partial protests by force against the reforms and savings in the national budget (in the context of the measures demanded by the IWF to the decrease of the foreign debt), those in February 2003 alsoa police strike had begun. The government used military against the “rebels”; approximately 60 humans died thereby. This led however to solidarizing further people layers with the demonstrators. In the result president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada had in the exile inthe USA go; one year later raised the Bolivian parliament accusation against it. By the resignation Lozadas ignored the presidency on the vice-president of Carlo Mesa .
In January 2005 an alliance of political groups in the raw material-rich region Santa Cruz triedto attain the autonomy. Had preceded mass protests because of high gasoline prices, with which the nationalization of the gas industry was demanded. Several institutions, like for example the prefecture, were briefly occupied by the demonstrators.
In June 2005 social unrests led to the resignation fromPresident of Carlo Mesa. Strikes and road blockades lasting for weeks forced him to this step, in view of the fact that the supply situation in the capital became precarious. Unrests continued, in order to prevent that the president of the senate, the conservative Hornando VacaDíez from Santa Cruz, condition in accordance with presidency takes over. Forced the blockade of La Paz the senate to meet in Sucre in order to accept the resignation of Carlo Mesas formally and swear its successor in. The protests forced Vaca Díez to the renouncement of itsFollow-up, so that the office for president turned into condition in accordance with on the presidents of the highest Court of Justice Eduardo Rodríguez as a transition president under the condition to cause new elections. These should to 4. December 2005 take place. Struggles for power relating to domestic affairs retard the choice date. Background is a judgement of the constitutional courtof 22. September 2005 that the allocation of seats in the parliament does not correspond to no more the current population numbers of the Departamentos and must before the choice a reorganization (in favor of the Departamentos Santa Cruz and Cochabamba) be found. After itself the parliament not on oneRedistribution of the seats to unite could, arranged president Rodríguez at the 1. November 2005 by decree a redistribution of the seats on (La Paz (- 2), Oruro (- 1) and Potosí (- 1) in favor of Santa Cruz (+3) and Cochabamba) (+1)) and determined the choice dateon the 18. December 2005.
With in time taking place the choice were the two most promising candidates of the leaders of the Kokabauern Evo Morales, which represents the socialist movement Movimiento aluminium Socialismo and which indigene population majority represents, and which conservative white ones Jorge Quiroga, which was already once a president. To 18. December 2005 was selected Morales with 54% of the voices to the president. It was the first time since the revolution from 1952 that a Präsidentschaftskandiadt achieved the absolute majority. Evo Moralesbecame to 21. January 2006 swears in.
See also: List of the presidents of Bolivia
at the point of the centre government with seat in La Paz stands for five years the selected president. Due to the very frequent Umstürzehowever only few could hold themselves over the full legislative period.
The two-chamber parliament consists of the chamber of deputies (Cámara de Diputados) with 130 delegates as House of Commons (Cámara baja) and the senate (Senado) with 27 senators (three of everyoneDepartamento) as upper house (Cámara Alta). The members of both chambers are selected for five years each. There is obligation to vote.
The highest Court of Justice has its seat in Sucre, the formal capital of the country.
Bolivia is about to give oneself a new condition with the help of the Asamblea Constituyente.
the armed forces of Bolivia are divided into the army (EjércitoBoliviano), the navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana) and air forces (Fuerza Aérea Boliviana). The national police (Policía Nacional de Bolivia) is likewise militarily organized.
One is a fundamental military service, if there are however enough Freiwillige, without summonings does. The Freiwilligenmust at least 18 years be old; with summonings the law permits however to lower the age limit up to 14. According to estimations 40% of the armed forces are old under 18 years, half of it even under 16 (source:CIA World Factbook).
ThoseDuration of the military service amounts to 12 months. The total strength of the armed forces varies between 31.500 and 35.000 men, of it about 20,000 military service conscripts.
The military expenditure amounted to 2003 comparatively low 123 millions US-$ (source: CIA World Factbook), thus however nevertheless 1.6% of theGross domestic product. For the acquisition of new equipment the Bolivian armed forces are dependent therefore to a large extent on US - military aid.
the Bolivian army is with approximately 25,000 men the by far strongest armed service within the Bolivian military. With approximately 50light battle tanks, 76 artillery - and 50 air defense cannons is however comparatively weakly for a war against an outside enemy equipped it (source: www.globaldefence.net). The army of Chile - to that the relations is still strained - for examplea 24x does not only have larger budget, but is also with hundreds of more modern heavy and light armoured vehicles, among other things 250 leopard tanks, substantially more strongly equipped.
Bolivia has since the saltpeter war no more entrance to the Pacific, possesses a small naval troop however nevertheless. Although the saltpeter war is appropriate already for more than one century back, existsinvariably hope for the recovery of a passage to the Pacific, running between Chile and Peru. This long-term goal lends (without naval infantry) the 1,800 men to strong navy upswing, which remains at least for the more near future a pure Binnenmarine. The command structure covers sixNaval districts, everyone equipped with a flotilla. A district covers the Titicaca lake, the remaining is because of the large rivers.
Largest ship is high sea-freighter, which “Libertador Bolívar”, from which navy mans, around maritime training to ensure forthe case the fact that the passage develops and again from a Bolivian port at the Pacific coast can operate the navy. The ship is used as normal commercial cargo ship, whose incomes flow to the Department of the Navy. It is a gift of Venezuela and has its home portin Argentina. The remaining navy consists belonging patrol flight things of the type Cessna U 206 of approximately 60 patrol boats and patrol launches as well as of one the navy.
3,000 men covers air forces the Bolivian Air Force. The equipment is to a large extent obsolete; in addition belong among other things of Canadair under license built Lockheed T-33A/N combat flier from the 70ernthe last century (depending upon source between 12 and 18; partly recently in Canada) and a probably still 11 training flight witness of the Swiss type modernizes Pilatus PC-7, which are used also for the fight of the drug cultivation. In addition come about two dozenTransport aircrafts and approximately 50 transport helicopters of different types. The Bolivian Air Force operates a country-wide, public line air traffic with transport Aéreo military (TAM) also into remote regions.
Bolivia is divided in nine Departamentos.The Departamentos is administered by a Präfekten (Prefecto), which was appointed in former times by the president, since 2005 however as concession at autonomy efforts by the people are selected. The first prefecture elections found common with the presidency and parliamentary elections to 18. December2005 instead of.
The Departamentos was divided for their part into altogether 112 provinces (Provincias), which are administered in each case by an appointed Unterpräfekten (Subprefecto). The provinces are again in 324 municipios subdivided.
On local level there are selected mayors (Alcalde), in larger cities and municipalities also a selected town councillor (Consejo municipal).
Bolivia is thatpoorest and export-weakest country of Latin America, its gross domestic product is below average with approximately 2,400 US Dollar per head/year (2002, computed after Kaufkraftparität). A majority of the population is still in the agriculture busy. Only in the tropical low country in the east those becomesAgriculture thereby to some extent modern claimant, in the Altiplano against it is cultivated traditionally on Subsistenz basis.
Had of South America second largest gas occurrences, 90 per cent of it go to Bolivia into the export. As announced by president Morales, became those natural gas and gas fields at the 1. May2006 puts under state control and, under employment of the military, which subordinates control of the state State of YPFB (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos). An offer at more than 20 within this range US-American and European companies transact, within 180 days an offer tooplace, was issued at the same time.
The industry is developed few, main branches of industry is apart from the mining industry the food and textile industry as well as metalworking shrinking in the meaning. Its meaning could regain the mining industry however with the development of the “El Mutún “.
The controversially discussed Coca - cultivation remains still one of the main industries of the country, particularly in the regions Yungas and Chapare. On the part of the USA it is tried to prevent, but is with the fact to be considered that Coca notonly one raw material for cocaine is, but of the population of the entire and region as luxury is used whether as dte (mate de coca) or to chewing. Around the Cocaanbau a violent controversy between the government and the Cocabauern was inflamed,also to the chaotic political situation the 2002-2003 led. The leader of in such a way specified cocaleros, Evo Morales, began in the Präsidentenwahl 2003 as a candidate, however the ballot missed around few per cent points. To 18. December 2005 it becamehowever with a result to the president, been never there, selected.
the tourism received in the last years a high increase, is however nevertheless only from subordinated meaning - in the year2004 came straight once 367,000 foreign visitors into the country. Most tourists travel to the capital, to the Titicacasee and to the Salar de Uyuni - only about 10% of the tourists are also allotted to the far level of the Amazon basintheir 21 of Bolivian national park. Among them the Noel Kempff Mercado national park ranks since the year 2000 among the world nature inheritance of the UNESCO.
The landschaftliche beauty of the Altiplanos, in addition, the Amazon region, become estimated from ever more foreigners. The native ones travel because of the bad economic situationrather little, mass tourism thus hardly gives it.
Principal purposes of the tourism are:
- the capitals La Paz and Sucre because of their colonial buildings,
- Potosí with its mines and likewise because of the here particularly splendourful buildings from the golden time of the city
- that Titicacasee with its “holy islands” (sunning and moon island)
- the Amazon region around Rurrenabaque
- the Salar de Uyuni, the largest salt lake America
- Tupiza, a town in the south Tiahuanaco, the religious and
- administrative center of one, lain in a multicolor mountain landscapepräkolumbianischen culture
the infrastructure is in most cases well, the prices particularly for Europeans very low.
In the areas lain more highly (particularly in the west of the country) one knows problems with the elevator illness gotten (Soroche). Coca Mate dte is recommendedor the so-called Soroche pellet (a kind Pastille). Also one should avoid heavy meals and alcohol.
between 1992 and 2000 the portion
Bolivia belongs traditionally to the weaker football crews of South America. In the qualification to the football WM 2006 they separated. Strongest player is the Stürmer José Alfredo Castillo of the Mexican Erstligisten Tecos UAG. In Europe Sergio Jauregui and Getulio Vaca Diez play (both Yverdon sport) as well as Juan Pena (Villarreal CF). (Conditions October. 2005).
- Johannes winters and André crowd one ski (2005):Are and states unregierbar? Causes of the political crisis in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. In: Magazine development policy 14/2005, S. 30-34. On-line one available in:http://www.weltpolitik.net/Regionen/Nord-%20und%20Lateinamerika/Gesamtregion/
- harsh ore S. Small, “A Concise History OF Bolivia”, Cambridge 2003
- Johannes winter, “processes of integration in rural Bolivia”, CeLAMünster, 2005. In:http://www.uni-muenster.de/CeLA/publik/Ah/AH91.htm
- Robert Lessmann, “for example: Bolivia ", Lamuv Goettingen, 2004
- Jorge Sanjininés, OSCAR Zambrano, “cinema for the people - the Bolivian experience” in: Peter B. Schumann (Hrsg.), “cinema and fight in Latin America. To the theory and practice of the politicalCinema ", Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser 1976, S. ,
- “If one me”, Lamuv Goettingen, 1977/83 permits to speak 144-167 Moema Viezzer (org/deu)
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Bolivia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: Bolivia - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- further ones leftto the topic „Bolivia “ in the open directory Project
- Bolivia Today (English)
- Bolivia - the magazine for Bolivia
- el bloqueo - an Internet newspaper to Bolivia
- extensive information to history Bolviens
- Kantuta.com - large portal over Bolivia (English/German)
- official Website of the Bolivian messagein Germany with detailed information about history, politics and tourism
- information and photo for indigenen population
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coordinates: 16° 42 ′ 43 " S, 64° 39 ′ 58 " W