Bosnia

of these articles treats Bosnia as historical region. For the today's State of Bosnia and Herzegowina see Bosnia and Herzegowina.

Bosnia is covered the northern region of the State of Bosnia and Herzegowina and about two thirds of the national territory. It forms todayno administrative unit, but is divided within the State of Bosnia and Herzegowina on the Republika Srpska and the Bosniakisch Croatian federation.

It got the name from the river Bosna, that with Sarajevo rises and over Zenica and Doboj Bosanski Šamac into the save flows.

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landscape

Bosnia is majority a hilly country with continental climate and partly very cold winters. The vegetation is essentially typicalCentral European. In the expanded forests it gives this very day and. A.Wolves, bears and wild pigs. The olympic winter plays 1984 made the skiing areas Jahorina and Bjelašnica (both with Sarajevo) world well-known.

Landschaft im nord-westlichen Teil Bosniens (bei Donji Vakuf)
Landscape in the northwest part of Bosnia (with Donji Vakuf)

Bosniain the south and the west by the dinarischen mountains and the Herzegowina one limits. In the north it ends at the rivers Una and Sava (with that formerly hand area Posavina, and in the east it goes approximately up to the Drina.

WithException of the northern region, which drags on at the save, is interspersed the country by more or less high mountain ranges, whose highest summits in the Ausläufern of the Dinari alps are to be found:

  • Treskavica (2,128 m)
  • Bjelasnica (2,067 m)
  • Branica Planina(2,070 m)
  • Bolujak with the Maglić (2,386 m)

the main mountain courses in the northern Bosnia extend from southeast to northwest and form high, elongated back forms as well as fruitful valleys. Within the southern range mountains with sharp profile and Karstcharakter outweigh, rocky points/teethand kraterförmige boiler valleys, whose usually elongated soles are filled at the rain time with water. In the summer they drain and form deep tears. The border mountains of these boilers are called polje and rise up to 700 to 900 M. Itis bald and fissured lime rock. Instead of forest is here only meager Gestrüpp.

Within the forest range Central European trees, like beeches , outweigh spruces, Birken, Erlen and maple. Over approximately 1,600 m the tree stature ends typically and itarise alpine herbs.

Main river of Bosnia is the save, which forms a natural northern border against Slawonien. The save is navigable for light vehicles and forms one of the most important routes of transportation. You flow the Una, the Vrbas, the Ukrina, the Bosna and the Drina too.

history

in the antique one was already Bosnia an important transit country between Adria and Danube area, so that in the meager and gebirgigen country some wealthy commercial towns developcould. In the antique one Bosnia to the Roman province Illyricum, belonged. From the Roman operational readiness level also today still many pieces of excavation and attachment plants witness.

After the immigration of the Slawen in 7. Century mostly formally stood for Bosnia, alternating under Byzantine rule, howeverit succeeded to the princes to acquire a large autonomy. Later it was also part of the Bulgarian and Serbian realm as well as part of Hungary. All fremdländischen rule was not able however, direct influence on the policy of the country auzuüben, which remained to powerin the hands of the local aristocracy and the princes.

The national name Bosnia dips for the first time around 10. Century up, however he refers here only to the heartland at the upper run of the Bosna. In the years 1154 to 1463 was itusually an independent principality and/or. late kingdoms.

1299 led the Ban Pavao Šubić Bribirski the title „gentleman over completely Bosnia “(totius Bosniae Dominus). Its areas were enough from Gvozd to to the Adriati sea, the Neretva and the Drina.Mladen II became its successor.

1299 - 1321 prevailed the princes of Bribir (Bribirski knezevi) over Bosnia and Hum.

1377 have itself the Bosnian Ban Stjepan Tvrtko Kotromanić to the king of the Serbs, from Bosnia, Serbia Raszien, Herzegowina/Hum and the coastal countries of Sveti Savas grace in the monastery Milesevo with Prijepolje before the burial place of the first Serbian Patriarchen pc. Sava crowned, which it in political conflict with the regular successor the Serbian king crown Marko Mrnjavcević, inArea of the today's Macedonia prevailed, brought. Tvrtko was the grandchild of Elizabeth Nemanjić - a member of the Serbian dynasty of the Nemanjiden, why he regarded himself as legal inheriting of the Serbian crown. The medieval capital and seat of the king were Kraljeva Sutjeska, today still another small locality with the oldest Franziskanerkloster, library and numerous historical memories. Markos uncle Ugljesa Mrnjavcević prevailed over the Hum, the today's Herzegowina with seat in Trebinje. The Kingdom of Bosnia became for nearly one centurythe most powerful state of the region.

1389 followed king Stjepan Tvrtko Kotromanić the call of the Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and sent a part of its army to the blackbird field around itself with the remaining Serbian army the Osmanen against to place there.

1443 until 1461 king governed Stjepan Tomaš Kotromanić.

1463 Bobovac, sew Kraljeva Sutjeska, taken by the Osmanen. King Stjepan Tomaš excrement Romanesque was killed. With death 1478 in Rome the Bosnian crown expired to his Mrs. Katarina Kosača Kotromanić.

Only 70Years after Sarajevo Bihać fell as last Bosnian city. Bosnia became thereby a osmanischen Vilayet (province). With back conquest south of Hungary and Slawoniens by prince Eugen became the country the frontier zone. Austrian troops tried several times to conquer also Bosnia,which failed however, so that the save border could stabilize. However prince Eugen destroyed Sarajevo with a campaign.

Bosnia was one of the most important provinces of the Osmani realm, since it protected the European border of the realm. The Bosnian Beylerbey, governor of theSultans, was equipped like no other governor with absolute force. The governors Bosniens belonged beside the Sultan to the most powerful men of the realm. The title of the “Beylerbey” was reserved beside the Bosnian governors only few other governors of the realm. Duringto the osmanischen time reached Bosnia-Herzegovina a second, eastern bloom, completely high went will to yards of the Sultans and became military leaders, diplomats and on in the culture of the Osmani realm and many men out of Bosnia and the Herzegowina acquiredGrosswesiren of the realm.

After the Reconquista in Spain also refugees settled sephardische Jews in Bosnia.

The Balkan Peninsula around 1888

1878 was subordinated Bosnia of Austrian-Hungarian administration (Kondominium), while it was subordinate to the Sultan until 1908 formally further. Inthis time the term Bosnia and Herzegowina (Bosna i Hercegovina) was coined/shaped.

see also

Web on the left of

http://www.bih-x.com/ - Touristi information

http://www.geocities.com/kraljevasutjeska/turizamde http://www.kraljeva-sutjeska.vze.com

 

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