Bosnia and Herzegowina
|office languages||Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian|
|system of government||democratic Federal State|
|Entitäten||federation Bosnia and Herzegowina, Republika Srpska|
|head of state||Sulejman Tihić (1), Ivo Miro Jović, Borislav Paravac|
|Prime Minister||Adnan Terzić|
|high representative||Christian black Schilling|
|surface||51,129 km km ²|
|number of inhabitants||4.025.476 (July 2005)|
|gross national product||2,429 US$|
|currency||1 km = 100 Fening|
|time belt||MEZ / Central European Summer Time|
|mains voltage||230 V, 50 cycles per second.|
|national holiday||1. March|
|(1)||chairmen of the state presidency i.e. acting president Bosnia and Herzegowinas|
the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegowina lain in South-east Europe and/or. Bosnia-Herzegovina(in Latin writing Bosna i Hercegovina, briefly BiH; in cyrillic writing БоснаиХерцеговина) borders in the east and southeast on the state State of Serbia and Montenegro, in the north, the west and southwest on Croatia as well as on few kilometerswith Neum to the Mediterranean. It came out from former Yugoslavia , has today however again the borders, which were assigned to the country still 1878 on the citizen of Berlin congress.
the largest cities in Bosnia and Herzegowina are:
- Sarajevo ca.520.000 inhabitant
- Banja Luka 250,000 Ew.
- Tuzla 133,861 Ew. (of it approx. 100.000 in thatactual city)
- Zenica 128,495 Ew. (of it approx. 100.000 in the actual city)
- Mostar 105,448 Ew.
- Prijedor 93,000 Ew.
Further cities in Bosnia and Herzegowina:
- Gradiska 62,000 Ew.
- Bihać 60,707 Ew.
- Sanski Most 60,537 Ew.
- Bijeljina approx. 40,000 Ew.
- Bugojno approx. 40,000 Ew.
- Brčko: 39,478 Ew.
- Kozarac 27,000 Ew.
- Modrica 25,000 Ew.
- Gračanica 23,500 Ew.
- Travnik approx. 22,000 Ew.
- Novi Travnik 21,463 Ew.
- Srebrenica approx. 21,000 Ew.
- Jajce approx. 20,000 Ew.
- Trebinje 16,824 Ew.
- Tomislavgrad 16,462 Ew.
- Bosanski Brod 16,350 Ew.
- Odžak 15,588 Ew.
- Jablanica approx. 15,000 Ew.
- Derventa 14,235 Ew.
- Vareš 13,468 Ew.
- Široki Brijeg 12,346 Ew.
- Prozor approx. 10000 Ew.
- Livno approx. 10000 Ew.
- Šipovo approx. 10000 Ew.
- Coke breeze 8,045 Ew.
- Teslić approx. 8000 Ew.
- Posušje approx. 5,000 Ew.
- Visoko approx. 17,000 Ew.
- languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (the Serbs the cyrillic uses, the Croats andBosniaken use latin alphabet.)
- groups of peoples: Bosniaken (Bosnier) 48.6%, Serb 34.5%, Croat 16.3%, minorities 0.6% (Bosnian Herzegowini Roma, Jew) (since 1991 no census took place, the data originates from the CIA World Factbookfor the year 2005).
- Bosnier are all citizens of the country (partly). Bosniaken reads the name for the ethnical Bosnier, usual since 1993.
- Bosniaken, Serbs and Croats are the three konstitutiven groups of peoples. Serbs and Croats are not classified therefore as minorities.
In Bosnia and Herzegowina there is a number of different religions and faith directions. Most inhabitants Bosnia Herzegowinas are Muslims (approx. 40%), Serbian-orthodox (approx. 34%), and catholics (approx. 15 %). Minorities are Jews and Gläubige of other religions (approx. 11 %).In Mostar during the war an Evangelist municipality from Serbs, Croats and Bosniaken formed. It is spirituell charismatisch coined/shaped; the municipality work is ökumenisch aligned.
Bosnia and Herzegowina explained to 15. Since that time October 1991 its withdrawal from the state federation Yugoslavia and is an independent Republic of (international acknowledgment to 17. April 1992). At the end of the war stood the 1995 in Dayton (the USA) signed Dayton contract, which created the föderale Republic of Bosnia and Herzegowina, which suffer however still from the consequences of the war and the continuous arguments between the people and groups of religions. (current conflicts under the succession states of the formerYugoslavia, see international conflicts of the succession states of Yugoslavia)
the three groups of peoples having ever a representative in the dreiköpfigen state presidency. The Bosniaken and Croat select their two representatives in the federation, the Bosnian Serbs their in the Republic of Srpska. The presidencythe state presidency changes every eight months. The two Entitäten have own governments and parliaments as well as a common government and parliament (Lower House with 42 seats and a chamber of the peoples with 15 seats) for the total state. Actually practices a partthe government authority however Christian black Schilling as representatives of the international community out (Office OF the High Representative, EAR), which is justified with the fact that due to the mutual distrust among the responsible persons of the groups of peoples, developed in the war, stilla blockade attitude prevails.
Bosnia and Herzegowina exists since the Dayton contract (also admits as Dayton Friedensabkommen), thus since 1995 from two Entitäten, the federation Bosnia and Herzegowina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine, also admits as Bosniakisch Croatian federation) and the Serbian Republic of (Republika Srpska). The district around the northBosnian city Brčko is subordinate as Kondominiumboth Entitäten directly the total state. Both Entitäten as well as the Brčko district have to a large extent own authority. They have their own executive and legislation. Only the outside and defense policy, which become monetary policy as well as the external trade relations central decided.
- List of the cantons of the federationBosnia-Herzegovina
- list of the municipalities of the federation Bosnia-Herzegovina
infrastructure and traffic
Zurzeit is a motorway planned of the Adria until Budapest. This motorway (Koridor 5C) is of Ploče in Croatia over Mostar, Sarajevo and Doboj into the Hungarian capitallead. This motorway will lead approx. 360 km by Bosnia-Herzegovina. This motorway should be finished up to the year 2012. The moreover one at present also on a motorway one works, which is to lead from Banja Luka across Bosanska Gradiška to Croatia.
, For some
years gives it is war conditionally not so far developed course & railway system the Bosnian herzegowinische course a railway connection from Zagreb to Sarajevo. There are two course companies: on the one hand the course company of the federation Bosnia and Herzegowina (Željeznice Federacije Bosne iHercegovine) and on the other hand those the Republika Srpska (Željeznice Republike Srpske). There are in principle three railroad lines: “Unska”, in the Unatal running distance between the city Sisak and the city Split and its Adriahafen, over Bosanski Novi, Bihać and knees. Thosesecond connects the port in Ploče with the railways in east Croatia, between Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci, over Mostar, Sarajevo and Doboj running. The third distance connects the preceding two with beginning in bad. Novi, over Banjaluka and Doboj, with oneAusläufer, which hands until Tuzla and Brčko. Besides there is a set of work and mine courses, which are operated partially still with steam. Many still of k.u.k. - Monarchy established Schmalspur - distances (“Bosnian Schmalspur”) were left openand to a large extent diminished. In the year 2005 a renewal program was decided, among other things is the Spanish Talgo - express trains as well as a larger number of Frachwaggons to be procured.
Zurzeit give it to three international airports (Sarajevo, Mostar, Banja Luka). One knows Sarajevo outWell, Mostar reach Germany only conditionally. Banja Luka is approached rather rarely from Germany.
Tourism and Sehenswürigkeiten
the tourism could develop also war conditionally only slowly, for the past few years come ever more tourist to Bosniaand Herzegovina in particular after Mostar and Sarajevo. There are also e.g. objects of interest some, among them. the old Mostar bridge, as well as magnificent historical churches and mosques. In Sarajewo there are the foot castings of Gavrilo to principle and Titos statue.
the economy was afterthe Bosnian war (1992-1995) destroys, and recovers now again. Bosnia and Herzegovina has largest we shank growth on the whole Balkans of 6%
the convertible Mark (km) is since 22. June 1998 in completely Bosnia and Herzegowina valid currency. Thoseso-called (convertible Marks) km stands in the relationship 1,95583:1 to the euro, to which it is bound.
recent past Bosnian herzegowische films some prices got film.Among them the films were Ničija Zemlja (dt. “No man's land”, closely. “NO Mans country”), which received one golden Globe Award and a OSCAR, as well as the film Grbavica, which got on the Berlinale a golden bear.
The moreover the film harvested“Welcome ton of Sarajevo”, with Woody Harrelson, very much critic praise. The film was concerned with the FE storage Sarajevos at the beginning Neunziger.Der Regiesseur Emir Kusturica originates likewise from Sarajevo, that the films Underground, father goes on official travel, produced and but the goldenPalm received.
the three most important daily papers in Bosnia and Herzegowina are Dnevni avaz (German the daily voice) and Oslobodjenje (dt. The release/freely its), which appear both in Bosnian language in Sarajevo, and Nezavisne Novine (dt. The independent newspaper), which appears in Banja Luka in Serbian language and Latin writing. Besides there is a set of political weekly papers such as Slobodna Bosna (dt. The free Bosnia) or BH Dani (dt. Days). Like are also magazines, overcurrent affairs or star of the people music report, like express or Svet (dt. The world; newspaper of the same name and a gleichformatige appears also in Serbia). Furthermore there is itself still the only only daily paper in national language, appearing in the Internet, bothto the population locally, and to the Diaspora turns:Infostaza.
Bosnia and Herzegowina has a three-membered public broadcast and TV system, with a national television and Radiosender (BHTV 1 and/or. BH radio 1) and ever a Entitätssender,the RTVFBiH, FTV in the federation and the RTRS (cyrillic: PTPC) in the Republika Srpska. Some private transmitters such as OBN or NTV Hayat are to be received generally speaking country. Much is cable television likes, to transmitters from the neighboring countriesand the German-speaking countries feeds.
in Sarajevo 1984 the olympic winter plays were delivered. The city will presumably apply for the olympic winter plays in the year 2014. In Bosnia and Herzegowina football and basketball are the most popular kinds of sport. In the footballthe country constantly developed itself further and improved. For the football European championship 2004 the country would have qualified itself almost, in the last play against Denmark was missing only one victory against the direct competitor, but the play 1:1 finally went out, thus was Denmark with the euro 2004. More success can book the national team in the basketball. It could itself qualify for the last four European championships.
Meal and drinking
thoseBosnian herzegowinische kitchen has to offer many Spezialiäten, e.g. Bosanski Lonac, Ćevapi, Lokum (Turkish honey), Pita (Pide) in all variations of kinds of vegetable. Besides there are Sogan Dolma, Somun, Japrak, Baklava, Halva, Burek andmuch more. Bosnian herzegowinische courts are strongly affected of the Turkish kitchen.
Holidays and celebrations
apart from religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter (with the Croats and Serbs), and the Islamic celebrations Ramazanski Bajram (at the end of the Ramadan) and Kurban Bajram(at present the Pilgerfahrt after Mekka), the following holidays in Bosnia and Herzegowina apply:
- New Year (new facts Godina): The 1. and 2. January are national holidays, Silvester is magnificently celebrated. And the 13.Januar (Serbian New Year/after the old calendar)
- independence day (Dan Nezavisnosti): 1. March - reminds of the call of independence by the referendum of 29. February 1992; however this day is not celebrated in the Republika Srpska as holiday.
- Day of the work (Prvi maj): The 1.and 2. May are national holidays, which day of the work used as cause for large public celebrations.
- National holiday (Dan Drzavnosti): 25. November - Bosnia and Herzegowina in Mrkonjic degree remind of of proclaiming the People's Republic 25. November 1943.
It is planned to pass a uniform holiday law for completely Bosnia and Herzegowina; one plans the 21. November (day of the Dayton agreement) as holiday; however the law was not decided yet.
Besides it gives to thatdifferent, mainly municipalities and villages local of holidays inhabited by Croats, which orient themselves at the Christian calendar (e.g. Name days of holy, “small Easter”, etc.). A special holiday is the name day of the protection patron of each place. Apart from a very well visited fair andpossibly. a Prozession there are ceremonies in most houses and at places, to which also the inhabitants of the neighboring places come.
Bosnia Herzegowina lies in the junction region between mediterranem and continental climate. In the winter it is colder bitter cold andDrop wind of the interior leads to strong Böen and storms. In the south of the country the summers are very hot.
Public education and education
each child made of Bosnia and Herzegowina, according to the law of formation, a four years long persisting people school and afterwards one must Hauptschule visit (obligation). 2005, with the school reform, were introduced a school time of nine years. The most important change thereby was the introduction of a describing school note system in the first three school years. Afterwards the system functions as in most European countries. Either teachings,without real contact with the enterprises, or a higher school (High School). There are universities in Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar, Tuzla, Zenica (folder of the University of Sarajevo) and Bihać.
to at the end of of 2005 was defense policy with the two Entitäten, thus with thatFederation of Bosnia and Herzegowina and at the Serbian republic. Since 2006 the armed forces the president shank are subordinate and to that 2004 created Ministry of Defense of the state level. The troops consist of a bosniakischen, a Serbian and a Croatian component. The future common Bosnian herzegowischeArmy is to consist of approximately 20,000 career soldiers.
- Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism, BoD 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0
Web on the left of
- Touristi information
- Bosnian herzegovinische State Department
- web page of the state presidency of Bosnia and Herzegowina (Bosnian/Serbian/Croatian/English)
- web page of the government of the Republika Srpska (Serbian/English)
- Bosnian herzegovinische message in Germany
- official tourism Website of Bosnia and Herzegowina (English)
- parliament of Bosnia and Herzegowina
- World Bank office in Sarajevo
- European police mission in Bosnia and Herzegowina
- national soccer team of Bosnia and Herzegowina
- Le of moons diplomatique - collection of maps of the region
- of pictures from Bosnia and Herzegowina
Bosnia and Herzegowina |
The Netherlands |
San Marino |
Serbia and Montenegro |
United kingdom |
coordinates: 44° 6 ' N, 17° 58 ' O