Bad clay/tone

of these articles treats the US-American large city bad clay/tone. For further meanings, see bad clay/tone (term clarifying).

Bad clay/tone [ˈbɑːstn̩] is the largest city in new England and capital of the US-American Federal State Massachusetts. It had 2004 569,165 inhabitants in the year. Bad clay/toneis located at the east coast of the USA.

Skyline von Boston
Skyline of bad clay/tone

the inhabitants of bad clay/tone are well-known for their discussion, which has a little more British colouring than otherwise in North America. Compared with other American accents are the inhabitants of bad clay/tone(Bad tonus to) particularly for omitting the “r” - admits of sound (“I paak my caa in Haavaad yaad” - in place of “I park my car in Harvard yard. ”)

Table of contents


Boston. The Freedom Trail
bad clay/tone. The Freedom Trail

the city was created 1630 by English Puritanern on a peninsula, of thatindianischen natives Shawmut one called. At that time of the Massachusetts Bay surrounded peninsula were connected only by a very narrow land connection with the mainland. The English settlers gave first the name Trimountain to the young city. It became only laterin bad clay/tone renamed. The name goes back on a city of same name into Lincoln-almost, England, from which some the Puritaner originated. The first governor of the puritanischen “Massachusetts Bay Colony”, John Winthrop, held one in the young city as“Town center upon the Hill” famous lecture become, in which it expressed that the Puritaner knew itself in a special contract connected with God. The puritanischen values, in particular work, education and Gottesfürchtigkeit stabilized the society to a considerable degree andalso this very day a component of the social example is in bad clay/tone and new England. Thus 1635, few years after the establishment of settlement, one first latin school and 1636 the Harvard University, the first University of America were already created.

Admits became the city throughthe bad clay/tone Tea party of 16. December 1773. At that time protests released the war of independence against an increase of the Teesteuer by the British crown . A red plaster-purely, that approx. four km long Freedom Trail, of America “path of the liberty”, suppliessixteen historical places in the city, under it the bad clay/tone Common, the Massachusetts State House as well as the old State House.

After the American revolution bad clay/tone became one of the richest commercial ports of the world. To the most important merchandise fish belonged, Rum, salt and tobacco. Since the 20's 19. Century began itself to clearly change under the increasing immigration, also the picture of the population: So far almost exclusively if Protestant descendants of English immigrants gave the excursion, then tooknow the portion of the catholics of in-special Irish, later also Italian descent clearly too.

Area requirements, which had resulted from the increasing number of inhabitants, were concerned in their own kind: Between 1630 and 1890 trebled itself the city, however not by incorporations,separates by land reclamation, in particular in flat waters of the Charles River and the Massachusetts Bay. The earth masses necessary for it were won particularly by the gradual demolition of the three hills, which originally were on the peninsula (therefore “Trimountain”). Onlyin the roads of “Beacon Hill” one can suspect still remainders of the former upward gradients. The there “State House”, the seat of the Governeurs of Massachusetts, is on the point of the reduced hill. 1872 became the city bad clay/tone of thatlargest fire in their history afflicted. The extensive rubble of the burned buildings was likewise used thereafter as wadding for land reclamation.

Already since the 20's 20. Century made itself, as in other US-American cities, the increasing motor traffic noticeable. Straight one in bad clay/tone was not simple this problem to solve, since the city center belonged to the oldest and at the closest cultivated in the whole USA. Exactly the responsible persons restaurant politicians at the end of the 1940er saw this circumstance years however as part of theProblem. Thus one became approx. in the following years. four kilometers be enough, as up confessing ores high route across the heart of the city put sechsspurige urban motorway („cent ral Artery “). Solved due to its traffic problems in the range of the individual traffic, however only for shortTime.

If I-93 within the range of the new Downtown tunnel would inter+do

traffic to that, and the circumstance increasing further, that the rail-bound suburban traffic long time was neglected, contributed to give to it, „the cent ral “already soon a call to Artery as particularly pilottroubled passage road.A further, problem concerning town construction in connection with „the cent ral Artery “was the fact that parts of the bad toners city center, in particular „to North end “as well as the Uferlinie in the city from the remainder of the city were separated. Thus the call became after for the 1970er yearsa setting of the urban motorway lower loud. In the year 1992 finally the construction work began to this largest public building project in the history of the USA. The past urban motorway of the city center was put on an overall length by four kilometers under the earth, with onesimultaneous extension from so far six on eight to ten traces. The costs amounted thereby to approx. 14 billion US Dollar. During the construction work became approx. three times as much earth moves, as with the building of the Hoover dam, and it became more concreteblocked, when with the concrete dam project one needed. In the USA the project received „To the pointed names bends Dig “, in allusion on the building of the Panama channel, which at that time as „The bend Ditch „one designated. Since 2005 is the underground worklocked. Remainder work concentrates since then on the recultivation of the surface and their recovery as urbanen habitat.

2004 were bad clay/tone the place of the democratic Party Congress 2004.

See also: FE storage of bad clay/tone (1775/76)


historical map (around 1888)

Bad clay/tone (surface: ²) is located to 45 miles in the northeast of the United States at the North American east coast with the Massachusettes Bay, whose strong dismembering made the plant possible of natural ports. Mystic, Neponset and Charles River with their deltas cut through and/or limit the city. Thoseoriginal hill existing in the city with the time and within the range bake Bay and South were cleared away end deposited, in order to wring the Atlantic additional land surfaces out.

The central range of bad clay/tone forms both the core of Greater bad clay/tone (3.8 million inhabitant), thatthe cities of Cambridge, Brookline, Quincy and many suburbaner municipalities covers, like also the bad clay/tone CMSA (Consolidated metropolitan Statistical AREA), the seventh-largest in the USA (after other Rankings in tenth place). On bad clay/tone the cities of Revere border, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Quincy, Winthrop, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, and Milton on.

administrative arrangement of bad clay/tone

the bad clay/tone Common, the oldestpublic green belt of the USA with the golden dome of the State House

bad clay/tone belonged to the Suffolk County of the Commonwealth OF Massachusetts and is both capital. To 4. October 2002 locked the city administration of bad clay/tone the re-classification of the city, which nowin 23 Neighborhoods is subdivided.

  • All clay/tone
  • bake Bay
  • Bay many situation
  • of Beacon Hill
  • Brighton
  • Charlestown
  • Chinatown
  • Dorchester
  • East bad clay/tone
  • Fenway Kenmore
  • Hyde park
  • Jamaica Plain
  • Mattapan
  • avoided Dorchester
  • mission Hill
  • North end
  • to Roslindale
  • Roxbury
  • South bad clay/tone
  • South end
  • to west end
  • West Roxbury

bad clay/tone is well-known to possess one of the most attractive and urbanen town centres most worth living of the country. Each neighbourhood exhibits a singular flair, which by the residents inhabitant and their social and ethnical affiliation are determined. Downtown, the city center,the seat of the financial district is and is there also Chinatown and Government center with the city hall (bad clay/tone town center resound). Bake Bay, west the public garden (public guards, 97,000 m ²) convenient, is one of the richest quarters of the USA. NotBeacon Hill with the seat of the government of the State of Massachusetts (State House) is less wealthy. To South end was in former times home place of a strong middle class company of dealers and sailors as well as their families. Nowadays a LGBT prevails - to population forwards, besides artist, Yuppies, Afroamerikaner and Latinos. Points of attraction are the there restaurants and the Bohème atmosphere. In addition, to North end and East bad clay/tone have a dominating Italian influence, accommodate other Ethnien. On the north bank of the Charles River there is an Irish enclave with Charlestown.This subpopulation is also in South bad clay/tone. All clay/tone and Brighton are inhabited mainly by students of the nearby Northeastern University, bad clay/tone University and bad clay/tone college. Also graduates reside gladly further in this surrounding field. The largest variety, ethnical diversity pointsDorchester up. Latinos and Afroamerikaner place together, also refugee middle class families (keyword out more expensive to residential areas become: Outpricing), the largest portion in the districts Roxbury and Mattapan bordering south on the city center.


the following mayors governed so far the city,its executive system a strong on four years selected municipality head plans.

  • Hugh O'Brien (1884-1888)
  • Thomas's N. Hard (1889-1890) first choice - period
  • Nathan Matthews (1891-1894)
  • Edwin Curtis (1895)
  • Josiah Quincy (1895-1899)
  • Thomas's N. Hard (1900-1902) second period
  • Patrick Collins (1902-1905)
  • Daniel Whelton (1905)
  • John F. Fitzgerald (1906-1907) first period
  • George Hibbard (1909-1910)
  • John F. Fitzgerald (1911-1913) second period
  • James Michael Curley (1914-1917) first period
  • Andrew Peter (1918-1922)
  • James Michael Curley (1922-1925) second period
  • Malcolm Nichols (1926-1929)
  • James Michael Curley (1930-1933)Third period
  • Frederick Mansfield (1934-1938)
  • Maurice Tobin (1938-1944)
  • John Kerrigan (1945-1946)
  • James Michael Curley (1946-1949) fourth period
  • John Hynes (1950-1960)
  • John Collins (1960-1968)
  • Kevin White (1968-1983)
  • Raymond Flynn (1984-1993)
  • Thomas Menino (1993-heute)

city the parliament (town center Council) becomes all twoYears again compound. From the nine Wards or Neighborhoods one representative each is sent. In addition four candidates determined by the entire urban population come. The Schulkommittee is appointed by the mayor, like also the individual department leaders in the city administration.

Economics & traffic

of the 1976 and 241 meters high „John Hancock Tower established to industry bad clay/tone “is the highest

work on

] is an important industrial, artistic and intellectual center. Bad clay/tone the Symphony Orchestra enjoys likewise world-wide reputation, like those Universities of Harvard and ALSO, which lie in the suburb Cambridge.


the international airport of bad clay/tone is international the Logan air haven (IATA air haven code: BAD).


of the ÖPNV in the city becomesby the MBTA completed. The suburban traffic system is called of the native ones also gladly “the T”.

objects of interest

one of the oldest cultural facilities Massachusetts with important library and art collections. Beside historical documents and photographies here certifications becomethe first US presidents as well as numerous paintings of American artists shown.
  • Freedom Trail
four km the sidewalks a along-prominent, red line leads to places of the US-American movement of independence. Beginning at the city park, the bad clay/tone Common, the oldest public park of the USA, he leadsafter Charlestown; all important 16 places of this historical period are gone through. A station is and. A. the old State House of its balcony John Adam in the year 1776 the declaration of independence announced.
  • Museum OF Science
many interactive exhibitions and experimentsinvite to going through. Children cannot only explore spielerisch the natural sciences and engineer sciences here. To the museum „the Hayden Planetarium is attached” with Lasershows and current presentations. Furthermore the “Mugar Omni Theatre” is, a IMAX - to cinema here.
The State House, parliament of Massachusetts at the bad clay/tone Common
this art museum ranks among the most important in new England. It accommodates an important collection of Egyptian and nubian Altertümer and an important collection of Chinese objects. Painting by rem Brandt and El Greco are to be seen, likewise works of Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Augusts Renoir, Édouard Manet, EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Munch and max of Beckmann.
  • New England aquarium
direct been because of the sea hands it over here from penguinsTo see Seelöwen up to Quallen much, what lives in the sea. In an enormous, cylindrical seawater tank, which is observable from all sides, an artificial reef accommodates several hundred different fish types as well as turtles. As it were as “outguards” organize the NEA dailyan exit, with the embossment whales, dolphins among other things to be observed can.
  • Old South Meeting House
from the year of 1729 coming buildings (corner Washington/Milk Street) experienced many historically important meetings, which finally into the bad clay/tone flowed Tea party. A einprägsameExhibition illustrates the events at that time.



partnerships between cities

Web on the left of

Commons: Bad clay/tone - pictures, videos and/or audio files

coordinates: 42° 20 ' N71° W


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