Botswana

Republic of OF Botswana
Republic of Botswana
Flagge Botsuanas
Wappen Botsuanas
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Pula
(Setswana, „rain “)

office language English (official), Setswana
capital Gaborone
system of government parliamentary Republic of
head of state Festus Mogae
surface 600,370 km ²
number of inhabitants 1.640.150 (conditions July 2005
population density of 2.6 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant $5,951 (60.) Conditions: May 2005
independence from Great Britain to 30. September 1966
currency Pula (German: “Rain “)
time belt UTC +2
national anthem Fatshe leno la rona (“Gesegnet is this noble country”)
Kfz characteristic German Federal Armed Forces
Internet TLD .bw
preselection +267
Botsuanas Lage innerhalb Afrikas
Karte von Botsuana
Sonnenuntergang in Botsuana

Botswana [bɔˈtsu̯aːna] (official German way of writing according to StAGN and Foreign Office), after international way of writing Botswana, is a country in the southern Africa. The name is derived from the designation of the people of the Tswana . National holiday is the 30. September, Tag of independence (1966). Botswana borders on South Africa, Namibia, Zambia and Simbabwe.

About 21% (conditions 2004) of the adults are with HEAVE infected - the second highest rate of the world. Every three hours dies humans in the country at AIDS. The illness threatens increasingly the socio-economic existence of the country.

Table of contents

geography

situation: between 17° 40 ' and 27° southern latitude as well as 20° and 29° 20 '.

With a surface of approximately 600,000 km ² Botswana is somewhat more largely than France, the country belonged however to at the thinnest settled the earth.

The half desert (Kalahari) in the south part constitutes large parts of the country. It consists of savannah (thorn and Grassavannen). Beyond that there are to salt pan and salt lakes, which become during the rain time large shallow lakes - that is important for numerous game animals.

In the north of the country is the Okawango basin. The Okawango runs into the Kalahari, because it does not find the way to the sea by tectonic distortion. It seeps with many branches in the desert, whereby a species-rich oasis formed.

The largest collection are the Tsodilo Hills with 1,489 meters.

The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Gaborone: 208,411 inhabitants, Francistown: 89,979 inhabitants, mole pole oils: 63,251 inhabitants, Selebi Pikwe: 53,727 inhabitants, Maun: 49,948 inhabitants and Serowe: 47,421 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in Botswana

population

Botswana has about 1.64 million inhabitant. The ethnical composition of the population divides itself as follows:

The number of inhabitants rose since independence strongly, whereby the rise curve flattened itself because of the high number of deaths by AIDS first and arose into years 2005 a population decrease in the order of magnitude of a per cent, to which also the emigration contributed.

Population trend x1000

language

office language is English. On English the parliament and also all larger newspapers negotiate avail themselves of the English language. Also at school starting from the secondary school in English one informs.

Nevertheless communication in the population on Setswana takes place , a Bantusprache, which is understood about the by far outweighing part of the inhabitants. This language is also instruction language in the primary school.

religions

history

major item: History of Botswana

in before-colonial time was controlled the area today's Botswana by several small kingdoms of the Tswana, which asked under the pressure of immigrating Buren for British assistance. Great Britain closed with the Tswana rulers of protection contracts and soon thereafter was the area from 1865 to 1966 under the name Bechuanaland largest British protectorate in the southern Africa.

1961 one granted a reduced autonomy and it to the inhabitants formed the first political parties. Botswana finally attained to 30. September 1966 its independence from Great Britain and became member of the Commonwealth and proclaimed also its new name.

politics and condition

the condition of the country originate from the year 1965. Legislation organ is a parliament, that beside the members - every 5 years selected - of the national assembly also the president, who belongs to parliament speakers and four members determined by the president.

A further chamber is the House OF Chiefs, which is covered 15 members and formed from the prominent master representatives of the country. It has essentially advisory functions. (See. in addition Zambia.)

The executive force is with the president. He is selected by the parliament, whereby in the meantime only a unique re-election is permissible. First president was up to its death in the year 1980 Seretse Khama; it first Ketumile Masire followed and since 1998 Festus Mogae, to 30. October 2004 its second electoral period began.

There is a multiple party system. Since independence is the Botswana Democratic party ( BDP), created by Seretse Khama, government party. Opposition parties are the Botswana People's party (BPP) and lately in urban areas erstarkend the Botswana national front (BNF). That has however only very limited effects. Also with the last elections in October 2004 the BDP was again outstanding Wahlsiegerin; the splintered opposition parties achieved altogether only 5 seats in the parliament. The elections are considered as free and fair.

Botswana is a constitutional state, coined/shaped from the Roman right (“novel Dutch Law “), that is common right of Dutch coinage, took essential structure, whereby however also an iurisdiction exists after brought tribal law. The free expression of opinion is to a large extent ensured. Occasionally ethnical tensions arise and it are also - although rarely - to police encroachments and violations of human rights to come, which does not coin/shape however conditions surely.

The international corruption index for Botswana, measured by Transparency international, proved so far always as very favorable, to 2005 occupied the country for example the place 32 (to the comparison: Schweiz-7, Österreich-10, Deutschland-16, Italien-40, Südafrika-46).

administrative arrangement

Distrikte Botsuanas

Botswana is divided into nine districts:

  1. Cent ral District
  2. Ghanzi District
  3. Kgalagadi District
  4. Kgatleng District
  5. Kweneng District
  6. North East District
  7. North west District
  8. South East District
  9. Southern District

of the North west District developed 2001 from the fusion of Chobe District and Ngamiland District.

economics

infrastructure

  • road system
the roads of Botswana nearly all crushed stone runways are and in the Safarigebieten not even that. A compass is unabdinbar, better still is government inspection department.
  • Railway
“Botswana Rail” had one scarcely 700 km long railroad line of the border to the Republic of South Africa (Ottoshoop/Ramathlabama) over Gaborone, Lobatse and Francistown after Simbabwe (Plumtree). This distance was built by lord Kitchener in the Burenkrieg, is however today still passable.
  • Air traffic
  • electricity
  • communication

of Bodenschätze

the economical income of Botswana is based on opening Bodenschätzen in the mining industry, on meat production and on incomes from the tourism. Constitutes the diamonds - export over 70% of the total export value; the diamond mines are operated by a society ( Debswana), ever to the half the Botswani state and the diamond company De Beers are heard.

currency

the country has the Pula, whose rate of exchange rose both in relation to the dollar and opposite the euro in the last years a stable currency.

economic growth

Botswana is member of the Southern Africa Common Customs union (SACCU) (Lesotho, Namibia, Republik South Africa and Swaziland), whose accounting units cause actually also a monetary union.

Botswana had a very high economic growth, which amounted on the average annually to 9% compared with other African states. Thus the country of one of the poorest countries of the earth developed to a country with middle income and ordered over the highest credit Rating in Africa. The growth rate decreased/went back clearly however in the last years.

Because of its political stability, economic development and the constant improvement of the life circumstances Botswana is often called a “sample country” of Africa. This is to be owed on the one hand to the circumstance that after acquisition of independence rich diamond mines were discovered already briefly ( history of Botswana ), but on the other hand also the circumstance that in such a way won means were invested also actually predominantly into the development of the country.

By endemic high AIDS - is endangered rate and the associated high number of deaths also the further economic development of Botswana very much.

between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was appropriate for public expenditures for health, education

health service

Botswana since independence country-wide a well structured health care furnished. There are numerous health posts in the remote external areas with pure basis supply, “Clinics “(small hospital wards, led of examinierten nurses) and altogether 17 Health Centres in larger places. In addition still some hundred mobile hospitals (mobile Clinics) step, so that a basic supply of the population is surely posed.

However Botswana is met now hard by the AIDS epidemic. With scarcely 40% HEAVE - infected [1] has Botswana one the highest Durchseuchungsraten of AIDS - exciter. Since the year 2002 within the framework of a national program (“Masa” = “new sunrise”) free of charge antiretrovirale medicines are therefore distributed.

The epidemic is a vital threat not only for each individual concerning, but also for the entire commonwealth, since when progressing the disease development on a collapse of the national economy would have to be counted. The average life expectancy was reduced from 63 Lebensjahren in the year 1991 over 38 Lebensjahre in the year 2002 to dramatic 31 Lebensjahre in the year 2004. Therefore much of the success of the introduced programs depends.

Web on the left of

Commons: Botswana - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 21° 46 ' S, 24° 2 ' O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)