Boxing up conditions

under the boxing up conditions (Chinese: 義和團起義 (traditionally), 义和团起义 (simplifies) ; Romanisierung: Yìhétuán qǐyì (pinyin), I-ho t´uan (W. - G.) = in honesty united militias) one understands a strange-hostile Chinese movement. The designation Boxer is the Verallgemeinerung of the name in English and refers to one the first Boxergruppen, which called itself “in honesty combined boxers” (Yìhéquán); in China late renaming in Yihetuan, accepted by all Boxergruppen, interspersed itself.

Ein „Boxer“ (1900)
„A Boxer “(1900)

the hot phase of the rebelliontook place in the time of April until August 1900 .

Table of contents

prehistory

of Chinese authors immediately after the rebellion the thesis one spread,the “Boxer” are a folder of the rebellious white plumb bob US sparkling wines, which 1795 to 1804 a large rebellion had organized. Today one is generally the view that it concerned with the “Boxern” a social movement, itself between 1898 and 1900 as direct reaction to thoseCrisis tendency toward end 19. Century formed. Their original emphasis lay in the province Shandong, where it to organizations like the society of the large measurers, already existing , (Chinese: 大刀会, Dadaohui ?) to tie could. In the spring and summer it spread 1900itself then over far parts of north China out.

The Boxer were affected primarily by the popular culture and religion, particularly by the different combat art schools. Characteristics of the movement were

  1. a loose organisational structure, with itself independent groups around local leader the scharten;
  2. collective mass-drunk underthe alleged influence of people-religious Gods and
  3. invulnerability rituals, which promised also protection from modern Feuerwaffen.

The emergence of the Boxerbewegung was essentially affected by four factors:

  1. the western imperialism of the unequal contracts, by itself all larger European states as well as the USA and since 1895also forced Japan of China legal and economic privileges (particularly the Exterritorialität of their citizens);
  2. the internal-Chinese conflict between Reformern and conservative ones at the emperor yard, which found its high point 1898 in striking down the hundred-day reform by the conservative parliamentary group around the empress widow Cixi;
  3. also on thatunequal contracts being based privileged position of the Christian mission in the interior, where the mission acres intervened with the help of the foreign consuls into local disputes;
  4. the crisis tendency released by a set of natural catastrophes end of the 1890er years in north China. Whether the foreign trade (import) actually many humansmade unemployed and with it the boxing up conditions with released, is disputed against it.
Gesandtschaftsviertel kurz vor dem Boxeraufstand
Legation quarters briefly before the boxing up conditions

the Boxer made the foreigners responsible, in second line the Chinese Christians for the disturbances of the natural environment and the social harmony. They demanded, the enemies of China alsoTo eliminate force, in order to repair this harmony. They appeared as supporters of the dominant Qing dynasty (Mandschu dynasty). One of their most well-known slogans read: “The Qing supports and destroys the strangers. “

The imperial yard tried nevertheless in the spring 1900 to suppress the Boxer. Because of thatthe attempts failed to loose organisational structure of the Boxer however. Only as the foreigners thereupon the government in Peking substantial under pressure set, changed Cixi and a part of the high civil servants their opinion and began, in the Boxern allied against the foreigners to see.

The boxing up conditions

already at the 11. January 1900 had the empress widow Cixi (Tzu Hsi), who announced Regentin China, in an edict that a part of the Boxer respect for the law humans are. The efforts persisted nevertheless to suppress the movement by May 1900. In this month those reachedMovement the environment of the capital Peking and began with attacks against foreigners as well as against the lines leading to the coast. The foreign envoys in Peking beorderten thereupon approximately 450 soldiers as legation guards to Peking, between that the 31. May and 3. June arrived there. Inthe following days intensified the Boxer their attacks against Chinese Christians as well as foreign mechanisms and began the population of Peking to terrorize.

To 10. June marched 2,066 men a strong international expedition corps under the instruction of the British admiral Seymour in Tianjin off, around the legations inTo protect Peking. It was stopped however by the Boxern (14.- 18. June) and had to turn around. Those approximately 473 foreigners, 451 soldiers and over 3.000 Chinese Christians in Peking had barricaded themselves meanwhile in the legation quarter. Here they were from communication alsothe foreign bases at the coast cut off, since the Boxer had cut the telegraph line off.

In view of this situation the allied troops placed an ultimatum to the delivery of the strongly fastened Chinese Küstenforts of Dagu. To 17. , The Chinese opened June to 75 minutes before expiration of the ultimatumthe fire and in the consequence the Forts of the allied ones was conquered. On the message of the conquest the emperor yard issued to 21. June an edict at its subjects, which came a declaration of war to the allied ones directly. Already to 20. June was thatEnvoy of the German realm Reich, baron Klemens von Ketteler, shot in Peking on open road by a mandschurischen banner soldier. Imperial troops fought now officially at the side of the Boxer. Turned around none of the western States of China explained the war.

The war carried nevertheless inthe initial phase the character of a state war, since regular armies fought against each other, even if the Chinese troops were strengthened by Boxermilizen. They besieged the legation quarter in Peking, where diplomats, mission acres, engineers and Chinese Christians had entrenchd themselves. The British message became the control center that approximately 500Armed, which approximately 20,000 Chinese faced. However the defense was organized by the individual legations, what led to disputes and weakened the defense strength. At the same time also the international concession in Tianjin (Tientsin) was besieged by the Chinese. On the Chinese side disagreement prevailed however likewise. OneHigh civil servant (everything in front the large secretary Ronglu) lines up rejected the behavior of the empress widow, who let several officials execute even because of their critical remarks. Observations, according to which the Chinese artillery shot too deep, as well as after the FE storage in Peking found, unused modern cannons leave the conclusiontoo that the fight was not led by the Chinese troops on Veranlassung of the Chinese peace party with all determination.

Foreign troops in the forbidden city in Peking

in the meantime placed six European states, the USA and Japan an expedition corps for an intervention in Chinatogether. With the Verabschiedung of a part of the German troops to 27. July held emperors Wilhelm II. its notorious Hunnenrede, which brought the German into England the pointed name „The Huns “. The troops embarked in Europe however too late, still died at the relief Tianjins andTo participate Peking. Those approx. 20,000 men strong allied troop, to 4. August in Tianjin abmarschierte, existed primarily of British-Indian, Russian, Japanese and from the Philippines US-American troops shifted to China; Germans, Frenchmen, Austrians and Italians took part only with some departmentsNaval infantry.

The expedition corps reached to 13. August 1900 Peking, which already fell on the following day. To 15. The empress widow and went its advice made of Peking fled August after Sian/Shaanxi, on „inspection tour “. Peking was long geplündert by the allied ones three days, for whatalso high-ranking Europeans too unfortunate were not. For example the Russian soldiers smashed all Buddhafiguren, since they should contain one piece of gold according to legend each.

Theodor Rocholl: Fight for the mountain celebrations Ho-phu (3. January 1901)

After the income of Peking that changed itselfA character of the war. In an edict of 7. September made the Boxer responsible for Cixi for the military defeat and gave to the province governors the instruction to use again government troops against it. At the same time the allied troops began to accomplish “punitive expeditions” against “Boxernester” and so the last resistance toobreak. These operations stood since at the end of September under the instruction of the “world marshal” field marshal Alfred count von Waldersee, that on operation of William II. appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the allied armed forces was. With their operations the allied troops brutal excesses left themselves against the Chinese populationguilty come. Their goal consisted of spreading terror and deterring thus the Chinese of a future collection against the foreigners. However the military presence was limited to the north Chinese province Zhili, since the province governors Mittel- and south China with the foreigners standstill agreements closed.

Altogether 231 fellForeigner and many thousands christianisierte Chinese the Boxern to the victim. With the foreigners it concerned predominantly mission acres, which were killed in the cities Taiyuan and Baoding on operation of the governor Yuxian. As many fell dead ones of cruel allied warfare to the victim, is unknown.

after the rebellion - the Boxerprotokoll

the behavior of the allied intervention troops did not only encounter in the homeland agreement. Particularly from socialist and liberals, partly also from church circles reservations were expressed against the intervention. According to opinion of the critics those hadSoldier under the pretext to want even from the humanitarian principles of this civilization offend to protect the civilization. Particularly the Hunnenrede of William II. to give at home and abroad violently because of the expression contained in it criticized, no Pardon and make no prisoners.

The signaturesminutes of 7. Septembers 1901

partial criticized themselves the commanders taken part in the military action even mutually. The American commander noted for example: „One can say with security that on a real Boxer, who was killed fifty harmless coolies and agricultural workers, among them not fewWomen and children, came, who became to kill. “

Parallel to it let engage Russia 200,000 soldiers into Manchuria to fight allegedly in order the Boxer. They were to 23. July in Aigun and at the 1. October in Mukden. To 16. February 1901 became in this connectionContract closed, in which senses that China kept the Manchuria, which remained Russian troops however for the protection of the railway („railway guards “) in the country.

Since the autumn 1900 the experienced diplomat left Hongzhang negotiated as an envoy of the emperor yard about the peace conditions. To 7. September 1901 became„the Boxerprotokoll in such a way specified “signs. It determined that

  • the Chinese government had to apologize for the murders at foreign diplomats (beside Ketteler also the Japanese legation secretary count Sugiyama) and to establish a monument for Ketteler,
  • insurgent ones to punish is (many death sentences imposed),
  • the official examinationsin all cities, in which foreigners had been killed, for five years to be suspended should,
  • China reparations at a value of 1.4 billion Goldmark until 1940 (70 million Pound of Sterling) and
  • remunerations to foreigners concerned to be paid, no
  • weapons bought and introduced was allowed, that
  • hadLegation quarter in Peking exclusively for foreigners to be reserved and fastened should be furnished
  • , who should be established Trade Union of German Employees UFO RTS polished and foreign bases at the railroad line between Peking and the coast
  • , a modern State Department with priority before all other Ministries had,
  • an imperial edict was confirmed,organizations hostile to foreigners with death penalty, was abolished
  • the Kotau (deep bow, military courtesy) for foreign diplomats forbade (deep humiliating, together with a military parade in the forbidden city, which was opened for Chinese officials only)
Prinz Chun bei seinem Besuch in Berlin
to prince Chun with his attendance in Berlin

a further than humiliating more feltPoint was that prince Chun of the emperor family should apologize personally in Berlin under entwürdigenden conditions for the envoy murder at Ketteler. The Chinese delegation achieved however a small diplomatic victory and could reach that the prince not before emperors Wilhelm II.to down-kneel had. Thereupon itthe Sühneakt could do finally to 4. September 1901 in the Grottensaal of lock Sanssouci in potsdam take place.

see also

to literature

  • Peter Fleming: The FE storage to Peking. To the history of the boxing up conditions. Calibration fount, Frankfurt 1997 ISBN 3-8218-4155-9
  • Egbert Kieser: As China awaked. The boxing up conditions. Bechtle, Esslingen 1984 ISBN 3-7628-0435-4
  • Diana Preston: Rebellion in Peking. The history of the boxing up conditions. DVA, Stuttgart 2001 ISBN 3-421-05407-X
  • Alexander pitch man (Hg.) „Peking 1900 “. Paula of rust horn memories of the boxing up conditions. Böhlau, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-205-99401-9
  • Thoralf small: Sühnegeschenke: The Boxerkrieg. In: Ulrich van the Heyden, Joachim Zeller (Hg.) „… Power and portion of the world domination. “Berlin and the German colonialism. Unrast publishing house. Münster 2005, ISBN 3-89771-024-2
  • Susanne kiss/Bernd Martin (Hgg.): The German Reich and the boxing up conditions. Iudicium, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-89129-781-5
  • George Lehner/Monika Lehner: Austria Hungary and the “boxing up conditions” in China, STUDIENVerlag, Innsbruck and. A. 2002, ISBN 3-7065-1713-2

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