|this article is occupied with the building bridge, further meanings under bridge (term clarifying)|
the most important building materials for bridges were up to 19. Century stone and wood. Thus 6 became in. Century before Christ bridges from Zypressen - and Zedernholz built. ThatThe Romans already controlled building of elbow bridges from natural stones or special concrete, as the Pont you occupies Gard today still impressively. With the industrialization 1779 with the new building material cast iron the first iron bridge of the world, the Ironbridge , one developedElbow bridge of 30 m span over the river Severn with Coalbrookdale (England), which builds Abraham Darby III. The further development of the new building material to tough and course-firm wrought steel made the building possible of long chain suspension bridges. One firstthe Menai bridge was delighted for important in Wales with a main span by 177 m with an overall length of 521 m, of Thomas Telford between 1818 and 1826. The industrielle production of rolled girders promoted the building of framework continuous girder bridges, like the Britanniabrückein of Wales von Robert Stephenson from the year 1860, with spans of 146 m length. The second modern building material concrete was inserted starting from 1860 as ramming concrete with elbow bridges, the first iron concrete continuous girder bridge became 1875 of Joseph criticizes on a countryseat Chazelet over a brook builds. Iron concrete bridges with large spans became at the beginning 20. Century in particular as elbow bridges implemented, like for example 1930 with the Salginatobelbrücke with 90 m span. With the development of the prestressed concrete after that 2. World war became finallythe slim linked up continuous girder bridge from concrete possible. Thus for example the Rhine bridge Bendorf of 1965 traverses the Rhine with a span of 208 m, at the building time world-wide the continuous girder bridge with the largest span, which it is today still in Germany.Parallel to the prestressed concrete bridges in the steel structure the new construction form of the widespread cable-stayed bridge was developed. The first large bridge this type was in Germany the 1957 open Theodor Heuss bridge (Duesseldorf) with a span of 260 m and an overall length of 914 M.
See also: History of the bridge construction
the organization of bridges can take place according to different criteria. The best variant is the typology after form and construction.
form and construction
Continuous girder bridge
the outside characteristic of the continuous girder bridge is the visible separation the building of over (Brückenträger) of the underbody (supports, counter bearings) by the presence of camps. The camps transfer the covering loads to the underbody and give to the Brückenträger necessary stability and motion possibility.The cross-sectional shape in longitudinal direction corresponds outwardly to a bar, usually is constant the girder depth. The continuous girder bridge is to be found particularly because of the comparison-wise simple manufacturing frequently with bridges. The bar uses the flexural rigidity of the cross section and material optimally and becomeswith usual bridges with small to middle spans (approx. 80 m) as carrying system uses. The computation of the continuous girder bridges takes place with the bar statics. Continuous girder bridges can be implemented in transverse direction with different cross section geometry. So for example as:
of the T-beamsis a connection of the positive characteristics of a plate and those of the bar. Since with bridges with large length a plate would become very thick, under the plate one or more carriers are arranged. Thus the plate leads the loadsonly in transverse direction over the short distance to the side members (differently than alone, the far distance to the support). Thus the plate can be implemented again more thinly. The carriers lead then the forces to the supports.
- Hollow box
one supplements thatT-beams with a lower plate, then one has a closed cross section, the hollow box. In particular with continuous girder bridges with middle and larger spans or during curved alignment box cross-sections are used. These are characterised by a large bending and torsional rigidity, whereby largeSlimnesses and rational building procedures, as are possible the clock sliding procedure.
- Slab bridge
the plate is similar to the bar from the static system. The advantage over the bar is however that a two-dimensional structural effect is present, which larger slimnesses (relationship span/girder depth) makes possible,as well as simple cross section geometry. This type of bridge is very simple regarding the production. It is suitable particularly for transfers, inclined in particular, with limited overall height and to maximally 30 m span.
frame bridge frame bridges from continuous girder bridges from thoseresistance to bending connection of the building of over (Brückenträger) with the underbody (counter bearing walls and/or supports). Thus the bending moments of the Brückenträger are decreased, and thus its overall height can be reduced. In addition is void camp, which simplifies the maintenance and maintenance of the bridge. Bridges, thoseno joints and camps possess, D. h. in the counter bearing walls and any supports, calls one is clamped also integrals bridges.
framework are dissolved wing unit structures. The this wise advantage up that they have a smaller materials consumption,as comparable vollwandige wing units such as bars, and it have a accordingly smaller dead weight. The staffs of the framework are predominantly loaded on course and pressure. Is from disadvantage the usually larger overall height of the construction. Truss bridges become particularly with steel,in addition, with wood implemented. In addition, due to the high live loads they are built often with railway transfers, find their application with road bridges with larger spans, in particular in the USA. Hide themselves to framework usually also under the lining of covered timber bridges.
There are many kinds of specialized works (referred to the bridge construction), so among other things:
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the elbow is for massive construction materials, like stone or concrete, the most suitable with their high pressure strengthKind of wing unit, since it is loaded with correct geometry only by thrust forces. However the building ground must be sufficiently firm, in order to be able to take up the elbow thrust. Therefore this kind of the construction is to be seen with many old bridges. Today elbow bridges become alsofor roadway with deep valleys, lying above, or cut built. With a Stahlbogen spans of up to 500 m are possible, with a massif elbow 300 M. Elbow bridges with down lying roadway come due to the small overall height of the carriageway decking particularly inFlat country with the overcoming of waters forwards.
the suspension bridge is built predominantly with the bypass of broader navigable waters with spans above 800 m. Because of the tendency to larger deformations it is as a rule not used than railway bridge. It is statically similarthe elbow bridge with down-lying roadway. With the suspension bridge between suspension towers a carrying rope is hung up. To this carrying rope trailers are fastened, senkrechte rope, which carry the roadway. They are however susceptible with far spans very to wind oscillations, like it the collapsethe Tacoma Narrows bridge in the USA at the 1. July 1940 showed.
the cable-stayed bridgeor also external drag wire bridge was suitable for the bypass of broader waters or surfaces with spans between 200 m and 1000 m as technically particularly and also than economically proved. The bridge is usually established in the free porch. The building condition with that farauskragenden bridge is determining due to the lateral wind stress for the technically possible spans. Due to its high rigidity it can be used also for the Eisenbahnverkehr. A cable-stayed bridge consists of the suspension towers, the roadway and the ropes. All perpendicular forces thatBridge are brought over the rope into the suspension tower, which brings these then perpendicularly as pure thrust forces into the underground. The cable-stayed bridge corresponds to a cantilever bridge, the carriageway decking forms the pressure-stressed Untergurt, the rope is arm course belts, which the vertical loads onthe Pylone clears away and is backembodied in the carriageway decking.
A well-known example of this bridge form is those Hamburg Kohl fire bridge.
the band bridge applies above all its asFootbridge. The basic element of a band bridge are several bands, which carry a roadway and to the supports are fastened on course. Concave sagging is characteristic, because the larger the radius of curvature is, the more strongly becomes the tension due to (own) the weight.For the delimitation of the dip intermediate columns can be inserted, whereby then the band bridge takes a schlangenlinienförmiges elevator profile. A well-known representative of this bridge kind is the timber bridge with Essing over the Rhine Main Danube channel, those apart from the unusual use of glued wood slats as bandwith 193 m at the same time the longest timber bridge of Europe is.
mobile ones bridge
mobile one bridges are built, if from the local conditions it results that a firm bridge is not economical or constructionally possible. This can be, if toExample in the flat country a Anrampung would be too expensive and without Anrampung a too small passage height for the traffic line lying down would remain. This type of bridge has the disadvantage that the crossing of traffic can take place not from each other independently, but always onethe traffic routes is closed.
These bridges are described more exactly by the kind of the construction. Thus there is the Zugbrücke or pulling bridge, with which the roadway with hauling cables is highly folded, the balance bridge, whose mechanism does not have hauling cables (the most famousExample is the Tower Bridge in London), and as special variant a three-campaign balance bridge, like the hearing bridge in Kiel, a folding bridge. Further mobile bridge types, which cross navigation roads and make larger passage widths possible, are complete the swing bridge, around their verticalAxle to be turned can (z. B. the swing bridge Malchow (Mecklenburg)), the stroke bridge, which is completely highly lifted (z. B. the Kattwybrücke over those Hamburg CSU the Elbe) as well as the tilting bridge and the lowering bridge.
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- floating bridges
this type of bridge a road or a railway is led across pontoons, which lie very close together and are connected by small „bridges “. The operability of such bridges is strongly affected in particular by the water level and the water flow. Frequently floating bridges on the bank are removed,since it only a small transverse rigidity possess.Pontoons are flotation chamber, z. B. Ships, life boats or hollow slabs. Floating bridges are usually in emergency used only, in order provisionally to replace destroyed infrastructure up to the re-establishment. A typical application lies in the military range, howit on the one hand concerns to re-establish destroyed infrastructure temporarly on the other hand in addition, to attain by flexibility of advantages in relation to an enemy.
wood is in form of a trunk over one Ravine or a waters the oldest bridge construction material. It is usually used with truss bridges. In 18. Century reached the building of timber bridges with the Rhine bridge of work living of Hans Ulrich pit man a first high point. This was 120 m long and had only one intermediate column.The advancement took place in the first half 19. Century consisting in North America with the building of the railroad lines by the continent, among other things with the wooden Trestlebrücken, of simple continuous girder bridges with a fine-mesh arrangement of round timbers.
Today one uses woodin particular with footbridges and/or.Bars or other subordinated bridges such as goods footbridges or house approach roads. Thereby in particular the low dead weight of the wood is of advantage. Wood is used rather rarely today for larger bridges, like for example in the proximity of the Finnish Mäntyharju. There 1999 (maximum span 42 m) the timber bridge of the world certified longest with 168 m for the traffic was built. 
also the rope bridge belongs to the older bridge types. There are several kindsthe construction forms.
- The 1-Seilbrücke is the simplest variant and consists of a diagonal strained rope, which one can use hanging on a role.
- The 2-Seilbrücke consists of a carrying rope (down) and a cord (above). This is a very wobbly affair,because carrying and cord horizontal to each other to shift can.
- An improvement of the 2-Seilbrücke by a further cord and connections between cords and carrying rope is the 3-Seilbrücke. Thus one reaches a higher stability and a using of the bridge becomes safer.
- Those4-Seilbrücke is supplemental opposite the 3-Seilbrücke by a further carrying rope. Between the two carrying ropes a lining (mostly from wood) is fastened. This increases the comfort when using.
- stone bridge
likewise already early was used stone as bridge construction material, in the form of nature bridges (Steinbögen) or also laterin worked on form (elbow bridges). The semi-circle elbow bridges of the Romans had spans up to approximately 25 meters. Maximally 40 meters of span are possible with this geometry form with stone bridges. With the flat elbow, which is statically substantially more favorable, introduced to the Middle Ages, could then with stone bridgesalso openings up to approximately 60 meters to be bridged. Today stone has a subordinated meaning with the bridge construction only in the form of linings.
- Concrete bridge
concrete is a mixture from cement, rock granulation (sand and gravel) and water. In addition it can contain concrete additives and additives. This building material is suitable outstanding, in order to build bridges, because it can be poured liquid into each form (formwork) and after hardening by precipitation to one well on pressure stressable artificial stoneresults in. Concrete is (like also stone) only able to take up large thrust forces and small traction powers why it is used particularly with the elbow bridges.
- Reinforced concrete bridge and/or. Prestressed concrete bridge
reinforced concrete unites the advantages of concrete and steel. That enclosesConcrete the steel and protects this in such a way against corrosion. The steel brings its tensile strength into this connection also, which is only possible, because both materials have a very similar Wärmeausdehnungskoeffizienten.
There are several kinds of reinforced concrete:
- Reinforced concrete:Into a formwork the armouring is built and filled these then with concrete. This is called also flabby.
- Prestressed concrete: The use of prestressed concrete bridges is starting from spans from more than 10 m to 25 m the rule. Here becomesa part of the armouring, the prestressing steel, preloads (strained). Thus results a compression stress in the concrete, which prevents a cracking of the concrete and thus larger deflections. This makes lower overall heights possible of the Brückenträger. Concerning the situation of the prestressing steel with respect to the Brückenquerschnitt differentiatesone between internal pre-loading and external pre-loading. During the internal pre-loading the clamping cables are arranged and completely of the concrete coated in the concrete cross section. During the external pre-loading the tendons lie outside of the concrete cross section and are replaceable. The stresses become onlyat returning saddles or consoles into the concrete cross section introduced. The external pre-loading is usually used with box cross-sections in combination with the internal.
- cast iron bridge
cast iron is easier iron - an alloy with lower melting point than steel and thereforeprocessable. Due to smaller stability cast iron does not have no more meaning with buildings of constructions and by steel was replaced. Many bridges were built in former times from cast irons, for example the cast iron bridge over the Severn. Most of the cast iron bridges were the rising loadgrown and therefore by steel bridges were not replaced.
- Steel bridge
steel it exhibits a very high firmness in relation to pressure as well as traction powers. Steel is used in the bridge construction particularly in the form of ropes, profiles or sheet metals. Today become to increased extentalso parts from cast steel assigned. A crucial disadvantage is however rusting (corrosion), which makes and to a high maintenance expenditure leads usually anti-corrosive coatings necessary. Steel begun with cover particularly from bar arch bridges, Deckbrücken, truss bridges and suspension bridges.
- Steel composite bridge
Wing units of the composite construction have spatially separated cross sections, which consist of two or several building materials. Differently than for example with the reinforced concrete the group is manufactured among themselves by special connecting devices. For example the carriageway slab, those lies with a steel composite bridge on the steel Brückenträgerof reinforced concrete consists. The group between both building materials is guaranteed over head pin pegs. Thus it to an actuated connection and both cross sections come cooperate as a cross section. With coupling of prestressed concrete and steel composite structure parts one speaks also of a hybrid bridge.
a further possibility of the organization of bridges is their function. Afterwards one can differentiate among other things between road bridge, footbridge, railway bridge, channel bridge/Wasserbrücke (open bridge) and game bridge(Green bridge). Often however a bridge has several regulation purposes. Further bridge types with function names are among other things the conveyor bridge (z. B. in the mining industry), the Leitungsbrücke (z. B. in the chemical plant) in addition, the pioneer bridge or the auxiliary bridge. Wagner earths against it are bridges outprefabricated, usually steel component system elements, which are used with repairs at existing bridges for the by-pass of the building site. A Wagner earth can remain also during a longer period in the employment. In addition bridges cannot have also over a longer time a function: These becomethen in the vernacular „soda bridges “mentioned.
the topological situation is also a possible criterion for the allocation of bridges. So one can differentiate among other things between valley bridges, suspension bridges, city bridges and river bridges.
of the crossing angles between for example a highway and a motorway must be right-angled. With the associated bridge one speaks then of an inclined bridge, otherwise one it would be a straight bridge. Itis also possible that for example the road is in a curve, one speaks then of a curved bridge.
one designates viaduct
passage viaduct as viaduct today more or less high and long bridgesa road or a railway, which lowers upward gradient-poor a valley or a one with columns and usually elbows span. Similar constructions, which became aquaducts, used from the Romans to the potable water supply. Viaducts were frequently established later in the building of railways.
as passagea small bridge construction work with a clearance of less than two meters applies. He is built if a footpath or a small brook is to be led by a road or a railway embankment. Passages are usually implemented as reinforced concrete frame construction or with waving steel tubes.
individual elements of a bridge are enumerated exemplarily on the basis a road bridge. Other kinds of bridge do not have some parts, but again additionally different (compares firm and mobile bridges). Also each road bridge does not possess all elements, but they become foreach bridge after the requirements selected by the planner.
cover consists of the carriageway slab, the keels (or box girders) as well as any cross beams. That cover carriesthe loads to the underbody.
as underbody of a bridge one designates the counter bearings and any central supports. The underbody takes up the bearing forces centered over the bridge camps (if camps available) and leads these into thoseEstablishment off.
- Counter bearings
counter bearings are at the bridge beginning and - end and form the transition from the dam to bridge-cover. They transfer the covering loads to the establishment and take the earth pressure by the counter bearing wall toward the bridge as well as by wing walls inTransverse direction up.
- Central support
the central supports reduce the span of the building of over between the counter bearings and make thereby a smaller overall height possible. They lead according to the spans parts of the covering loads into the building ground. The central supports are usually implemented as single column or column disks.With inclined cable or suspension bridges the central support is stressed by high slopes of the bridge loads. In this case one speaks of a suspension tower.
the establishment of the counter bearings and central supports and demolition of the bridge loads takes place with shallow foundations (strip foundations,Mat foundations) or deep foundations (drilling stakes, ramming stakes or wells).
fighter is a special designation of a counter bearing with an elbow bridge.
See also: Establishment (building industry)
the camps of a bridge are the edge contacts between over and underbody. They must soit procures its that they make the necessary trick and tilting motions as well as shifts possible and makes a squeeze-poor transmission possible of the bearing forces.
- Camp from steel
steel store gives it as firm line tilting camp or as mobile line camps (roller bearings). There in the past numerous damagedid not arise, these today with bridge new buildings in Germany to any more are not used. Roller bearings consist to be held for base plates of steel cylinders, those laterally and, likewise from steel. They can adjust large movements of the bridge.
- Elastomer camps
elastomer camps are deformation camp, D. h. it transferthe forces over the deformation of the elastomer. They consist of a flexible age-resisting plastic, into which with reinforced camps steel plates are trained, which increase the pressure strength and incompressibility. The deformation camps are all-side mobile and permit the admission horizontal andvertical loads with simultaneous twist around three axles and with simultaneous Verschieblichkeit in two directions. The Verschieblichkeit in horizontal direction can be prevented by the arrangement by holding constructions from steel. The elastomer camp knows not as large movements as a roller bearingtake up, is however maintenance-poorer, because the steel sheets do not come with air and humidity into contact and are corrosion proof and because no mobile parts are present. With larger deformations one uses the deformation sliding bearing, with which the elastomer camp with an additionalGlide layer is provided.
cover a bridge deforms in longitudinal direction due to temperature changes and longitudinal forces from brakes of vehicle traffic as well as with prestressed concrete bridges additionally by the pre-loading and creeping and shrinking the concrete. These deformations stepat the counter bearing up and do not have to become balanced therefore by a transition construction. In addition the roadway transitions are to make a safe crossing possible also at high speeds.
caps (de) - Randbalken/Gesimse (RK)
the reinforced concrete caps become additional only aftercutting out the carriageway slab and after production of the sealing as well as the Gesims up-concretes. So measure inaccuracies in the Kragarm of the building of over can be covered. The caps are with cover by a connection armouring or by plate anchors actuated connected. In Austria becomefrequently so-called bridge anchors with annular nut assigned. On the caps railings are fastened as well as depending upon need protective planks and noise protection walls. The caps are usually made of frost and de-icing salt-steady air-entraining concrete. They are hydrophobiert or coated, if this for example because of a useas going and cycle track is necessary. The caps serve also the safety device of the Verkehrsraumes. In the range in the city the caps are usually simultaneous going and/or cycle track and to secure these by 15 cm a high scratching board before a abirrenden motor vehicle. Under normal conditionsthe caps are increased the Verkehrsraum opposite the roadway only by 5 cm and secure through on it arranged Distanzschutzplanken.
carriageway surfacing and sealing
- carriageway surfacing
the carriageway surfacing have nowadays in Germany a three-part structure from sealing, protective layer and surface layer.Those approx. 2 cm strong impervious layer consists of bitumen welding courses and protects bridge-cover against the penetration of Oberflächenwasser, frost and de-icing salt. Those approximately 4 cm strong protective layer consists of mastic asphalt or rolling bitumen and serves the protection of the sealing from more mechanicalDemand from traffic and before influences of the weather. On the protective layer for the direct demolition of the roadway loads one is applied approximately 4 cm strong surface layer from asphaltic concrete. On subordinated private ways, like Forstwegen or house approach roads, carriageway surfacings are used also from wood,old bridges (z. B. Roman bridges) natural stone was used.
the drainage is to derive the resulting Oberflächenwasser rapidly and completely, not only from reasons of the road safety, but also thus the lining as rapidly as possible to drain can. As a rule that becomesWater derived over a drainage system in storm overflow basins.
- to equipment
railing Brückengeländer as safety against falling for pedestrians or cyclists. The railings are from steel or aluminum and have with crash heights of less than 12 meters a minimum height of 1,0Meters, with larger crash heights amount to the minimum height of 1.1 meters. Beside cycle tracks a railing height of at least 1.2 is meters prescribed in Germany. With road bridges with more than 20 m length contains the then two-piece hand rail additionally a wire rope.
- Distanzschutzplanken (de) -Guard rails/guide bars (RKs)
guard rails or Distanzschutzplanken serve as safety against falling for motor vehicles or to the safety device of the Gegenfahrbahn against breaking out vehicles. These are manufactured from steel, in Austria partly also from aluminum. However is the use of aluminumnot unproblematically, because this embrittles with the time and it comes by it in accidents pretty often to heavy and heaviest bodily injuries. Therefore in Austria no more new guard rails are set up from aluminum and existing guard rails are exchanged. As alternative to thatthe Distanzschutzplanken in Germany on motorway bridges also concrete layer walls are planned for roadway delimitation.
other ones of terms
important ones of terms of a bridge are and. A.:
- Span or also span: the distance between the points of support
- clearance: the distance betweenthe counter bearings (can be measured perpendicularly to the axle of a running waters or in roadway axle)
- headroom: the distance between underground and wing unit lower edge
concrete bridges with small height over areascan be manufactured economically with a falsework. With mehrfeldrigen bridges cover usually in sections concreted, to which a falsework can be used or with high bridges a feed scaffold. Feed scaffolds are stands, which shift independently from a bridge field to the next.This kind of stands particularly with bridges with changing turning radii, different upward gradients, to changing spans and with railway bridges, apply which consist of a chain of single span beams. Otherwise longer prestressed concrete bridges, continuous beams with regular Stützenabständen and box cross-section, become often with thatfar spread economical clock sliding procedures manufactured (clock sliding bridges). With large spans one finds also free porch bridges, in particular to covering broad waters. At the freely auskragenden end the following in each case section is added.
In particular with steel bridges or composite bridges can cover outSteel often with lifting fishbones, like a truck crane or hoists, being installed.
Besides there is the possibility in the prestressed concrete construction also still of building a bridge with finished units. This happens in Germany particularly with motorway transfers, with which the Brückenträger are before-producedand the carriageway slab on it to be only concreted must. On the other hand outside the bridge construction with finished unit cross section segments is very far common by Germany. The bridge by joining and strutting individual before-produced cross section elements are manufactured.
alwaysagain there were bridge collapses for the most diverse reasons. Causes were either natural catastrophes, ship collisions, material defects or acts of sabotage.
|Place||date||design and use of the bridge||a cause||number of dead ones/hurt||damage to property||remarks|
|bridge of meadow (France)||16. April 1850||suspension bridge over the river Maine||Resonance due to in equal step of marching soldiers led to the collapse||226/?||Total loss bridges||does not bridge since then no more in the equal step crossed|
|Firth OF Tay bridge||28. December 1879||continuous girder bridge, steel framework on cast iron columns, railway bridge||insufficient consideration of the wind load, unsatisfactory execution, collapse with passage of a coursein the storm||75/0||bridge uselessly, carriers partially reused, course heavily damages||locomotive from the Tay was saved and drove still 19 years as „The Diver “.|
|Quebec bridge||29. August 1907||cantilever bridge, steel framework, railway bridge||no strength calculation with actual masses: under-sized, collapsewith the building||74/11||bridge total loss|
|Tacoma Narrows bridge||7. November 1940||suspension bridge, road bridge||aerodynamically unfavorable organization with low rigidity did not lead a bridge and 2 passenger cars total loss||pointed name||to spectacular and destructive excited||oscillation „Galloping Gertie “, 4 months from opening to collapse, since that timeBridge models in the wind tunnel|
|Maracaibobrücke||1964||road bridge||ship collision|
|Silver Bridge||15. December 1967||road bridge||casting defect and corrosion||46/9||bridge and 37 vehicles destroys|
|south bridge in Koblenz||10. November 1971||road bridge||bridge half broke into the Rhine starting from||13/?||Total loss bridges|
|realm bridge in Vienna||1. August 1976||road bridge with streetcar||cutting a column||1/0||bridge, a motorbus and a delivery van destroys; concrete of the column||damages some ships never had been examined, was internally totally destroyed; „higher force “|
|Almöbrücke nördl. GöteborgStenungsund (Sweden)||18. January 1980||elbow bridge from concrete||ship collision||8?||Aschaffenburg fell total loss of the bridge, several passenger cars 1988 bridge|
|of A||3 over the Main execution error, and/or||over the bridge edge. Error in standard||1/0||bridge total loss||partial collapse with the repetitive sliding|
|Eschede||3. June 1998||road bridge|| course collision|
(ICE misfortune of Eschede)
|101/105||by course impact on the central pillars fell the bridge|
|a Almuñecar, province Granada, Spain||7. November 2005||motorway bridge||building accident, a cause still unclearly||6/3||building accident; Are enough for crash of a 60m section about50m deeply|
„as bridges apply all transfers of a traffic route over another traffic route, over a waters or over more deep-seated area, if their clearance between the counter bearings 2.00 m or moreamounts to. (...) “
(definition according to DIN 1076 from traffic sheet page No. B 5276 verse. 07/97)
are defined in the check valves chapter 4 structures. Whereby the same applies in a general manner.
the bridge is at the same time symbol forthe overcoming and connection over separating borders and ditches away. To it both attach the designation of the Roman Pope and “Pontifex Maximus” (highest Brückenbauer) and the choice of the bridge as symbol of church mechanisms with order for dialogue (e.g. Evangelist academy bath Boell) on. Also €- notes are equipped with the symbol of the bridge.
- are quotations of everything that humans build and develop, nothing better and more valuable than bridges. (Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav Nobelpreisträger, 1892-1975)
Vach practicing in bridge, the longest Teakholz bridge of the world, in Amarapura with
the inside that Müngstener bridge
Magdeburg bridge in Edmonton, High level Bridge, finished 1913
Brooklyn Bridge in New York town center
- Fritz Leonhardt: Bridges. German publishing house DVA 2002, ISBN 3421025908.
- Eugen Brühwiler, ChristianMenn:Reinforced concrete bridges. Springer publishing house Vienna 2003, ISBN 3211835830.
- Lucien F. Cloudily: Concrete bridges - symbiosis of engineering science and art. Scientific ones round-look 57 (10), S. 537 - 543 (2004), ISSN 0028 - 1050
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations R. Dietrich: Fascination bridges. Architecture - history- Technology (1998)
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Bridge - word origin, synonyms and translations|
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