Brandenburg

of these articles is occupied with the German Land of the Federal Republic Brandenburg, further meanings under Brandenburg (term clarifying).
Country Brandenburg
national flag Landeswappen
Flagge von Brandenburg Wappen von Brandenburg
base data
capital: Potsdam
surface: 29.477, 16 km ² (5.)
Inhabitants: 2.561.357 (10.) (31. August 2005)
Population density: 87 inhabitants everkm ² (15.)
Unofficial Landeshymne: Märki heath
system of government member state of the BR Germany
debts for each inhabitants: 6.640 € (at the end of of 2005)
debts entirely: 16.4 billion € (2004)
Unemployment ratio: 16.5% (November 2005)
ISO 3166-2: DE-BR
official Website: www.brandenburg.de
politics
Prime Minister: Matthias place-hit a corner (SPD)
(since 27. June 2002)
Governing parties: Coalition from SPD and CDU
allocation of seats in the federal state parliament
since October 2004 (88 seats):
SPD 33
the left 29
CDU 20
DVU 6
last choice: 19. September 2004
next choice: Autumn 2009
Parliamentary agency
voices in the Upper House of Parliament: 4
map
Lage des Bundeslandes Brandenburg in Deutschland

Brandenburg (sorbisch Braniborska) is a country in the northeast of Germany. The state capital is potsdam. Brandenburg borders on Poland in the east, Saxonia in the south, Saxonia-Anhalt in the west, Lower Saxony in the extreme west on a short piece at the Elbe, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania inThe north and encloses Berlin lain central completely.

Table of contents

Geografie and climate

typical for Brandenburg is the adjustment of all infrastructure on Berlin inselförmig lain in the country. Berlin and Brandenburg form together the Metropolregion Berlin/Brandenburg. Approximately around Berlin are thosewealthiest cities and villages („bacon belts of “Berlin). Here live also many citizens of Berlin, who pulled it in the Greens. In the periphery of the Land of the Federal Republic thinly settled and agriculturally coined/shaped regions lie like the Prignitz, the Fläming, the Spreewald, the Oderbruch or the Uckermark. Approximately around Cottbus in the southeast of the country are several brown coal extraction areas (open mining).

  • Distance north south 291 km
  • distance west east 244 km

landscape

the surface organization of Brandenburg by two Höhenzüge and two soil lowerings one determines. The lowerings are taken by river valleys,at their edges - today to a large extent drying-put - moorland - and sump soils to be, which served in the meantime also the peat dismantling. The river valleys are called here break or Luch.

The northern or Baltic Höhenzug of the Mecklenburgian sea-plate sends only insignificant branches to Brandenburg. That about230 km long Höhenzug in the south of the Land of the Federal Republic begins with the Lausitzer heights (more exact: ) and the border pulls itself the Sorauer Sandbergen westward over Triebel and goes Spremberg, then after northwest over Calau and toward the bald and dry Fläming along. Thosesouthern soil lowering is quite at the northern edge of this Höhenzuges and steps most saliently in the Spreewald out (between Baruth (Mark) and Plaue). The northern soil lowering, nearly directly been because of the south foot of the Baltic land height, certainly by the valleys nets - and Warthebruchs, the Oderbruchs, the line of the Finowtals, the Havelländi Luch and the furrow of the Elbe stream.

Between these two lowerings an elevation (plate) lies, which from the area of floats westward to Brandenburg inside extends, with the Sternberger country, the Spreeplatte and the central Marks. The plate cut through from southeast to northwest of the valley putrefying Obra and the or up to the delta of the Neisse, the lower Spree and the Haveltal. From the south northward flows the or of the Neissemündungup to the Warthemündung, the Bober, the upper Spree, the Dahme, Ruthe and Plaue. Between these furrows a whole number of individual heights and Höhenzüge, the roll mountain rise with bath free forest (157 m), the Müggelberge in Berlin Köpenick (120 m), the Havelberge(97 m) and the Rauen mountains with prince forest (112 to 152 m). The highest collection in Brandenburg is the heath height 201.4 M. lying nearby the border to Saxonia.

Generally sandy soil is prevailing on this plate, which bewachsen on far distances with Kiefern and heath herband a dry reputation has. But even on the heights it is lehmig and can be used by suitable cultivation methods for the cultivation of most agricultural products.

landscapes

waters

in Brandenburg gives it over 3.000 lakes, together with its over 33.000 km to long running waters is Brandenburg the water-richest Land of the Federal Republic of Germany.

(See also: List of the rivers in Brandenburg and list of the lakes in Brandenburg).

climate

the country Brandenburg is in the range of the moderate, continental climate. The annual average temperature lies between 7°C and 10°C. The coldest month is with a probability of 53% in the last 100 years the January, which in the eastern part of the Land of the Federal Republic inMeans a temperature of -1 °C has. The range is appropriate for -30 between 15 °C and °C. Fall on the average in the month 34 mm precipitation. With a yearly precipitation sum of approximately 600 mm the country belongs to the driest regions of Germany and Europe. Therefore growsin the summer the forest fire risk strongly on. The sun shines in the year on the average approx. 1600 hours.

four

Sitzverteilung Brandenburgischer Landtag

parties are at present represented politics in the Brandenburgi federal state parliament, which is selected for five years. After the elections of 19. September 2004 resulted the following allocation of seats:

the results of the election of the federal parliament 2004 looked as follows:

(see also: Elections to the breaking citizen federal state parliament, breaking citizen federal state parliament)

Prime Minister

the Prime Ministers of the country Brandenburg:

Ministries

Ministry of the inside: Jörg Schönbohm (CDU), deputy Prime Minister
Ministerium of the law: Beate Blechinger (CDU)
Ministry of finances: Rainer Speer (SPD)
Ministry for economics: Ulrich Junghanns (CDU)
Ministry for work, social, health and family: Dagmar Ziegler (SPD)
Ministry for rural development, environment and consumer protection: Dietmar Woidke (SPD)
Ministry for education, youth and sport: Holger Rupprecht (SPD)
Ministry for science, research and culture: Johanna Wanka (CDU)
Ministry for infrastructure and area planning: Franc Szymanski (SPD)

condition

the Brandenburgi condition, became to 14. April 1992 of the federal state parliament as draft discharges. By popular vote the draft of the Brandenburgi population became to 14. June 1992 accepted. The conditionis announced thereby.

Wikisource: Condition of the country Brandenburg - source texts

coats of arms and flag

Wappen von Brandenburg
after the Brandenburgi condition is the red märkische eagle on white field (article 4) the coat of arms of the country Brandenburg. The national flag is red white with centered Landeswappen.

The märkischen eagleand the coat of arms however gives it for a long time. Already 1157 are it the coat of arms of the Mark count of Brandenburg:Otto I., the son Albrechts of the bear. been its.

After the turn one removed for it its earlier still added (sword, Brustschild etc.), up to the endthe Second World War part of the coat of arms were.

history

Deutsches Reich, Provinz Brandenburg (1904)
German Reich, province Brandenburg (1904)

historical formed the heartland of Brandenburg Prussia for Brandenburg (together with Berlin, which was part of Brandenburg ). See also for this Albrecht of the bar (founder of the Mark Brandenburg 1157), Marks Brandenburg and province Brandenburg. Berlin separated with the large Berlin law of 1920 from the province at that time Brandenburg.

1945 are formed the province Mark Brandenburg. This consists of the governmental districts potsdam and Frankfurt (or) of the former Prussian province Brandenburg, however without the entire new Markseast the or.1947 renaming takes place in country Brandenburg with a size of 27.612 km ² after the dissolution of Prussia. 1952 are dissolved and divided in the context of the administrative reform in the GDR the country into the three districts Cottbus, Frankfurt (or) and potsdam. The district Perleberg fell to the district Schwerin, the districts Prenzlau and Templin to the district new Brandenburg.

To 14. October 1990 the country Brandenburg again based by pool of the districts Cottbus (without the circles Hoyerswerda, Jessen and white water), Frankfurt (or) and Potsdam plus the circles Perleberg, Prenzlau and Templin.

1993 the “ fire protection units “is created by a circular order, in order to fight future large forest fires in the country better.

In the year 1996 the breaking citizens decide during a popular vote with majority against a combination of Lands Berlin and Brandenburg.

administrative arrangement

since the new formation of the districts 1993 is divided Brandenburg into 14 districts and 4 circle-free cities.

districts

Landkreise in Brandenburg
the brandenburgischen districts and its district towns
  1. Barnim, Eberswalde (BAR)
  2. Dahme Spreewald, Lübben (Spreewald) (LDS)
  3. Elbe Elster, Heart mountain (Elster) (EE)
  4. Havelland, Rathenow (HVL)
  5. Märkisch Oderland, Seelow (MOL)
  6. Oberhavel, Oranienburg (OHV)
  7. Oberspreewald Lausitz, Senftenberg (OSL)
  8. or Spree, Beeskow (LOT)
  9. Ostprignitz Ruppin, Neuruppin (OPR)
  10. potsdam central Mark, Belzig (PM)
  11. Prignitz, Perleberg (PR)
  12. Spree Neisse, forest (Lausitz) (SPN)
  13. Teltow Fläming, gap forest (TF)
  14. Uckermark, Prenzlau (OVER)

circle-free cities

  1. Brandenburg at the Havel (BRB)
  2. Cottbus (CB)
  3. Frankfurt (or) (FF)
  4. potsdam (P)

regions

Brandenburg starting from 2007 into two GROOVE -2-Regionen as well as further into five planning regions (regional planning communities), those is arranged spatially federal area planning regions to correspond andof the circle-free cities and districts consist, as indicated in the following overview (these regions are not administrative units):

of cities and municipalities

the country Brandenburg is divided into altogether 420 municipalities, under it 112 cities from which 4 cities are circle-free. (Conditions: 1. January 2006).

Largest cities and municipalities

City
municipality
district inhabitant
30. June 2003 ¹
inhabitant
30. June 2005
potsdam circle-free city 143,985 146,635
Cottbus circle-free city 108,503 105,960
Brandenburg to the Havel circle-free city 75,824 74,662
Frankfurt (or) circle-free city 67,759 64,429
Eberswalde Barnim 42,688 41,916
Oranienburg Oberhavel 40,313 41,030
falcon lake Havelland 36.351 37,879
Schwedt/or Uckermark 39,097 37,719
ironworks city or Spree 37,837 35,388
Bernau with Berlin Barnim 34,138 35,047
prince forest or Spree 33,659 33,343
of king wild living Dahme Spreewald 31,885 32,983
Neuruppin Ostprignitz Ruppin 32,277 32,120
Senftenberg Oberspreewald Lausitz 29,716 28,983
Rathenow Havelland 27,850 27,087
Strausberg Märkisch Oderland 26,688 26,554
Spremberg Spree Neisse 26,655 26.146
Hennigsdorf Oberhavel 26,331 26,092
Ludwig field Teltow Fläming 24,189 24,370
Blankenfelde Mahlow Teltow Fläming 22,764 23,776
forest (Lausitz) Spree Neisse 23,228 22,694
Werder (Havel) potsdam central Mark of 22,315 22,665
high new village Oberhavel 20,710 22,154
Guben Spree Neisse 22,897 21,623
gap forest Teltow Fläming 21,718 21,463
Prenzlau Uckermark of 21,692 20,951
joke mountains Prignitz 20,876 20,035

¹ toArea conditions of the local reform of 26. October 2003

(see also: List of the cities and municipalities in Brandenburg)

land fusion

1996 took place a popular vote over a convention to the fusion of Brandenburg with Berlin. In Brandenburg the minimum agreement (“quorum” did not however even become)from 25% of the voters reaches. Thus the contract would not have stepped only one breaking citizen also without a negative vote into force; the fact that there was additionally a majority of negative votes underlines the missing persuasive power of the idea at the time at that time.

Main arguments against the agreement in Brandenburg was thosenumerical inferiority of the rural (breaking citizens) in relation to the urban (Berlin & “bacon belt”) interests with 2.5 million breaking citizens opposite 3.5 million citizens of Berlin. In addition the graduated dismantling of the city state privilege for Berlin would have at longer term annual losses of 2 billion € in the case of the land financial adjustment result in.

Of the today's Prime Minister Platzeck are enoughendorsed alternative of a northeast country inclusive Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the Saxonia Anhalti old Mark and thus a rural majority were never seriously pursued. Also, the breaking citizens federal state government never introduced the suggestion of a land advice, a kind mini Upper House of Parliament, occupied after a surface key to the negotiations with Berlin.

Proponent of a land fusionaim at again and again times a renewed popular vote.

However it gives already now a multiplicity of efforts, which aim at finally a fusion of the two countries, as for instance the fusion of the SFB with the ORB to the RBB or the fusion of the German old age pension insurance Berlinthe German old age pension insurance Brandenburg to the 1. January 2006 for German old age pension insurance Berlin Brandenburg. Also the heads of the government of both Lands of the Federal Republic have themselves for the fundamental goal of the land fusion well-known.

(See also: Berlin Brandenburg)

economics

of Brandenburg industry and services have their emphasis along A 10approximately around the city Berlin as well as in the secured industriellen cores. With ironworks city at the or and in Brandenburg to the Havel are steel plants. In addition there is printing machines AG and a transmission work of the ZF Friedrichshafen in Brandenburg to the Havel a printing machine work of the Heidelberger.In Schwedt/or in the northeast of Brandenburg is a industrieller emphasis with one oil refinery (Kurdish worker's party refinery GmbH) and two paper factories. Beyond the secured industriellen cores are coined/shaped the Berlin-far subspaces of the country by the nourishing industry, the wood trade as well as the agriculture. In the south of Brandenburg are Brown coal dismantling places. In the future an emphasis of the land development is put strengthened on the tourism. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT sank 2005 in the comparison to the previous year around 1,1%. The development was the worst of all Lands of the Federal Republic thereby.

agriculture

some achievements of the agriculture of Brandenburg in the year 2004:

  • Harvest quantity grain3,265 millions t
  • number of cattle 586100
    • of it milk cows 174,000
    • milk production for each cow and day März/05 22.34 kg
  • of number of pigs 788.200
    • of it piglets 248,900
  • number of sheep 144,489
  • eggs per hen and year 295

traffic

of Brandenburg traffic routes approaches star shaped on Berlin. This appliesboth for railroad lines, and for roads and water ways. The railroad lines are connected by the citizen of Berlin outer ring, which is mostly in Brandenburg. Further „the citizen of Berlin ring “motorway circuit mentioned of A 10 runs almost exclusively by Brandenburg.

The most important airport of theLand of the Federal Republic is in beautiful field; besides it gives and. A. the airport Cottbus Drewitz.

The transport enterprises in Brandenburg and Berlin united to the traffic group Berlin Brandenburg (VBB), in order to ensure a uniform traffic structure in the public local passenger traffic and uniform tariffs in the region.

  • New permissions Kfz2004: 86.409
  • transported persons 2004 (ÖPNV): 141.697.000

education

primary stage

breaking citizen pupil visits, differently than in other Lands of the Federal Republic, from first to the sixth class the primary school.

secondary school I and II

the authorization for, One receives attendance of Universities of (Abitur) in Brandenburg at High Schools, comprehensive schools with gymnasialer upper stage, in addition, at upper stage centers and evening institutes.

Changes in the school years:

universities

(see also: Universities in Brandenburg)

holidays and vacations

of holidays

year New Year Easter day of the work Christi Ascension Day Whitsuntide Day D. German unit reformation day Christmas
2006 01.01. 14.04. - 17.04. 01.05. 25.05. 04.06. - 05.06. 03.10. 31.10. 25.12. - 26.12.
2007 01.01. 06.04. - 08.04. 01.05. 17.05. 27.05. - 28.04. 03.10. 31.10. 25.12. - 26.12.
2008 01.01. 21.03. - 23.03. 01.05. 11.05. - 12.05. 03.10. 31.10. 25.12. - 26.12.

vacations

school year beginning of instruction autumn holidays Weihnachtsferien winter holidays Osterferien Pfingstferien summer holidays
2005/2006 09.08. 04.10. - 15.10. 22.12. - 03.01. 30.01. - 03.02. 12.04. - 21.04. 26.05. 06.07. - 19.08.
2006/2007 21.08. 02.10. - 14.10. /30.10. 27.12. - 05.01. 05.02. - 10.02. 04.04. - 13.04. - 12.07. - 25.08.
2007/2008 27.08. 15.10. - 27.10. 24.12. - 04.01. 04.02. - 09.02. 19.03. - 28.03. 02.05. 17.07. - 27.08.

tourism

see in addition: Tourism in Brandenburg

work on []

The 15 large protected areas

the nature protection Brandenburg
Stechlinsee
a high priority has
nature and culture protection

park lock bright lake

Stechlinsee surge tank Fürstlich Drehna [work on], in the year 2002 is proven in the country of 15 large protected areas so mentioned, among them one as national park, three as biosphere reservation in the countryand 11 as nature park. Altogether the large protected areas take a third of the national surface approximately.

UNESCO - world inheritance in Brandenburg

  • locks and park of potsdam (lock Sanssouci) (since 1990)

language

apart from high German dialects Mark Brandenburgi and Berlin Brandenburgi are spoken to a large extent. Furthermore in the border area to Saxonia and Saxonia-Anhalt Anhaltisch is spoken - a dialect of the Thuringian-upperSaxonian, that nearis related to the high German. In the brandenburgischen Niederlausitz speaks one Lausitzi dialects. This and in and in the surrounding countryside of Berlin spoken is to be added to the eastCentral German. In the Barnim the dialect Eberswalder channel German is common.

In the eastern part of the Niederlausitz in the environment ofIn addition Cottbus is spoken Niedersorbisch, a westslawische language, of approximately 20,000 humans as native language (bilingual area).

The vocabulary of the brandenburgischen dialects is seized and described in the Brandenburg Berlini dictionary.

see also

literature

  • Heinrich, G. (Hrsg.): Berlin and Brandenburg. (Manual of the historical places, Bd. 10), Stuttgart 1973.

Web on the left of

portal: Brandenburg

Commons: Brandenburg - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikinews: Brandenburg - current messages
Wiktionary: Brandenburg - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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