|of these articles is occupied with the German Land of the Federal Republic Brandenburg, further meanings under Brandenburg (term clarifying).|
|surface:||29.477, 16 km ² (5.)|
|Inhabitants:||2.561.357 (10.) (31. August 2005)|
|Population density:||87 inhabitants everkm ² (15.)|
|Unofficial Landeshymne:||Märki heath|
|system of government||member state of the BR Germany|
|debts for each inhabitants:||6.640 € (at the end of of 2005)|
|debts entirely:||16.4 billion € (2004)|
|Unemployment ratio:||16.5% (November 2005)|
|Prime Minister:|| Matthias place-hit a corner (SPD)|
(since 27. June 2002)
|Governing parties:||Coalition from SPD and CDU|
| allocation of seats in the federal state parliament|
since October 2004 (88 seats):
| SPD 33|
the left 29
|last choice:||19. September 2004|
|next choice:||Autumn 2009|
|voices in the Upper House of Parliament:||4|
Brandenburg (sorbisch Braniborska) is a country in the northeast of Germany. The state capital is potsdam. Brandenburg borders on Poland in the east, Saxonia in the south, Saxonia-Anhalt in the west, Lower Saxony in the extreme west on a short piece at the Elbe, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania inThe north and encloses Berlin lain central completely.
Geografie and climate
typical for Brandenburg is the adjustment of all infrastructure on Berlin inselförmig lain in the country. Berlin and Brandenburg form together the Metropolregion Berlin/Brandenburg. Approximately around Berlin are thosewealthiest cities and villages („bacon belts of “Berlin). Here live also many citizens of Berlin, who pulled it in the Greens. In the periphery of the Land of the Federal Republic thinly settled and agriculturally coined/shaped regions lie like the Prignitz, the Fläming, the Spreewald, the Oderbruch or the Uckermark. Approximately around Cottbus in the southeast of the country are several brown coal extraction areas (open mining).
- Distance north south 291 km
- distance west east 244 km
the surface organization of Brandenburg by two Höhenzüge and two soil lowerings one determines. The lowerings are taken by river valleys,at their edges - today to a large extent drying-put - moorland - and sump soils to be, which served in the meantime also the peat dismantling. The river valleys are called here break or Luch.
The northern or Baltic Höhenzug of the Mecklenburgian sea-plate sends only insignificant branches to Brandenburg. That about230 km long Höhenzug in the south of the Land of the Federal Republic begins with the Lausitzer heights (more exact: ) and the border pulls itself the Sorauer Sandbergen westward over Triebel and goes Spremberg, then after northwest over Calau and toward the bald and dry Fläming along. Thosesouthern soil lowering is quite at the northern edge of this Höhenzuges and steps most saliently in the Spreewald out (between Baruth (Mark) and Plaue). The northern soil lowering, nearly directly been because of the south foot of the Baltic land height, certainly by the valleys nets - and Warthebruchs, the Oderbruchs, the line of the Finowtals, the Havelländi Luch and the furrow of the Elbe stream.
Between these two lowerings an elevation (plate) lies, which from the area of floats westward to Brandenburg inside extends, with the Sternberger country, the Spreeplatte and the central Marks. The plate cut through from southeast to northwest of the valley putrefying Obra and the or up to the delta of the Neisse, the lower Spree and the Haveltal. From the south northward flows the or of the Neissemündungup to the Warthemündung, the Bober, the upper Spree, the Dahme, Ruthe and Plaue. Between these furrows a whole number of individual heights and Höhenzüge, the roll mountain rise with bath free forest (157 m), the Müggelberge in Berlin Köpenick (120 m), the Havelberge(97 m) and the Rauen mountains with prince forest (112 to 152 m). The highest collection in Brandenburg is the heath height 201.4 M. lying nearby the border to Saxonia.
Generally sandy soil is prevailing on this plate, which bewachsen on far distances with Kiefern and heath herband a dry reputation has. But even on the heights it is lehmig and can be used by suitable cultivation methods for the cultivation of most agricultural products.
in Brandenburg gives it over 3.000 lakes, together with its over 33.000 km to long running waters is Brandenburg the water-richest Land of the Federal Republic of Germany.
the country Brandenburg is in the range of the moderate, continental climate. The annual average temperature lies between 7°C and 10°C. The coldest month is with a probability of 53% in the last 100 years the January, which in the eastern part of the Land of the Federal Republic inMeans a temperature of -1 °C has. The range is appropriate for -30 between 15 °C and °C. Fall on the average in the month 34 mm precipitation. With a yearly precipitation sum of approximately 600 mm the country belongs to the driest regions of Germany and Europe. Therefore growsin the summer the forest fire risk strongly on. The sun shines in the year on the average approx. 1600 hours.
parties are at present represented politics in the Brandenburgi federal state parliament, which is selected for five years. After the elections of 19. September 2004 resulted the following allocation of seats:
the results of the election of the federal parliament 2004 looked as follows:
- SPD: 31.9%
- the left wing party.: 28.0%
- CDU: 19.4%
- DVU: 6.1%
- alliance 90/Die the Green: 3.6%
- FDP: 3.3%
- other: 7.7%
the Prime Ministers of the country Brandenburg:
- 1945 - 1949: Karl stone-hope (SPD), starting from 1946 (SED)
- 1949 - 1952: Rudolf Jahn (SED)
- Between 1952 and 1990 the country Brandenburg was dissolved
- 1990 - 2002: Manfred Stolpe (SPD)
- 2002 - today: Matthias place-hit a corner (SPD)
- Ministry of the inside: Jörg Schönbohm (CDU), deputy Prime Minister
- Ministerium of the law: Beate Blechinger (CDU)
- Ministry of finances: Rainer Speer (SPD)
- Ministry for economics: Ulrich Junghanns (CDU)
- Ministry for work, social, health and family: Dagmar Ziegler (SPD)
- Ministry for rural development, environment and consumer protection: Dietmar Woidke (SPD)
- Ministry for education, youth and sport: Holger Rupprecht (SPD)
- Ministry for science, research and culture: Johanna Wanka (CDU)
- Ministry for infrastructure and area planning: Franc Szymanski (SPD)
the Brandenburgi condition, became to 14. April 1992 of the federal state parliament as draft discharges. By popular vote the draft of the Brandenburgi population became to 14. June 1992 accepted. The conditionis announced thereby.
|Wikisource: Condition of the country Brandenburg - source texts|
coats of arms and flagthe red märkische eagle on white field (article 4) the coat of arms of the country Brandenburg. The national flag is red white with centered Landeswappen.
The märkischen eagleand the coat of arms however gives it for a long time. Already 1157 are it the coat of arms of the Mark count of Brandenburg:Otto I., the son Albrechts of the bear. been its.
After the turn one removed for it its earlier still added (sword, Brustschild etc.), up to the endthe Second World War part of the coat of arms were.
historical formed the heartland of Brandenburg Prussia for Brandenburg (together with Berlin, which was part of Brandenburg ). See also for this Albrecht of the bar (founder of the Mark Brandenburg 1157), Marks Brandenburg and province Brandenburg. Berlin separated with the large Berlin law of 1920 from the province at that time Brandenburg.
1945 are formed the province Mark Brandenburg. This consists of the governmental districts potsdam and Frankfurt (or) of the former Prussian province Brandenburg, however without the entire new Markseast the or.1947 renaming takes place in country Brandenburg with a size of 27.612 km ² after the dissolution of Prussia. 1952 are dissolved and divided in the context of the administrative reform in the GDR the country into the three districts Cottbus, Frankfurt (or) and potsdam. The district Perleberg fell to the district Schwerin, the districts Prenzlau and Templin to the district new Brandenburg.
To 14. October 1990 the country Brandenburg again based by pool of the districts Cottbus (without the circles Hoyerswerda, Jessen and white water), Frankfurt (or) and Potsdam plus the circles Perleberg, Prenzlau and Templin.
|the brandenburgischen districts and its district towns|
Brandenburg starting from 2007 into two GROOVE -2-Regionen as well as further into five planning regions (regional planning communities), those is arranged spatially federal area planning regions to correspond andof the circle-free cities and districts consist, as indicated in the following overview (these regions are not administrative units):
of cities and municipalities
the country Brandenburg is divided into altogether 420 municipalities, under it 112 cities from which 4 cities are circle-free. (Conditions: 1. January 2006).
Largest cities and municipalities
30. June 2003 ¹
30. June 2005
|Brandenburg to the Havel||circle-free city||75,824||74,662|
|Frankfurt (or)||circle-free city||67,759||64,429|
|ironworks city||or Spree||37,837||35,388|
|Bernau with Berlin||Barnim||34,138||35,047|
|prince forest||or Spree||33,659||33,343|
|of king wild living||Dahme Spreewald||31,885||32,983|
|Ludwig field||Teltow Fläming||24,189||24,370|
|Blankenfelde Mahlow||Teltow Fläming||22,764||23,776|
|forest (Lausitz)||Spree Neisse||23,228||22,694|
|Werder (Havel)||potsdam central Mark||of 22,315||22,665|
|high new village||Oberhavel||20,710||22,154|
|gap forest||Teltow Fläming||21,718||21,463|
¹ toArea conditions of the local reform of 26. October 2003
1996 took place a popular vote over a convention to the fusion of Brandenburg with Berlin. In Brandenburg the minimum agreement (“quorum” did not however even become)from 25% of the voters reaches. Thus the contract would not have stepped only one breaking citizen also without a negative vote into force; the fact that there was additionally a majority of negative votes underlines the missing persuasive power of the idea at the time at that time.
Main arguments against the agreement in Brandenburg was thosenumerical inferiority of the rural (breaking citizens) in relation to the urban (Berlin & “bacon belt”) interests with 2.5 million breaking citizens opposite 3.5 million citizens of Berlin. In addition the graduated dismantling of the city state privilege for Berlin would have at longer term annual losses of 2 billion € in the case of the land financial adjustment result in.
Of the today's Prime Minister Platzeck are enoughendorsed alternative of a northeast country inclusive Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the Saxonia Anhalti old Mark and thus a rural majority were never seriously pursued. Also, the breaking citizens federal state government never introduced the suggestion of a land advice, a kind mini Upper House of Parliament, occupied after a surface key to the negotiations with Berlin.
Proponent of a land fusionaim at again and again times a renewed popular vote.
However it gives already now a multiplicity of efforts, which aim at finally a fusion of the two countries, as for instance the fusion of the SFB with the ORB to the RBB or the fusion of the German old age pension insurance Berlinthe German old age pension insurance Brandenburg to the 1. January 2006 for German old age pension insurance Berlin Brandenburg. Also the heads of the government of both Lands of the Federal Republic have themselves for the fundamental goal of the land fusion well-known.
(See also: Berlin Brandenburg)
of Brandenburg industry and services have their emphasis along A 10approximately around the city Berlin as well as in the secured industriellen cores. With ironworks city at the or and in Brandenburg to the Havel are steel plants. In addition there is printing machines AG and a transmission work of the ZF Friedrichshafen in Brandenburg to the Havel a printing machine work of the Heidelberger.In Schwedt/or in the northeast of Brandenburg is a industrieller emphasis with one oil refinery (Kurdish worker's party refinery GmbH) and two paper factories. Beyond the secured industriellen cores are coined/shaped the Berlin-far subspaces of the country by the nourishing industry, the wood trade as well as the agriculture. In the south of Brandenburg are Brown coal dismantling places. In the future an emphasis of the land development is put strengthened on the tourism. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT sank 2005 in the comparison to the previous year around 1,1%. The development was the worst of all Lands of the Federal Republic thereby.
some achievements of the agriculture of Brandenburg in the year 2004:
- Harvest quantity grain3,265 millions t
- number of cattle 586100
- of it milk cows 174,000
- milk production for each cow and day März/05 22.34 kg
- of number of pigs 788.200
- of it piglets 248,900
- number of sheep 144,489
- eggs per hen and year 295
of Brandenburg traffic routes approaches star shaped on Berlin. This appliesboth for railroad lines, and for roads and water ways. The railroad lines are connected by the citizen of Berlin outer ring, which is mostly in Brandenburg. Further „the citizen of Berlin ring “motorway circuit mentioned of A 10 runs almost exclusively by Brandenburg.
The transport enterprises in Brandenburg and Berlin united to the traffic group Berlin Brandenburg (VBB), in order to ensure a uniform traffic structure in the public local passenger traffic and uniform tariffs in the region.
- New permissions Kfz2004: 86.409
- transported persons 2004 (ÖPNV): 141.697.000
breaking citizen pupil visits, differently than in other Lands of the Federal Republic, from first to the sixth class the primary school.
secondary school I and II
the authorization for, One receives attendance of Universities of (Abitur) in Brandenburg at High Schools, comprehensive schools with gymnasialer upper stage, in addition, at upper stage centers and evening institutes.
Changes in the school years:
- 2004/2005 introduction of Abitur examinations centralposed
- 2005/2006 pool of six-form high schools and comprehensive schools without gymnasiale upper stage to high schools
- 2005/2006 introduction of a general Prohibition of smoking for pupils and instructors
- 2005/2006 quality control of the achievements of the teachers by inspection teams
- 2006/2007 introduction of head notes
- Brandenburgi technical University of Cottbus
- European university Viadrina Frankfurt (or)
- University of potsdam
- professional school Lausitz (consisting of the locations: Cottbus and Senftenberg)
- professional school potsdam
- professional school Brandenburg
- professional schoolfor finances (specialist area: Fiscal administration)
- professional school Eberswalde
- technical professional school Wildau
- professional school of the police in Basdorf (starting from in the middle of 2006 in Oranienburg)
(see also: Universities in Brandenburg)
holidays and vacations
|year||New Year||Easter||day of the work||Christi Ascension Day||Whitsuntide||Day D. German unit||reformation day||Christmas|
|2006||01.01.||14.04. - 17.04.||01.05.||25.05.||04.06. - 05.06.||03.10.||31.10.||25.12. - 26.12.|
|2007||01.01.||06.04. - 08.04.||01.05.||17.05.||27.05. - 28.04.||03.10.||31.10.||25.12. - 26.12.|
|2008||01.01.||21.03. - 23.03.||01.05.||11.05. - 12.05.||03.10.||31.10.||25.12. - 26.12.|
|school year||beginning of instruction||autumn holidays||Weihnachtsferien||winter holidays||Osterferien||Pfingstferien||summer holidays|
|2005/2006||09.08.||04.10. - 15.10.||22.12. - 03.01.||30.01. - 03.02.||12.04. - 21.04.||26.05.||06.07. - 19.08.|
|2006/2007||21.08.||02.10. - 14.10. /30.10.||27.12. - 05.01.||05.02. - 10.02.||04.04. - 13.04.||-||12.07. - 25.08.|
|2007/2008||27.08.||15.10. - 27.10.||24.12. - 04.01.||04.02. - 09.02.||19.03. - 28.03.||02.05.||17.07. - 27.08.|
see in addition: Tourism in Brandenburg
The 15 large protected areas
park lock bright lake
Stechlinsee surge tank Fürstlich Drehna [work on], in the year 2002 is proven in the country of 15 large protected areas so mentioned, among them one as national park, three as biosphere reservation in the countryand 11 as nature park. Altogether the large protected areas take a third of the national surface approximately.
- National park lower Odertal (106 km 2)
- biosphere reservation river landscape Elbe Brandenburg (533 km ²)
- biosphere reservation Schorfheide Chorin (1,291 km ²)
- biosphere reservation Spreewald (474 km ²)
- nature park Barnim (750 km ²)
- nature park Dahme Heideseen (594 km ²)
- nature park of high ones Fläming (827 km ²)
- nature park Märki Switzerland (204 km ²)
- nature park Niederlausitzer heath landscape (490 km ²)
- nature park Niederlausitzer land back (580 km ²)
- nature park Nuthe Nieplitz (623 km ²)
- nature park Schlaubetal (225 km ²)
- nature park Uckermärki seas (895 km ²)
- nature park Westhavelland (1,315 km ²)
- nature park Stechlinsee (1,080 km ²)
UNESCO - world inheritance in Brandenburg
- locks and park of potsdam (lock Sanssouci) (since 1990)
apart from high German dialects Mark Brandenburgi and Berlin Brandenburgi are spoken to a large extent. Furthermore in the border area to Saxonia and Saxonia-Anhalt Anhaltisch is spoken - a dialect of the Thuringian-upperSaxonian, that nearis related to the high German. In the brandenburgischen Niederlausitz speaks one Lausitzi dialects. This and in and in the surrounding countryside of Berlin spoken is to be added to the eastCentral German. In the Barnim the dialect Eberswalder channel German is common.
In the eastern part of the Niederlausitz in the environment ofIn addition Cottbus is spoken Niedersorbisch, a westslawische language, of approximately 20,000 humans as native language (bilingual area).
The vocabulary of the brandenburgischen dialects is seized and described in the Brandenburg Berlini dictionary.
- breaking citizen kitchen
- Cargolifter AG
- Tropical Iceland
- earnings/service medal of theCountry Brandenburg
- Heinrich, G. (Hrsg.): Berlin and Brandenburg. (Manual of the historical places, Bd. 10), Stuttgart 1973.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Brandenburg - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikinews: Brandenburg - current messages|
|Wiktionary: Brandenburg - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- official ones Side of the country Brandenburg
- official tourism side of the country Brandenburg
- land surveying
- of election results (national returning officer)
- restaurant economics for the country Brandenburg
- culture portal for the country Brandenburg
- common Internet appearance of municipalities in the country Brandenburg