- entire (2003)
| Rank of 4 of 26
| rank 10 of 26
27,208 km ²
|Départements|| Côtes d'Armor (22)|
Ille et Vilaine (35)
|president of the regional advice||Jean Yves Le Drian HP|
|ISO 3166-2 - code||FR-E|
Brittany [bʀəˈtaɲ] (bretonisch Breizh /brejs/) a region is in the northwest of France. Itcovers the Départements Côtes d'Armor (bret. Aodoù on Arvor), Finistère (bret. Penn acre Bed), Ille et Vilaine (bret. Ilh hectar Gwilen) and Morbihan (bret. Mor bihan). The capital of Brittany is Rennes (bret. Roazhon). The Gallier called this country Aremorica (bret. Arvorig), which as muchmeant like “country before the sea”.
Table of contents
Brittany is the largest peninsula of France and placesthe westernmost Ausläufer of the French mainland . Their north coast borders on the English Channel, the south and west coast on the Atlantic. Armor is the bretonische name for sea, but thus not alone the coast is meant, but also thoseIslands, the amphibious zone Watt and the broad coastal strip.Argoat calls the Bretone the Waldland of Brittany.
The land mass of Brittany rests in far parts on very old and hard rock. Brittany possesses a very fissured coastal line, those- particularly in the west - over far distances as Steilküste is trained. At the Cap Frehel, close of the old fortress away la slat, stand out the granite cliffs over 70 meters from the Atlantic. In another place the landscape places itself ratheras hilly; one looks for particularly steep or high mountains in vain. The highest collection is the Roc'h Trévézel (384 meters) in the Höhenzug of the Monts d'Arrée (bret. Menez of acres).
Originally Brittany was predominantly covered of forest. Remnants of this enormousForest area between the earlier Forêt de Scissy in the proximity of the today's Mont Saint Michel (bret. Menez Mikael) and the Brocéliande (bret. Brekilien) are for example west to the city Rennes (bret. Roazhon) in the so-called charm forest of Paimpont. A further well-known forest area is with Huelgoat in the Finistère. But the original landscape on the inside was strongly changed since the medieval Rodungsperioden. It yielded to a large extent in the meantime an industrialized agriculture.
Thus are on the insideBrittany only few larger booking and oak forests. The landscape is controlled today by fields and grassland, which are chessboard-like divided by the innumerable hedges (bocage) and Steinmauern.
over 500 v. Chr. the first Celts left themselves - which came people „from darkening “- on the bretonischen peninsula down and they called Aremorica and/or. Armorica, “country at the small sea” (with which obviously the gulf of Saint Malo meantis).
In 2. Century v. Chr. five celtic trunks lived on the bretonischen peninsula: the Veneter in the south, the Osimier in the northwest, the Redoner in the east, the Coriosoliter in the north and finally the Namneter in the southeast. They did not form unit,separate were among themselves zerstritten. The most powerful trunk among them were the Veneter, in the 1. Century v. Chr.all other races controlled. They stood for the Romans at the point of the federation of all celticbretonischen trunks, those starting from 58 v. Chr. Resistancecarried out.
in the year 56 v. Chr. almost defeated Cäsar with its Roman putting ions the entire army in a devastating sea-battle. Celtic trunks withdrew themselves after Britannien and yielded also there before Roman conquestinto the edge zones out. The Romanisierung of Brittany began immediately after conquest. Terminated it was after a process persisting for a long time however only toward end of late ancient times. At this time also the celtic language had probably completely disappeared nearly. Itno more was to be only heard in cities on the country and. (Source - Cäsars „De Bello Gallico “)
at the beginning 5. Century, under the emperor Honorius, the aremoricanischen chieftains formed andCities to the protection against the Teutons a federation, that up to the conquest of the country by the Franconia king Chlodwig I. around 500 existed. Starting from approximately 450 n. Chr., after the fall of the Roman realm, emigrated the first christianisierten Celtsthe southwest Britanniens on the bretonischen peninsula. At the same time the settlement areas the heidnischen Saxonia continued to expand, fishing rods and jutes on the British Hauptinsel always. Thus about two centuries set the so-called Inselkelten long in irregular distances toBrittany over. They settled and christianisierten Armorica and brought their bretonische celtic language into that to former Gallien romanisierte already for a long time. Bretoni is thus not the continuation of the celtic language spoken to Cäsars times in Brittany, Galli.In the course of the stabilization of the celtic language and culture the Gallorömer was ever back-continued to push, until they lost the supremacy around 580 finally.
the Bretonen created Kingdom of, Karolinger
the bretonische count Nominoë king Karl the bald one in the battle of balloon defeated and made 845 from Brittany an independent Kingdom of recognized by the Pope, itsKing it became.
But it came like already centuries before to disputes between the individual areas. Thus the time of the Königtums in Brittany ended around the turn of the century, followed from the establishment of innumerable smaller duchies, those constantly around the countryargued.
The area to in 15. Century of independent duchy Brittany expanded in the course of military conflicts with Normannen and Frenchmen times more, times less far. Among the central area of historical Brittany ranks beside the above-mentioned four Départements alsothe today's Département Loire Atlantique (bret. Liger Atlantel), and since 851.
See also: Ruler list Brittany
the Middle Ages and French Feudalzeit
finally could not withstand the duchies the threats of its neighbours and called stranger of countries around assistance. ThisFrance and England, which wanted to make their requirements for rule on Brittany valid in the following years and also into the Bretoni succession war were complicated, were the center 14. Century for 20 years raved. Here it succeeded England favorite Jeande Montfort to achieve the rule and intersperse themselves as a duke of Brittany. Year the bloom and growth, to duke Franz II. followed. End 15. Century to a battle against the Frenchmen pulled and pitifully lost.
Anne de Brittany (1477-1514), the daughter duke Franz II., was the last independent Herrscherin of Brittany. She married successively two French kings: Karl VIII. in the year 1490, and its successors to the throne Ludwig XII.1499 (Ludwig XII. was not son of its predecessor in office). In order to ensure and in this connection no disputes provoke the succession to the throne, the still young Anne already bore in early years their first children (altogether 11), from whom however only three became older than three years. TheirDaughter, Claude de France, married Franz I.. This proclaimed on a condition meeting in the südbretonischen city Vannes 1532 the official “affiliation” to the French kingdom. Until today many Bretonen feel “occupied” by the French state, which itself e.g.in the breakup of the combination monument in Rennes (bret.Roazhon) in the year 1932 manifested.
the modern times
as province of France got Brittany the right to their own city meeting. This parliament, which met in Rennes, remained up toFrench revolution exist.
After year the Annexion were characterized of high prosperity and bloom. This applied particularly to the coastal towns, against what the hinterland was characterized by poverty and backwardness further.
Starting from approximately 1700 gradually that developedNeubretoni, which was to be essentially owed to the scientific study of the language. If it had been already difficult in past times of the foreign rule to receive the bretonische language and culture then everything intensified itself after the French revolution. Those hadBretonen only large hopes connected with it, showed up the new rulers now as renewed eliminators, by forbidding the bretonische language and the free worship of the there living catholics. But the language and culture remained, carried from the majoritythe population and groups of independence fighters.
From fear, the French can have bad influence on Bretoni, 1898 „the union Régionaliste Bretonne “was based, which had the goal of making the thoughts of independent Brittany popular. In addition the 1911 camecreated „Fédération Régionaliste de Brittany “, which used itself for the autonomy of Brittany and which newspaper brought out „Breiz Dishual “(free Brittany). Both societies had to stop however their activities in confusions of the First World War.
the First World War
In the process of the First World War the Bretonen had to pay a high blood tariff. About 10% of the total population, thus 240,000 soldiers, left her life. That was nevertheless each fourth, which had pulled into the war. In the comparison became in the war onlyeach 8. French soldier killed. One of the reasons for the high losses on the part of the Bretonen was that they were often primarily used with attacks and at all. Hardly powerfully, it could also seem to the French language that it oftheir French compatriots were shot, since these regarded it as feeler gauges.
under the high losses by the war the Bretonen was stimulated all the more, on its independence to urge. The right intellectual ones basedthe newspaper „Breiz Atao “(Brittany always), which occurred for free Brittany in Europe without borders. Closely followed of the left liberal „a Nationalisti Bretoni party “(P. N. B.), which the underground organization „Gwen hectar you “(white and black), designated afterthe bretonischen flag, in the life called. To intersperse latter tried their efforts with force of arms.
the Second World War
after the economic upswing of the 30's broke out the Second World War. After Brittany nearly combatless to the German troopsplease were, removal these the coasts to protect fortresses, which became then a goal of allied bombardments. Most coastal towns were destroyed to a large extent.
Despite these victims of the war in the own population some Bretonen in co-operation saw alsothe fascist German the way to independence. The most radical nationalists „of the Nationalisti Bretoni party “(P. N. B.). Some Bretonen (approx. 40) even the uniform of the weapons SS under the name “Bezenn Perrot” carried
1941 became the Département Loire Atlantique (bret. Liger Atlantel) with the capital Nantes (bret.Naoned) separated from the Vichy government (under German crew) completely arbitrarily from the remainder of Brittany. This decision so far never - neither by a democratic popular vote nor by a decision of representatives of the people - one agreed,whereby the last inquiries clearly a reunification will of the Bretonen of Loire Atlantique reflect.
after the Second World War the regionalists hated as Kollaborateure submerged and it came by the liberals of forces to a revival of the bretonischenLanguage and culture. This strengthened itself still, when president Charles de Gaulle used 1951 a committee for the promotion of the interests of Brittany and the culture and language promoted. By this support on the part of the government the region experienced a undreamt-of economicalUpswing and the further drift of the Bretonen were prevented. By these measures the peninsula became the most important agrarian region and after the Côte d'Azur the secondarymost important tourism region.
1978 came it to the tanker misfortune of the Amoco Cadiz at the coast thatBrittany.
population, language and culture
with the introductionthe general compulsory schooling in the France late 19. Century all “minority languages” were suppressed. At the schools it was strictly forbidden speaking Bretonisch. Pupils, who offended against this regulation, had to carry a horseshoe as indications of the dishonor around the neckand only placings were allowed it if they betrayed another schoolmate, who spoke the forbidden Bretonisch. After a short phase (under the impression of the weakness occupied France of the forced) of the tolerance in the forties 20. Century and onewhereupon the following time of renewed repression (under Kollaborationsvorwurf) the bretonische language meanwhile by the French state one waits, if also not promoted. Only up, Bretoni remains still officially not recognized for 1951 main headers the State of the prohibition of the regional languages however.Up to the introduction of general instruction however still years should offense. Thus 1967 150,000 signatures one collected, in order to demonstrate for the instruction of the bretonischen language at schools. For the seventies instruction becomes in the Diwan schools carried by an associationon Bretonisch gives - with French as second writing language starting from the second school year. Now the possibility exists of selecting Bretonisch in the Abitur later also in the lower classes. Were at the beginning only if few pupils, then learn today already approx.3,000 pupils Bretonisch by immersion instruction. In national schools (parents federation Div Yezh) some thousand pupils can follow a part of their instruction after Bretonisch. Cultural groups and private mechanisms (associations Dihun and Diwan) promote the language. Besides exists still onindividual schools the possibility of learning the language as free subject which is made more difficult however at present due to savings in the education sector and of the bad will of the French government, since many posts are not after-occupied.
Under the impression of threatening becoming extinct thatLanguage decided the bretonische regional advice end of 2004 to promote Bretoni as far as it is feasible with its very much limited financial and political possibilities. At the universities from Brest and Rennes chairs for the bretonische and the celtic languages becamefurnished. The universities publish besides still four magazines: „Acre Vro “(the country), „hear Yezh “(our language), „Skol “(school) and „Skrid “(essay).
Also books are published, mostly in editions from 1.500 to 2,000 pieces. True best-sellers are however „the Kanto Douar “(songs of the earth) and the Bretonisch French dictionary, which within 10 years 20,000 times was sold. Meanwhile there are bretonische newspapers, radio stations and television broadcasts (however in very small number in the comparison with countries such as Wales).
One speaks Bretonisch only of maximally 250,000 of the 2.3 millions Bretonen, and again so many understand it. In the daily use the language is regularly used by by far fewer persons. Over two thirds of the speakers are meanwhile over 60 years old,the portion with the Unter-15-Jährigen lay at the time of F. Broudics investigation 1992 clearly under 5%. The majority of the speakers are native speakers, however the weight shifts ever more toward that perhaps 30,000 language activists, those Bretoni only inthe school or learned later.
the various Megalithmonumente anything “ celtic” does not have culture cultural actually, but originates from the Jungsteinzeit. The names for the different types of megalithischer buildings in German are pseudobretonisch (D. h. from bretonischenRoots in the bretonischen grammar not corresponding way compound):Dolmen about (out bret. taol - maen table, board and - stone). The correct bretonische designation reads taol vaen. Same applies to the term Menhir (out bret. maen - stone and here - long), that in Bretoni does not exist, where instead the word peulven is used.
The bretonische music scene is expressed alive. Where in other parts young people go to the western world into the Disco, it pulls the young Bretonen this very dayto celebration noz (“night celebration”), where with both traditional - for example binioù kozh (Dudelsack), bombard (Bombarde) or treujenn gaol (clarinet) - and modern instruments to delivered people dances one up-plays. Besides there is a tradition purelyvocal dance music, which is spoken in the style of the Kan hectar Diskan (“singing and Gegengesang”). In addition in the bretonischen vowel music the category of the Gwerzioù ( Klagelieder/Balladen/Moritaten) is of great importance. Important interpreters are and. A. Yann Fañch Kemener, Annie Ebrel, Eric Mark hand and Denez Prigent.
Cultural thing in common with the other celtic regions shows up except in the language also on other cultural ranges, approximately in the literature (under what also the large field of the verbal excessive quantity it falls) and the kitchen. In the mittelbretonischen literature have themselvesRemainders of a verse form named kenganez received, those the walisischen cynghanedd resemble strong and by a complicated combination of staff, within and Endreimen are characterized. In addition the motives of the Artus would be allowed to do - literature by bretonische switching from Great Britain on the European continentarrived its.
the traditional bretonische kitchen is, primary as those of the other celtic countries also, despite their varieties at fish and sea fruits the product of an old cattle breeder and farmer culture. Beside meat above all milk products playedas gesalzene butter and butter milk (cheese production remained for a long time clearly underdeveloped), grain mashes (bret.yod), in pouch cooked Sterz (bret. farz) and Crêpes (bret. krampouezh) main roles in the traditional nutrition of the rural population.
underthe Bretonen there is not only since at the beginning 20. Century again important autonomy efforts, which manifested themselves particularly into the 1970er years every now and then in assassination attempts on state institutions, of the WORK (bret. ADB, arms Dispac'hel Breizh -Bretoni revolutionary army) were committed (terrorist attack on the lock Versailles…). Also into the 1990er years a set of assassination attempts (in Cintegabelles, master seat of the Prime Minister at that time Lionel Jospin as well as in Belfort, master seat of the Minister of the Interior at that time Jean Pierre Chevenement) was led.
With thatThere however a conservative majority are elections.
The French government undertook end 20. Century strengthened efforts to make industrial enterprise the settlement in Brittany tasty - which was also partly successful. Nevertheless is the landscape - particularlyin the inland - predominantly agrarian coined/shaped. The landscape “Léon” (bret.Bro Leon) in the northern Finistère is admits for vegetable growing (artichokes, cauliflower, early potatoes), in Côtes d'Armor outweighs pig breed, PUT mast and dairy cattle husbandry.
Long time applied Brittanyas poorhouse of France. Into the 1960er years arranged the independence efforts the centre government in Paris to invest into the industrialization of Brittany. By these high investments could become tourism, fishery, agriculture and industry lucrative branches of industry.
Making more difficult however the unfavorable cameSituation to the large sales markets in addition, which made the upswing more difficult together with the low purchasing power of the region.
As coastal region also fishing and - particularly at the north coast - the oyster breed for Brittany play a role. In Cancale onthe north coast the oysters on 450 hectares are bred, in the gulf of Morbihan at the south coast on 1500 hectares. Generally those apply for geschmacklich high-quality oysters of France from Cancale for centuries as those qualitatively and (delivered transportation of the Cancale oyster toto Rome; Delivery privilege for the French king yard).
at the English Channel coast between Saint Malo (bret. Sant Maloù) and the Mont Saint Michel (bret. Menez Mikael) prevails an enormous Tidenhub of 9 - 15 m(dependent on the tidal coefficient). This tidal difference becomes in one 1967 tidal power station finished placed in the delta climbs, between DIN pool of broadcasting corporations (Dinarzh) and pc. Malo, for the production used by river. This power station possesses a visitor center that interesting viewsto the technology for the production of river by tidal force supplies, however at present due to one after the assassination attempts of the 11. September of set up safety plan not to be visited can (conditions October 2004).
Further the offshore country with its is offered nearly constantlyblowing hoists from northwest and western directions outstanding for power generation by wind energy on. First wind parks at the Steilküsten produced already 2002 river, a fast further development are in planning. In the last years became also on the hills in the interiornumerous wind power stations establishes.
An atomic test reactor with heavy water was from 1967 to 1985 in Brennilis in enterprise. Despite the good geographical conditions the Bretonen could prevent the building of further nuclear power stations in their region however by vehement protests completely.The reactor of Brennilis, which oldest nuclear power station of France, at present dismantled.
traffic the traffic lines the human crew and form a periphery. The weakly bevölkte center of Brittany (Kreiz Breizh) is badly connected. There are no motorways(and the moreover one no motorway fees) only national routes separate, on which the speed on 110 km/h is limited. With the TGV one can drive from Paris to Rennes or to Nantes into 2h15. There are several airports such as Nantes Atlantique (Naoned Atlantel) orBrest Guipavas (Brest Gwipavaz).
in Brittany humans are by the majority catholic. The influence of the church was up to center of the 50's on the society enormously, particularly in the bretonnischsprachigen western part of the country (Breiz izel). A famous saying is for itthe proof: “Acre brezoneg hag acre feiz zo breur hectar c'hoar e Breiz” (“Bretonnisch and the faith are in Brittany brothers and sisters”). Today however this influence is ever smaller and less and less people goes Sundays to the service.
- Berger, Marianne: Speech contact in Brittany
- grass houses, yokes: Brittany
- red ago Almut: Brittany
- Stephens, Meic: Linguistics Minorities in Western Europe
Web on the left of
- www.bretagneportal.com Brittany portal
- www.breizh.de - Bretoni culture and music, the German on-line magazine
Champagne Ardenne |
Franche Comté |
Île de France |
Languedoc Roussillon |
Midi Pyrénées |
North Pas de Calais |
Bass normandy |
Striking normandy |
Pays de la Loire |
Poitou Charentes |
Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur |
Regions in overseas:
French Guayana | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Réunion