Brigham Young (* 1. June 1801 in Whitingham, Federal State Vermont, the USA; † 29. August 1877 in salt Lake town center) was a second president and prophet of the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days (“Mormonen”).
Brigham Young was by occupation a carpenter. 1824 he married Miriam Works, which died 1832. In the same year it followed in the US Federal State New York of the 1830 created church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days.
1834 he married its second wife, Mary Ann Angell.
To 14. February 1835 was ordiniert Brigham Young to the Apostel and member of the first Kollegiums of the twelve Apostel.
From 1839 to 1841 it fulfilled a successful mission in England.
After the death by force of the founder and first prophet of the church, Joseph Smith, Jr., in the year 1844 itself Young, which was a chairman of the Kollegiums of the twelve Apostel at that time , knew into which using follow-up disputes intersperses. Young, to which its trailers now as the second prophet was considered, at that time still led the majority of the members of the church starting from 1846 from the USA outside into that to Mexico belonging area of the Rocky Mountains, which is called today Utah, and created there the city salt Lake town center. It succeeded to it to convince the predominant part of the members of the fact that he was the legal successor of Joseph Smith.
In the year 1852 it published there up to then only in secret theory of the Polygamie, practiced by the church leaders, let an appropriate revealing Smiths to the book teachings and alliances take up, and called its trailers to marry several women. When the area fell to the USA, it was appointed for practical reasons the territorial governor, until the controversy over the Polygamie began to escalate.
From 1847 to its death 1877 it präsidierte over the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days as president and prophet.
Brigham Young made itself above all a name as Kolonisator in the west of the USA and it is until today by its numerous wives generally well-known.
Table of contents
Brigham Young, which learned
church leader Brigham Young, what it needed as a church leader, in difficult and turbulent times. It developed to a skillful supervisor and was a powerful Prediger, who used a very drastic mode of expression. This, of its trailers as allegorisch understood, mode of expression would partly blood-run-rise, offers to its critics cause, it actual requests to murders to subordinate.
the follow-up from Joseph Smith
after the murder of Joseph Smith took over Brigham Young the guidance of the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days, which office was entitled to him as a president of the Kollegiums of the twelve Apostel, how it and the predominant number of the members meant. Those, which contrary opinion were, collected themselves around several leaders. Their movements, which remained in the middle west, came up nearly all in the 1860 gegründeteten reorganized church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days under guidance of Joseph Smith III, the son of the religion founder.
Until 1847 Brigham Young led as a president of the Kollegiums of the twelve Apostel, then he organized the first presidency with him as president, Seher and obvious one and he became in this office on a general meeting to 27. December 1847 in Kanesville, Iowa confirms.
organizational development of the church
which in Nauvoo and environment with approximately 20,000 church members was only rudimentarily organized, developed Brigham Young in Utah so that the structures have essentially to today existence. It organized the church into stakes, of which everyone covered approximately 12 municipalities, which had at that time however still substantially more members than today. In the year 1867 it organized the woman auxiliary combination again and created 1875 as organizations for the youth the joint advanced training combination. It began the building of the temple in salt Lake town center and to 6. April 1877 it weihte the temple in pc. George. As meeting building, particularly for the general conferences of the church he established in salt Lake town center to the Tabernakel.
Brigham Young, the Kolonisator
under guidance of Brigham Young colonized the holy ones of the last days an inhospitable, nearly deserted area in the Rocky Mountains and created thereby an important base on the way from the east coast to the west coast of the USA, which for the first time in California gold fever a role played, in order to supply as well as offer to them a place for regeneration the Goldsucher on their way with fresh carrying animals and fresh vegetable.
the first task of Brigham Young as “modern Moses” was the organization of the course of Nauvoo, Illinois to the large salt lake of February 1846 to summers 1847. It organized a mass production of covered wagons, preceded with a pioneer department of 147 persons, in order to establish on that approximately 2000 km long way supplying farms, bases and ferries as well as to determine the best way with pasture grass and drinking water. It organized the holy ones for the course after the model of the Mose in companies, which were again into smaller groups divided. It established the today's Council Bluffs in Nebraska as wintering camp with blockhouses and cultivation of grain Winterquarters.
supervisor of the Zuwanderung in Deseret
the substantial engine for further Zuwanderung was the mission work in the east of the USA and abroad, particularly in Europe. Young organized the Zuwanderung, by removing the bases of the exodus to constant supplying stations. It led the “constant emigration fund”, in order to make for poor Bekehrten possible from Europe the financing of the emigration after Utah. When it introduced economical alternative to the covered wagon the hand trucks as means of transport, with which numerous families dared the way of pc. Louis over the levels of the middle west. Around the Zuwanderung to facilitate Brigham Young promoted also the building of the railway, by making workers available.
into and around the today's Utah let Young of selected groups of settlements in the distance from in each case a day's journey establish. The settlements were as usual often not wild coincidence things, in the west of the USA, but had put on after the plan “of the city Zion”, like it Joseph Smith for Nauvoo in a well-planned manner provided. The settlements spread in the course of the first ten years to to the border of California. The outguards removed far were given up however in the course of the Utah of war.
which is the Utah originally on the area of Mexico came by the war from 1848 to the USA and became a territory with Brigham Young as a governor
Brigham Young issued to law particularly the regulation the Zuwanderung, which land distribution and, which particularly stands out against laws in other US Federal States, a water law, which regulated the right of everyone to a water supply for drinking, for watering the fields and for soaking cattle. At that time Utah the only area of the USA, in which the women had a right to vote, was to be taken part in order in the choice of the local political authorized agents (mayor, Sheriff etc.).
ways rumors over alleged splitting off efforts of the “Mormonen”, sent president James Buchanan in the year 1857 an army, in order to set off and replace by Alfred Cumming Brigham Young by force as a governor. The argument resulting from it is well-known as Utah war. The conflict meant the end of Brigham Youngs activity as a governor in April 1858. Since this time in Utah church and political guidance no more were not in the same hands.
infrastructure and economics
Young promoted the establishment of a healthy infrastructure with roads, schools and water supply. It created the ZCMI, a traders' co-operative society, it imported a sugar factory, promoted in the south Utahs the exploitation of coal and iron, let the silk crawler-type vehicle breed try etc. Scholastically it provided very rapidly for a surface covering basic public education, created the Brigham Young academy in Provo and other resuming schools. It promoted the mechanism of the Pony express, the building of a Telegrafenlinie and the railway.
Brigham Young of the Polygamist
Brigham Youngs first wife died 1833, later had it still further wives. The Polygamie, which taught Young starting from 1852 openly, but in the secret one lived already before and practiced, in today's church-official publications over Young at the edge (if at all) is mentioned often only completely. Depending upon source Brigham Young 23 to 56 wives are after-said. Also like many of his Mrs. Young had intimate handling, is not well-known, however it had 57 children from 16 women altogether, from whom 46 reached the adult age. Many of its “marriage sealing” were purely religious nature. It concerned with many older widows.
- Jeffery Ogden Johnson: Determining and Defining `Wife´: The Brigham Young Households, in Dialogue: A journal OF Mormon Thought, volume. 20, No. 3, case 1987
- Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, button, New York 1985
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||second president and prophet of the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days (“Mormonen”)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1. June 1801|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Whitingham, Vermont, the USA|
|DYING DATE||29. August 1877|
|DYING PLACE||salt Lake town center|