British India was the name for most countries of the Indian Subkontinents and/or. the today's India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (admits before as Ceylon) during the period of British colonial rule. It existed in this form of 1858, when the rights of the British east India company became to transfer to the British crown, until 1947, when the independence from British India was granted and Pakistan was formed. From 1886 to 1937 it contained Burma (today Myanmar).
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up to the September Oy rebellion
after the decay of the Mogulmacht under Aurangzeb († 1707) ascended the realm of the Marathen (1674 - 1818, based of Shivaji) in southwest India. The Marathen was the last Indian great power before the British rule, beside them played still the ruling powers of Hyderabad and Mysore a role in the Indian policy.
In the 2. Half 18. Century the British stretched and/or. the British east India company after displacement of the Frenchmen and Portuguese (Goa) its sphere of influence out. First they secured their commercial interests in Bengalen (the today's Bangladesh ) under Robert Clive only. But from a pure commitment in the trade fast also strong interests of power became. The company interfered into the disputes of the Indian princes (battle with Plassey 1757) and transferred the tax privilege to Bengalen.
Soon however they proved as ambitious and flexible ruling powers. 1769 came Warren Hastings, became 1771 governor von Bengalen and know its people on to take over the administration: to date the company had always hidden itself behind the fictitiously maintained rule of the Nawabs. It and its successors linked Indian soldiers with European war guidance and British operating profits with Indian taxes, fought (with Indian and a Britisher equally widespread) the corruption, locked protection contracts and took over region around region. Where they were not in power, officials served the east India company as advisors.
But the success of the Englishmen was laboriously bought, it could the apart-going cultural conceptions of administration first not connect. Thus Warren Hastings let the moslemische criminal law exist, because it was to be handled simple. Starting from 1774 there was then a highest Court of Justice after English law, which applied however after a definition of 1781 only to Europeans. The cruelest punishments of the Islamic law (stakes, mutilating) were abolished, but until 1861 there was no obligatory penal code, but the British relied on native right experts.
Also one has itself in the last decades 18. Century endeavors, to adapt which old-venerable Landwirtschaftsystem India the European system of the landed property and with the measures an indebtedness of the soil by Spekulantentum introduced (soil could be sold under the Britisher with inability to pay, 1793 “durable farm lease” creates new property owners).
From 1813 to 1948 India was subordinate to the Britisher and as colony was then exploited. The Indian weaving mill as branch of industry e.g. became. by the machine production beginning in Europe ruined, which was European market locked, at the same time England finished clothes introduced into India. 1835 was omitted the inland tariffs and that domestic trade increased. The privileges of the eastIndian company were already abolished 1813. But the investments held themselves within close borders, because the European and American market were safer and had better logistic conditions to show. As counter measures one began 1839 with the building of a large road between Calcutta and Delhi. Banks were furnished, steamers on the rivers begun and starting from 1853 began one with the building of the first (already into the 40ern projected) railway line.
On the social range it came to further changes. Slavery was abolished and widow burn was forbidden to 1829 at least in the area under direct British administration. 1829 proceeded the government also against the Thugs, murderer sparkling wines of the goddess potash. One the Vorkämpfer of a kind mental renewal of India was the Brahmanensohn RAM Mohan Roy (1772-1833), which turned against the box nature, widow burn and suppression of the women. Its goal was it to bring Hinduismus and Christianity in agreement because it assumed both faith directions were in the core moral and rational.
lord Dalhousie and the way to the September Oy rebellion
lord Dalhousie exercised 1848-56 the office of the governor general. It created a close fabric of a tautly organized administration with large energy. The old free spaces of the kind “order in the country creates, makes the people lucky and provides for it that it no pageant gives.” there were not no more for the officials (very often working officers were also in the civilian range) now. The practice of the adoption of successors to the throne, valid in India, was subjected to the right of veto of the governor general and lord Dalhousie annektierte so a handful of these dependent prince states. Besides it gave in Awadh (capital: Lucknow, today part of Uttar Pradesh), one repeated angeprangerte mismanagement that it likewise annektierte it 1856 (although this time on instruction of its directors in London).
The class of the property owners was likewise affected by the reforms of the lord. In the Dekkan approximately 20,000 properties were partly expropriated under doubtful requirements, without one respected traditional values and customs and adjusted unfairness. In the prisons the box separation was waived, by letting all eat with one another. The Brahmanen was brought by modern western education around its authority.
One felt the consequences of this energetic policy in the September Oy rebellion. The September Oy rebellion is seen occasionally as the first liberation movement against the British, since it was based on a resistance against cutting traditional rights and traditions. There was not only a discontent, which pulled themselves by all box, but also the traditional Führerschaft for a rebellion: Nana Sahib, responsible for the massacre at English women and children in Kanpur, e.g. was. the adoptive son of the last Peshwas Baji Rao II. (gest. 1853) and by Dalhousies politics were brought around its pension. It had a capable general named Tantia Topi. The Rani of Jhansi, a legendary rebellion guide had been brought around the follow-up of its adoptive son. Also the Exkönig of Awadh had its agitators in the September Oy regiments.
The Indian soldiers (Sepoy), trained after European model, were the most suited in Asia, them by the British were befehligt at that time and counted 1830 187,000 men opposite the 16,000 British. Indian could ascend only up to the company leader. The balance of power the eve of the September Oy rebellion was as follows: 277,746 Sepoys against 45,522 British soldiers. Nevertheless the British triumphed and afterwards justified the self-righteous policy of lord Dalhousie not only the time to imperialistic British India, but also the modern Indian unit state.
after the September Oy rebellion
after the September Oy rebellion the rule of the English east India company, their last powers ended 1857/58 and/or. Specialgenuine were transferred to the crown. From now to governed the advice of the governor general and/or. starting from 1877 of the viceroy, who was subordinate to the “India Office” in London. The same rights were assured to the Indian as the Britisher, also (with appropriate capability) the entrance to all government posts. That entailed the ascent of many modern trained Indian in the administration, even into higher posts at the army. The prince states could be further-left again by adoption.
1877 accepted queen Victoria of England the title “empress of India” and documented with the fact that India had become the principal support of the British world realm. The “Empire of India” in personnel union with Great Britain covered the today's India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma, and existed until 1947. Burma was occupied 1866 by Great Britain and attached to British India (until 1937). There were also formally independent areas in India, which were continued to govern by traditional Indian ruling powers, the so-called “Princely States “.
The beneficiaries of the modernization of India (roads, channels, railways, factories, college and Universities of, newspapers etc.) were despite everything primarily the British. Because finally the Indian administration of control of the “India Office” was subordinate to the Indian in London and thus the British parliament, not. The language of the Oberschicht was English. The laws applied to all, however by the British were made and the economical winners were first them, then only the smaller Indian central layer.
The mass of the farmers (often ungebildet and was to blame for) and craftsmen the modernization passed, it was for it a foreign property without relationship with the own tradition. But intensified the conversion to the cultivation of export products such as cotton in place of basic food and the high tax burden the poverty on the country. Dry one and floods caused hunger emergencies with millions victims again and again. According to their “laissez fair” - the British undertook economic policy little, in order to assist the Hungernden.
1885 created Hindus and Muslims together the Indian national congress, that occurred for the independence of India. Because of the increasing influence of the Hindus in Inc. came it 1906 to the establishment of the rivaling Muslim league. Indian national congress and Muslim league wrote 1916 together an explanation with demands after Indian independence. This was answered by the British government in August 1917 with a political declaration of intent to grant to India a gradual transition for self-government. Under the guidance Mahatma Gandhis (* 1869) came it in intermediate wartime to the passive resistance against the British rule. Gandhi strove thereby around the political unit between Hindus and Muslims.
1947 reached British India independence. According to the two-state theory the country was divided thereby into a hinduistischen part, the today's India, and a Muslim part, today's Pakistan. To Pakistan at that time also the today independent Bangladesh belonged.
under the British rule took place a steered development of the colony, which followed the principle to win raw materials in the colony these in the homeland too finished and the colony as sales market for finished products to use at the same time. Therefore India was industrialized hardly, it took place only a development of the infrastructure, in particular the railway. Hauptprodukte of the colony were cotton and dte.
Other technical achievements were taken up by the Indian themselves, for instance the printing, and a lively Indian one press developed.