British east India company

the flag of the British east India company 1600-1707
flag 1707-1801
flag 1801-1858

the British east India company (British East India company), shortened EIC, resulted from a charter, the queen Elizabeth different rich Londoner buyers to 31. December 1600 issued. The society received merchants OF London trading tons the East Indies to the names Governors and company OF. Their the right was entitled to complete on 15 years all trade between the cape good hope and the Magellan road. It received also a seal, could their governor and the 24 directors themselves select and was allowed Korporationsgesetze (by-laws) give oneself.

First one equipped five ships with 72.000 Pound of Sterling, those under the guidance of captain James Lancaster to 5. June 1602 with Aceh on Sumatra landed. 1604 and 1610 followed further expeditions of this kind. A legation at the Grossmogul obtained the right to furnish commercial stations at the west coast of front India. But one could exercise this privilege only after the victory over the against-striving Portuguese in the year 1612. In WAD-race and Hugli could the company only 1640 become effective, since the dutchmen offered resistance there.

Karl II. confirmed at the 3. April 1661 the earlier privileges and lent also the civil jurisdiction, the military force and the right to the company to lead with the “disbelieving ones” in India war and close peace. Besides it left the city Bombay to the company as thanks for the performed work and the delivered profit to the Lehen.

The company kept II. later from the Jakobs. still the right to build fortresses to dig troops and strike coins, in order to set it for the Netherlands east India company. 1694 the privileges again confirmed, however only under large protests of the Kaufmannschaft in the Londoner parliament, excluded from the monopoly. One harvested increasing criticism also due to the oppressive rule in India. The government gave therefore 1698 to a competition company the same rights as the “company OF merchants”. It was therefore forced to unite 1708 with this to the “United East India company”. The business of the society flowered in extent never known and one received an important influence on political conditions in India. In the Indiabill the government Pitt was placed the company under the supervision of a board of control, which functioned as ministerial department. In commercial matters the company kept its old independence, but the employment of the higher officials, judges and army leaders under national supervision was placed.

1833 lost the society their special rights on the trade, however the highest force in the civil and military affairs kept. Increasing rebellions, last that the Sipahi 1857 led to the fact that one transferred the rights of the company to the English crown. For this the English parliament issued to 2. August 1858 a new Indiabill. The last meeting of the directors found to 30. August 1858 instead of.

To table of contents

meaning

of its headquarters in the Leadenhall Street in London organized it the establishment of the British colony India. In the year 1717 the society received an imperial decree from the Mogulkaiser in India, which released it from the payment from tariffs in Bengalen. Thus it received an important advantage opposite its competitors. A crucial victory by Sir Robert Clive in the battle of Plassey 1757 let the British east India company become also a military power factor. Up to the year 1760 the Frenchmen could be driven out to a large extent from India. Only some commercial establishments at the coast such as Pondicherry remain.

The company had also interests along the routes from Great Britain to India. Already 1620 tried the company to stress the area around the board mountain in South Africa. Later and controlled it occupied pc. Helena. Likewise addresses in Hong Kong and Singapore were established. It engaged captain Kidd, in order to proceed against the Piraterie. Likewise it extended dte production in India. Another memorable of events in company history was the guard of the prisoner Napoleon on pc. Helena. Also their goods supplied the article the bad clay/tone Tea party in the colony America.

The flag of the British east India company with the cross of pc. George in the left upper corner as well as horizontal strip is to have served and Stripes as collecting main for the US flag of star (Charles Fawcett, 1937). The British flag originates from the years of the foundation in 17. Century, star and Stripes was created 1777.

The shipyards of the east India company served as model for those in pc. Petersburg, parts of their administration in the Indian bureaucracy remained received, and its social structure was the most successful model of a corporation. Unfortunately the demands for tribute of managers of the company on the Treasury carried 1770 in Bengalen in tragic way to the large hunger emergency - 1773 , with which millions died.

history

the years of the foundation

the society was created as The Governor and company OF Merchants OF London Trading into the East Indies of a group of enterprising and influential businessmen, whom received a royal charter with an exclusive right (monopoly) to the trade with India for one duration from 15 years. The company had 125 shareholders and a capital stock of 72.000 Pound. Initially it could hardly shake however Netherlands control of the spice trade. Also it did not succeed to it first to establish a durable base in India. Finally their ships reached India and put on in Surat. There also 1608 a trading base were then established. In the following two years it could develop their first branch office in Machilipatnam to the Koromandelküste in the bay of Bengalen. The high profits, which were announced by the company in India, caused king James I.to give, also different British commercial companies licenses. But 1609 it renewed the charter of the company for indefinite time, with the restriction that the charter would step after three following each other years without profits repealed.

addresses in India

your dealers were frequently into collisions with its Netherlands opponents in the Indian ocean complicated. Perhaps one saw the uselessness of economic wars in far waters, anyhow decided the British to explore possibilities a durable address on the Indian mainland. One caused the British government to begin a diplomatic initiative. 1615 became Sir Thomas Roe of James I. assigned to visit the Mogulkaiser Jahangir which controlled 70 per cent of the Subkontinents. The goal of this mission was it to lock a trade agreement which would give exclusive rights to the British east India company to establish themselves in Surat and other areas and create Kontore. In response the company offered to supply the emperor with goods and luxury goods from Europe. The mission was extremely successful, and Jahangir conveyed a letter at James I., in which he wrote:

On the insurance I gave general instruction at all kingdoms and ports of my rule to your royal love to receive all dealers of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that it, wherever they select to live, them perfect liberty without restriction enjoy; and wherever they are to arrive, neither Portugal nor somebody other one it to dare are to disturb their peace; and wherever they established themselves, has I mean governors and main people instructed to grant to them that liberty which they wish themselves; to sell to buy and transport into their country, as they like it.
For the confirmation of our love and friendship I wish myself of your majesty to instruct its dealers to transport on its ships all kinds of luxury goods and magnificent goods which are worthy of my palace; and that you send me your royal letters with each opportunity, so that I can enjoy of your health and successful affairs; that our friendship lasted mutually and eternally.

expansion

Mogulkaiserreich with the arrival of the Europeans

with such support succeeded it to the company soon to exceed the Portuguese the addresses in Goa and Bombay had created. You succeeded it, to addresses in Surat (Kontorgründung 1612), let us WAD-race (1639), to create Bombay (1668) and Calcutta. In the year 1647 the company had 23 Kontore and 90 employees in India. The Hauptkontore became the fortresses away William in Bengalen, away pc. George in WAD-race and Bombay Castle. In the year 1634 the Mogulkaiser extended its hospitality for the English dealers in the region Bengalen (and in the year 1717 he released her completely from the tariffs for goods). The core business of the company were now cotton, silk, Indigo coloring material, Salpeter and Tee. During the entire time it tried to penetrate into the Netherlands spice monopoly in the road of Malakka. In the year 1711 the company established a commercial establishment in canton, China, in order to exchange with dte silver. 1657 renewed olive Cromwell the charter of 1609, and arranged slight changes in the owner structure of the company. The position of the company was increased by the re-establishment of the monarchy in Great Britain. By a succession of 5 law decrees around the year 1670 king Charles II. to explain to close it with the rights out to acquire independently territories to coin/shape money fortresses and troops to befehligen to be received alliances war, peace and to exercise both civilian and criminal court barness in the acquired areas. The company, surrounded by commercial competitors, other imperial powers and temporarily hostilely gesinnten native rulers, had an increasing need at military protection. Therefore the liberty was to regulate their military affairs themselves a welcome gift, and the company set up its own armed forces, which it recruited mainly from the native population starting from 1680 rapidly. Thus one can discuss whether the company represents a “nation” starting from 1689 on the Indian mainland, since she was to a large extent sovereign. She administered the enormous areas of Bengalen, WAD-races and Bombay, besides she possessed splendid and reverence-ordering military impact force.

the way to the perfect monopoly

trade monopoly

the prosperity, which the employees of the company enjoyed, made possible for them, to return to its homeland and to acquire there large fortunes and enterprises, and thus political power to attain. From this following the company developed its own lobby in the parliament. Despite everything it under pressure of ambitious businessmen and earlier partner of the company (abschätzig called by the company interlocutor ) came, which wanted to establish likewise private commercial firms in India. This led to the Verabschiedung of a Deregulierungsgesetzes 1694. This law made it possible to each English company to act with India if it was forbidden by a parliament law not expressly. Thereby the charter was waived, which had been almost 100 years into force. A new “parallel” east India company (officially English company Trading ton the East Indies called) was brought by a law of 1698 into being, which had a national endorsement of 2 million Pound. But soon the powerful shareholders of the old company for 315.000 Pound acquired portions of the new company and controlled the society. The two societies competed a time long both in England and in India around market shares. Fast it became however clear that the original society felt hardly measurable competition. Both societies fused in the year 1702 under a three-lateral agreement between the state and the two societies. According to the present agreement the fused society borrowed a sum of 3.200.000 Pound to the Treasury and received in response for three years exclusive commercial laws - afterwards the situation should again be examined. The merged society became the United company OF Merchants OF England Trading ton the East Indies (society of the dealers of England, who act with east India) combined.

In the following decades developed back and forth between the lobby of the east India company and the parliament. The company tried to establish their privileges durably while the parliament did not want to give voluntarily the possibility up of taxing away the profits of the company. In the year 1712 a law renewed the status of the company, but the commitments were paid back. In the year 1720 15% of the British imports came from India, and almost all of it were completed over the east India company. This strengthened the influence of its lobby. In the year 1730 the license was extended by a recent law until 1766.

This time Great Britain and France became embittered rivals, and it came to frequent engagements between them around control of its colonial acquisitions. In the year 1742 the British government was afraid the financial effects of a war and agreed the expansion of the trade monopoly of the east India company with India until 1783. In response it received a further credit from one million Pound. The engagements flowed in the feared war, and between 1754 and 1763 the seven-year-old war directed the national attention on the reinforcement and defense of its territories in Europe and North America. The war took place also on the Indian Subkontinent, between the troops of the east India company and French armed forces. At the same time Great Britain won a lead over the European rivals by the arrival of the industriellen revolution. The demand for Indian raw materials was pushed by the need of the economy and for the maintenance of the troops in times of war. As starting point of the industriellen revolution England experienced a higher standard of living, and this cycle from prosperity, demand and production had profound influence on the overseas trade. The east India company became the largest individual participant in the British world trade, and reserved themselves an indisputable position in the decision-making processes of the government.

colonial monopoly

the war ended with a defeat of the French armed forces and limited the French imperial ambitions. Also the defeat limited the influence of the industriellen revolution in the French areas. Robert Clive, the governor general of India, led the east India company to a remarkable victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the Frenchmen in India, and conquered away pc. George of these back. By the contract of Paris (1763) the Frenchmen were forced, their trade by small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahé, Karaikal, to complete Yanam and Chandannagar without miltärische operational readiness level. Although these small outguards for two centuries in French possession remained burying the French ambitions on Indian areas in fact. Thereby a larger potenzieller competitor was saved to the east India company. In contrast to it the east India company was after this kolossalen victory and with the support of its disciplined and experienced army in the layer, their influence auszudehen of far.

local one resistance

the east India company experienced however further resistance of native rulers. Robert Clive led the armed forces of the company against Siraj Ud Daulah, which had French support, in the battle of Plassey 1757 to the victory. Thereby it eliminated the last considerable resistance in Bengalen. This victory alienated the British and the Mogulkaiser, who Siraj had served as autonomous rulers. But the Mogulkaiserreich was after the death of Aurangazeb already in the fall and broke in the consequence in pieces and enclaves. After the battle of Buxar the only formally dominant emperor, to Shah over Alam, handed the administrative laws over Bengalen, Bihar and Orissa. Thus Clive became the first British governor von Bengalen. Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, the legendary rulers of Mysore, made the life heavy for the British. They had allied themselves with the Frenchmen and continued their fight against the company with the four wars of Mysore. Mysore was finally taken 1799 by the British. Tipu was killed. With the gradual Mach loss of the Maratha - Imperiums in the consequence of the war with the Englishmen secured themselves this Bombay and its environment. With these campaigns Arthur Wellesley, the later duke of Wellington, the first time its abilities, proved which finally led to his victory in Spain and in the battle of Waterloo. Particularly remarkable meeting of armed forces under its command was the battle of Assaye. With it the British secured themselves the entire southern India (with exception of the French enclaves and some native rulers), west India as well as east India. The last remnants of the local administration were limited to the northern regions around Delhi, Oudh, Rajputana and Punjab, where the operational readiness level of the company continued to expand always in the midst of the local arguments and doubtful protection offers on the part of the company. Threats and diplomacy prevented that the native rulers could itself against the company groups. The hundred years between the victory in the battle from Plassey to the September Oy rebellion 1857 were a lucky time for the company, which developed from a commercial company ever more to a nation.

adjustment of the affairs of the east India company

financial difficulties

although the east India company with subjecting widerspenstiger states ever more courageously and more ambitiously proceeded, became it from day to day more clearly that the company was not able to administer the enormous again acquired areas. The hunger emergency of Bengalen, with which a Sechstel of the native population died, let the alarm bells shrill at home. The expenditures for military and administration in Bengalen rose because of the fall of the productivity steeply. At the same time economic stagnation and depression prevailed, released by the Nachwehen of the industriellen revolution in completely Europe. Great Britain was entangled into a rebellion in North America (one of the main importers for dte), and stood for France at the edge of a revolution. The desperate directors of the east India company tried by an appeal to the parliament to turn the bankruptcy away. Herein they asked for financial support. Thereupon the Tea act was issued of 1773, in which larger autonomy was granted to the company with the completion of its trade in North America. However the bad clay/tone Tea party was released by the monopolyistic activities. This was one of the highlights, which led later to the American war of independence.

adjustment law of 1773

after the United States the independence from Great Britain had attained, changed the focus of the Englishmen on the other side of the globe to India. The armies and those intended for India the east India company grew, and with them also the operating cost. The company was forced by the Regulating act for India 1773 to undergo of a succession of reforms of the administration and economy. Despite persistent resistance the east India lobby in the parliament and by the shareholders of the company was discharged the law. It introduced important controls by the government and made it possible to formally place country under control of the crown to deliver thereafter however on two years to the lease of 40.000 Pound to the east India company. Under these conditions the governor von Bengalen Warren Hastings was carried into the rank of a governor general. The administration of completely British India was subordinate to it. These planned that its nominating should take place in the future by means of one four-guessed, which was appointed by the crown. Power over war and peace was given to it. In addition British lawyers should be sent to India, in order to guarantee the application of British right. The governor general and the advice had thereby complete legislation authority. Thus Warren Hastings became the first governor general of India. It was permitted to the east India company to keep their trade monopoly. In response it had every two years an amount to the crown to carry out and commit itself to export a minimum of goods to England. Also the administratives expense had to be applied by the company. These conditions, which were welcomed first by the company, had a leidiges sequel. Annual loads were imposed upon to the company, and their financial situation worsened continuously.

fall of the east India company

in the meantime fell Hastings with four-guessed in disgrace. The advice returned to England and introduced a procedure because of corruption against it that finally to its joggle led. The Regulating act was regarded as miss, since it became clear at first attempt that the demarcation of the authority between the government and the company was extremely uncertainly and interpretation thing. The government felt also obligated to consider humanitarian requests for a better treatment of the native population in British-occupied areas strove. Edmund Burke, a former shareholder of the east India company and the diplomat felt compelled to defuse the situation by bringing in a India Bill 1783. The law was rejected however due to intensive lobbying by the east India company and because of reproaches by nepotism with the designation of advice. Despite everything this law was an important step to the Zurückdrängung of the east India company, and in the India law of 1784 the conflict was in a friendly manner settled. Herein control of government and trade between the crown and the company was defined cleanly. After this turning point the company functioned as adjusted subsidiary company of the crown, and the company expanded its influence on neighbouring areas by obligation and threats. In the center 19. Century extended the rule of the company over far parts of India, Burmas, Singapore and Hong Kong, and 20% of the population of world stood under her control.

Meanwhile the British influence expanded; in the year 1845 the Danish colony Tranquebar was acquired by Great Britain. The company had expanded its influence at different opportunities in China, on the Philippines and on Java. The society solved their critical lack of ready money to the acquisition of dte thereby by the export from Opium manufactured in India to China. The efforts of China to prevent this trade led to the first Opiumkrieg with England.

the end

the efforts of the company to administer India as model, particularly in 19 served the English civil administration. Century. After the company 1813 lost its trade monopoly, it became a pure commercial company. In the year 1858 the company lost its management function to the British government, after their Indian soldiers 1857 meuterten. Afterwards India became a formal crowning colony. In the following years the properties of the company were put under state control by the crown. The company administered still the dte trade on behalf the government, particularly after pc. Helena. By the East India stick dividend Redemption act became the company at the 1. January 1874 dissolved. Time reported:

It reached a work, which was tried never before as such in mankind history of another enterprise, and which will not in the future also be repeated as such probably.

see also

Opiumkriege - first Opiumkrieg (1839-1842) - second Opiumkrieg (1856-1860) - contract of Nanking - the Opiumkrieg (film) - Hong Kong - unequal contracts

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